For drug absorption, intestinal drug permeability's through both the paracellular and transcellular routes were analyzed. Absorption enhancers, such as sodium caprate (C10), decanoylcarnitine (DC) and tartaric acid (TA), increased the paracellular permeability of water-soluble, low lipophilic and poorly absorbable drugs by enlargement of tight junction (TJ) adhering to the intercellular portion; that is, expansion of the paracellular routes. C10 increased the intracellular calcium level to induce contraction of calmodulin-dependent actin filaments. Although DC also increased the intracellular calcium level, the action was independent of calmodulin, and thus the action mechanism of DC was considered to differ from that of C10. DC and TA decreased the intracellular ATP level and the intracellular pH, suggesting that intracellular acidosis increases the calcium level through decrease in ATP level followed by opening TJ. TA had no effect on Western blot analysis, but TA significantly inhibited excretion of rhodamine 123, one of the P-glycoprotein (P-gp) substrates, from the serosal to mucosal side, suggesting that TA increases the intestinal absorption of P-gp substrates, possibly by inhibiting the P-gp function without changing the expression of P-gp. During ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury during small intestine grafting, TJ opening and decrease in P-gp function simultaneously occurred. The in vitro model of I/R showed that lipid peroxidation is a trigger of the injury, and superoxide and iron ion participate in TJ opening and decrease in P-gp function. Colonic epithelial cells have the specific transcellular transport systems for lipopolysaccharide (LPS), one of which shows substrate specificity in the interaction with CD14 and/or that of TLR4. In the infective disease induced by LPS, the mucosal LPS sensitive transport capability was decreased and in the secretory direction, the receptor-mediated uptake mechanism disappeared. LPS taken up into the cells can be excreted by P-gp or mrp. The expression levels and function of the secretory transporters were considered to be increased in the infective condition. In conclusion, changes in TJ as the membrane structure and P-gp as the membrane function are important factors controlling intestinal membrane transport.
Although there is evidence in the literature of the participation of CYP2B6 in the metabolism of selegiline, it is not clear which other CYP isofoms contribute to its metabolism. The aim of this study was to investigate the P450 isozymes (CYPs) involved in the metabolism of selegiline to desmethylselegiline (DMS) and methamphetamine (MA) using four assays: incubation of selegiline with cDNA expressed CYPs, inhibition of DMS and MA formations in human liver microsomes by CYP-selective chemical inhibitors or CYP-specific antibodies, and correlation analysis. Correlation analysis, performed in a bank of 15 individual human liver microsomes, yielded correlation coefficients for DMS and MA formation of 0.769 and 0.792, respectively, for CYP2B6 (p<0.0001) and 0.333 and 0.349, respectively, for CYP3A4 (p<0.05). These results were supported by chemical/specific antibody inhibition assays. The results of correlation analysis and chemical inhibition also indicated that CYP2A6 seems to play a small role in the metabolism of selegiline. These findings confirm that CYP2B6 plays a major role in the metabolism of selegiline and also suggest the involvement of CYP3A4 and CYP2A6.
The pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic efficacy of intrapulmonary administration of ciprofloxacin (CPFX) for the treatment of respiratory infections caused by pathogenic microorganisms resisting sterilization systems of alveolar macrophages (AMs) was evaluated by comparison with an oral administration. The time-courses of the concentration of CPFX in AMs and lung epithelial lining fluid (ELF) following intrapulmonary administration of CPFX solution to rats (200 μg/kg) were markedly higher than that following oral administration (10 mg/kg). The time-course of the concentrations of CPFX in plasma following intrapulmonary administration was markedly lower than that in AMs and ELF. These results indicate that intrapulmonary administration is more effective in delivering CPFX to AMs and ELF, compared with oral administration, in spite of a low dose and it avoids distribution of CPFX to the blood. In addition, the antibacterial effects of CPFX in AMs and ELF following intrapulmonary administration were evaluated by pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics analysis. The concentration of CPFX in AMs and ELF-time curve (AUC)/minimum inhibitory concentration of CPFX (MIC) ratio and the maximum concentration of CPFX in AMs and ELF (Cmax)/MIC ratio were markedly higher than the effective values. The present study indicates that intrapulmonary administration of CPFX is an effective technique for the treatment of respiratory infections.
Lactobacillus casei Shirota strain (L. casei) has a modulating effect on the production of cytokines, which often play important roles in drug metabolism, in the inflamed intestinal mucosa. We evaluated the effect of L. casei administered orally in advance for 4 weeks on the absorption of nifedipine from the rat small intestine. The maximum concentration of nifedipine in plasma after administration into the intestinal loop (0.8 mg/kg) was significantly higher in L. casei-treated rats (3.26 μg/mL) than in those untreated rats (2.33 μg/mL) by 40%. Accordingly, the bioavailability of nifedipine was tended to be higher in the former, while the effect of L. casei on the disposition of intravenously administered nifedipine was negligible. We also found that the availability of nifedipine for the passage through the intestinal mucosa was significantly increased in L. casei-treated rats from the single-pass intestinal perfusion experiments. Therefore, it is likely that the exposure to nifedipine after its administration into rat intestine was increased by oral ingestion of L. casei due to an increase in absorption by increased intestinal availability (decreased metabolic extraction) during passage through the intestinal mucosa. This study has suggested that L. casei has some effect on the metabolic activity in the intestinal mucosa, though it seems to be only mild.
Morphine is an analgesic drug used for the treatment of acute and chronic pain syndromes for cancer patients. Glucuronidation is a major pathway of the elimination of morphine in humans. Morphine is metabolized to 3-glucuronide (no analgesic effect) and 6-glucuronide (more potently analgesic than morphine) mainly by UGT2B7. In the present study, we investigated the inhibitory effects of a variety of drugs on the morphine glucuronosyltransferase activities in human liver microsomes. Twenty-one drugs including anticancer drugs, immunosuppresants, analgesics, anticonvulsants, antidepressants, antipsychotic drugs were selected in this study, because they are frequently co-administered with morphine. We found that 10 out of 21 drugs, tamoxifen, tacrolimus, diclofenac, carbamazepine, imipramine, clomipramine, amitriptyline, diazepam, lorazepam and oxazepam extensively inhibited the morphine 3- and 6-glucuronosyltransferase activities. Although some of the drugs are not substrates of UGT2B7, they would be potent inhibitors of UGT2B7. If patients receive morphine and these drugs simultaneously, the drug-drug interaction may change the levels of morphine and these glucuronides, resulting in altered analgesic efficacy and the risk of side effects. The results presented here will assist clinicians in choosing the proper drugs and/or dosages, and enable them to anticipate potential drug-drug interactions.
An advantage of using LC-MS(/MS) for in vitro CYP inhibition screening is that it does not require extensive sample preparation and chromatographic separation. Attention must be paid, however, to ion suppression effects on analytes caused by the test compound as well as endogenous compounds. In this study, we have shown the ion suppression of 1′-hydroxymidazolam (analyte) and dextrorphan (IS) by erythromycin, as an example, which may cause over- or underestimation of CYP3A4 inhibition. To avoid this kind of effect, we proposed to use a stable isotope-labeled substrate and determine labeled metabolites by using unlabeled authentic compounds of each metabolite. We showed that CYP3A4 activity was determined with high accuracy and precision by using stable isotope-labeled midazolam even in the presence of an ion suppressor at high concentrations in the samples. This method is useful not only for the CYP inhibition screening but also for testing drug candidates to predict changes in metabolite formation by the possible co-administered drugs.
In this study, the developmental changes and variability of aldehyde oxidase in postnatal rat liver were examined. Postnatal day 1, 7 and 14 rats showed little or no liver aldehyde oxidase activity, as evaluated in terms of the activities for oxidation of benzaldehyde to benzoic acid, N-1-methylnicotinamide (NMN) to N-1-methyl-2-pyridone-5-carboxamide (2-PY) and N-1-methyl-4-pyridone-3-carboxamide (4-PY), and methotrexate (MTX) to 7-hydroxymethotrexate (7-OH-MTX). However, these oxidase activities were markedly increased in liver cytosol from the rats after postnatal day 14. The activity was then maintained up to 6 weeks. The amounts of 2-PY and 4-PY formed from NMN were almost the same. The development of aldehyde oxidase activity toward benzaldehyde was closely correlated with that of oxidase activity toward NMN and MTX. The expression of aldehyde oxidase at postnatal day 14 was confirmed by Western blotting analysis. The density of bands of aldehyde oxidase was closely correlated with the oxidase activity toward benzaldehyde. The developmental changes of aldehyde oxidase activities during postnatal reflected the changes in the amount of the oxidase protein. Thus, aldehyde oxidase activity in rats rapidly increases from birth, reaching a plateau within 4 weeks, and is regulated by expression of the protein.
In the present study, we identified three novel single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), 147C>T in exon 2 (silent), 602G>C in exon 3 (Arg201Pro), and 1134C>T in exon 4 (silent), in the gene of bile acid CoA: amino acid N-acyltransferase (BAAT) by resequencing the entire coding region and the exon-intron junctions of 100 Japanese individuals. The allelic frequencies were 0.005 for 147C>T, 0.095 for 602G>C, and 0.015 for 1134C>T. The two known SNPs, 59G>A (Arg20Gln, rs1572983) and UTR1513G>A (rs2229594), were detected at a frequency of 0.500 and 0.425, respectively. In the haplotype analysis for the 59G>A and 602G>C polymorphisms, the allelic frequency of 59G-602G, 59G-602C, 59A-602G and 59A-602C was 0.405, 0.095, 0.500 and 0.000, respectively. On the other hand, the allelic frequency of the nonsynonymous SNP 602G>C was 0.194 in a Caucasian population.
An ATP-binding cassette transporter, multidrug resistance-related protein 3 (MRP3), is encoded by the ABCC3 gene. The MRP3 protein is expressed in several tissues, and functions as an efflux transporter for conjugated as well as unconjugated substrates. In this study, the 31 ABCC3 exons and their flanking introns were comprehensively screened for genetic variations in 89 Japanese subjects. Forty-six genetic variations, including 21 novel ones, were found: 8 were located in the 5′-flanking region, 14 in the coding exons (8 synonymous and 6 nonsynonymous variations), and 24 in the introns. Of these 46 variations, five novel nonsynonymous variations, 2221C>T (Gln741Stop), 2395G>A (Val799Met), 2798_2799delAG (Gln933ArgfsX64), 3657C>A (Ser1219Arg), and 4217C>T (Thr1406Met), were found as heterozygous variations. The allele frequencies were 0.011 for Ser1219Arg and 0.006 for the other four variations. Gln741Stop induces a stop codon at codon 741. Gln933ArgfsX64 causes a frame-shift at codon 933, resulting in early termination at codon 997. Both variations result in loss of 6 transmembrane helices (from the 12th to 17th helices) in the C-terminus and all regions of nucleotide binding domain 2. Thus, both variant proteins are assumed to be inactive. These data provide fundamental and useful information for pharmacogenetic studies on MRP3-transported drugs in Japanese.
We analyzed all nine exons and exon-intron junctions of the CYP2S1 gene in 200 Japanese individuals and identified the following three novel single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs): 4612G>A (Glu147Glu) in exon 3, 5478C>T (Leu230Leu) and 5479T>G (Leu230Arg, CYP2S1*5A) in exon 5. The allele frequencies were 0.013 for 4612G>A, 0.058 for 5478C>T, and 0.003 for 5479T>G. In addition, a known SNP 1324C>G (Pro74Pro) was detected at a frequency of 0.300.