Cefditoren, a third generation cephalosporin antibiotics, has been used in clinics extensively. Previous results have indicated that cefditoren is excreted into bile as unchanged form. To investigate whether canalicular membrane transporters of hepatocytes were involved in the biliary excretion of cefditoren, we examined the hepatobiliary disposition of cefditoren using probenecid, novobiocin and verapamil as inhibitors of Mrp2, Bcrp and P-gp respectively in perfused rat livers. The values for the hepatic extraction ratio had no statistical significance, whereas cumulative biliary excretion rates of cefditoren were significantly reduced to 43.8% and 79.5% over 25 min in the perfused probenecid and novobiocin rats, respectively. We further investigated the effects of cefditoren on the expression of hepatic transporters by RT-PCR and Western blot after oral administration of cefditoren one week. The expression levels of Mrp2, Bcrp, Oat2 mRNA were markedly increased, while P-gp and Oct1 mRNA were decreased. In concordance with RT-PCR results, Mrp2 expression level increased by Western blotting. These results indicate that Mrp2 and Bcrp may be involved in the biliary excretion of cefditoren. Cefditoren can up-regulate the expression levels of Mrp2, Bcrp and Oat2, and down-regulate P-gp and Oct1 mRNA expression. These results provide important data for drug-drug interactions.
Renal tubular secretion of cationic drugs is dominated by two classes of organic cation transporters, OCT2/SLC22A2 and MATE1/SLC47A1, localized to the basolateral and brush-border membranes of the renal tubular epithelial cells, respectively. However, little is known about the expression and function of these transporters in acute cholestasis. Systemic clearance of cimetidine was significantly higher in rats with bile duct ligation (BDL) for 24 hours than in sham-operated rats, with no significant changes in the volume of distribution between the groups. In addition, net tubular secretory clearance of cimetidine was significantly higher in the BDL rats compared with the sham rats, with no significant changes in the glomerular filtration rate. Moreover, the renal tissue-to-plasma concentration ratio of cimetidine was elevated in BDL rats, although the renal tissue-to-urine clearance ratio of cimetidine was not different between the two groups. The expression level of basolateral organic cation transporter rOCT2 protein in the kidney cortex was markedly higher in BDL rats than that in the sham rats, but that of H+/organic cation antiporter rMATE1 protein in the brush-border membranes was not significantly different between the two groups. These results demonstrate that the renal tubular secretion of cimetidine was increased by acute cholestasis, and this increase was attributable to elevated expression levels of rOCT2 but not of rMATE1 in the rat.
Using physiologically-based pharmacokinetic model simulations with the assumption that elimination of inactivator is not altered by mechanism-based inactivation (MBI) of the target enzyme, we examined at what concentrations the influence of MBI could be accurately and simply predicted. The method utilizing maximum unbound systemic concentration as the inactivator concentration (method 1) tended to overestimate this influence, and accuracy expressed as the ratio of estimated and exact fold decrease in enzyme activity ranged from 0.80 to 8.41. In addition, when the volume of distribution was large or the absorption rate constant was small, method 1 provided relatively precise estimation, with the ratio of nearly 1. We propose use of two concentrations, the steady-state average unbound liver concentration and maximum limit of steady-state average unbound liver concentration, to predict the effects of MBI. The accuracy of prediction of MBI using these two concentrations ranged from 0.90 to 1.04 and 0.92 to 2.96, respectively, and was higher than that with method 1. These two concentrations can be obtained early in the drug development process, and estimated results can be expected to contribute to determination of the effects of MBI.
Cytochrome P450 2C9 (CYP2C9) is a polymorphic enzyme responsible for the metabolism of many important drugs, including diclofenac. CYP2C9*3 and CYP2C9*13 are the principal variant alleles found in the Chinese population. CYP2C9*3 has been reported to reduce the metabolism of diclofenac and alter the extent of drug-drug interactions (DDIs). The effects of CYP2C9*13 on diclofenac metabolism are not well studied, and the influences of CYP2C9*13 on DDIs between diclofenac and clinical drugs are still unknown. In this study, CYP2C9.1 (the wildtype enzyme), CYP2C9.3 and CYP2C9.13 were expressed in yeast, and their metabolic kinetics for diclofenac 4′-hydroxylation were examined. From the in vitro data, we predicted a decrease in the ratio of diclofenac oral clearance (the ratio of oral clearance in subjects with variant CYP2C9 alleles to that in wildtype subjects (CLoralR)) in subjects carrying CYP2C9*3 or CYP2C9*13 alleles. Furthermore, we investigated the effects of these two alleles on diclofenac-drug interactions. The potentials of nine clinically used drugs to inhibit diclofenac 4′-hydroxylation catalyzed by the alleles were compared. Our results indicated that CYP2C9.3 and CYP2C9.13 can alter the CYP-inhibitory potencies of some tested drugs. In particular, CYP2C9.13 significantly weakened the inhibitory potencies of sulfaphenazole, fluvastatin, fluvoxamine and tranylcypromine. These data provide helpful guidelines for co-administration of diclofenac with other drugs in individuals carrying CYP2C9*3 and CYP2C9*13 alleles.
The functionality of human erythrocyte nucleoside transporter ENT1 was examined at ice-cold temperatures (ICT; measured temperature, 0.5-0.7°C) using rightside-out membrane vesicles (ROVs). The uptake of uridine, an ENT1 substrate, showed saturation kinetics and was inhibited by S-(4-nitrobenzyl)-6-thioinosine (NBMPR), a specific ENT1 inhibitor, at both 23°C and ICT. [3H]Uridine uptake was markedly trans-stimulated by preloading ROVs with unlabeled uridine or ribavirin, another ENT1 substrate, and the overshoot phenomenon was observed at ICT. Similarly, [3H]ribavirin uptake was markedly trans-stimulated by unlabeled ribavirin or uridine at ICT. The trans-stimulated uptake of [3H]uridine at ICT was inhibited by ENT1 inhibitors/substrates such as NBMPR, dipyridamole, adenosine, and ribavirin in a concentration-dependent manner. The inhibition of [3H]uridine uptake by NBMPR and dipyridamole at ICT was also observed in intact red blood cells. Like uridine uptake, [3H]D-glucose uptake by ROVs, which is mediated by facilitative glucose transporter GLUT1, was trans-stimulated by unlabeled D-glucose at ICT, and the overshoot phenomenon was observed. In contrast, the ability of ATP-dependent transport of 5-(and-6)-carboxy-2′,7′-dichlorofluorescein via multidrug resistance-associated protein 5 in inside-out membrane vesicles disappeared at ICT. These results clearly indicate that human erythrocyte transporters such as ENT1 function even at very low temperatures near 0°C. The significance of these findings in transporter research is discussed.
Our previous studies show that 10 xanthine oxidase (XO) variants (Arg149Cys, Pro555Ser, Arg607Gln, Thr623Ile, Ile703Val Asn909Lys, Thr910Lys, Pro1150Arg, His1221Arg, and Cys1318Tyr) exhibit altered activity toward the endogenous substrate xanthine. This study investigates whether these variants also exhibit altered kinetics for the exogenous substrate 6-thioxanthine (6-TX). To investigate the kinetics of wild-type XO and these variants, expression constructs were transfected into mammalian COS-7 cells. S-9 fractions containing the expressed proteins were used to determine their kinetic parameters, i.e., Km, Vmax, and intrinsic clearance (CLint), for the substrate 6-TX. Functional characterization of the 10 XO variants revealed that 4 of the variants (Arg149Cys, Asn909Lys, Thr910Lys, and Pro1150Arg) were inactive, 2 (Arg607Gln, and Cys1318Tyr) had reduced activity (CLint, 55.5% and 64.7% less than that of wild-type XO, respectively). This study provides comprehensive data regarding how genetic variation in XO affects its activity toward 6-TX. We found that the in vitro activity of 8 of the XO variants toward 6-TX was functionally affected. These results suggeste that polymorphism in the gene encoding XO may increase the toxicity of thiopurine drugs such as 6-mercaputopurine.
A method for predicting the interindividual variability of human exposure for CYP3A4 substrates using Monte Carlo simulation was developed based on relevant factors. The coefficient of variation (CV) values for CYP3A4 content in human liver microsomes, hepatic blood flow, liver volume and body weight, and the unbound blood fraction were collected from the published literature. The parallel tube and dispersion models were found to be appropriate mathematical models to describe the pharmacokinetics (PK). Simulation results using 33% as the CV for CYP3A4 content reflected reported CV values of the area under the curve (AUC) for 40 CYP3A4 substrates for both intravenous and oral administration. We also successfully predicted the clearance of midazolam in Japanese and in European American subjects. In all cases, the simulated mean and SD values reflected the reported values. Thus, the interindividual variability of the AUC of CYP3A4 substrates was predictable for both intravenous and oral administration.
Flavonoids are inactivated by phase II metabolism and occur in the body as glucuronides. Mammalian β-glucuronidase released from neutrophils at inflammatory sites may be able to deconjugate and thus activate flavonoid glucuronides. We have studied deconjugation kinetics and pH optimum for four sources of β-glucuronidase (human neutrophil, human recombinant, myeloid PLB-985 cells, Helix pomatia) with five flavonoid glucuronides (quercetin-3-glucuronide, quercetin-3′-glucuronide, quercetin-4′-glucuronide, quercetin-7-glucuronide, 3′-methylquercetin-3-glucuronide), 4-methylumbelliferyl-β-D-glucuronide, and para-nitrophenol-glucuronide. All substrate-enzyme combinations tested exhibited first order kinetics. The optimum pH for hydrolysis was between 3.5-5, with appreciable hydrolysis activities up to pH 5.5. At pH 4, the Km ranged 44-fold from 22 μM for quercetin-4′-glucuronide with Helix pomatia β-glucuronidase, to 981 μM for para-nitrophenol-glucuronide with recombinant β-glucuronidase. Vmax (range: 0.735-24.012 μmol·min−1·unit−1 [1 unit is defined as the release of 1 μM 4-methylumbelliferyl-β-D-glucuronide per min]) and the reaction rate constants at low substrate concentrations (k) (range: 0.002-0.062 min−1·(unit/L)−1 were similar for all substrates-enzyme combinations tested. In conclusion, we show that β-glucuronidase from four different sources, including human neutrophils, is able to deconjugate flavonoid glucuronides and non-flavonoid substrates at fairly similar kinetic rates. At inflammatory sites in vivo the pH, neutrophil and flavonoid glucuronide concentrations seem favorable for deconjugation. However, it remains to be confirmed whether this is actually the case.
Drug metabolizing activities of cytochromes P450 (P450s, or CYPs) 3A4 and 3A5 in liver microsomes from the cynomolgus monkey [Macaca fascicularis (mf)] were investigated and compared with those of human P450 3A enzymes. Low activities for dealkylation of ethoxyresorufin and pentoxyresorufin were seen in recombinant monkey mfCYP3A4 and mfCYP3A5 and in recombinant human CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 expressed in bacterial membranes. Hydroxylation activities of mfCYP3A4 and mfCYP3A5 toward coumarin, paclitaxel, diclofenac, flurbiprofen, and S-mephenytoin were below detectable levels, as was also true for CYP3A4 and CYP3A5. Monkey mfCYP3A5 and mfCYP3A4 were highly active in bufuralol 1′-hydroxylation. mfCYP3A5 was efficient at dextromethorphan O-demethylation, although human CYP3A5 was unable to catalyze this reaction. Apparent bufuralol 1′-hydroxylation and dextromethorphan O-demethylation activities of monkey liver microsomes were higher than those of human liver microsomes, possibly because of contributions of mfCYP3A5 to these P450 2D-dependent drug oxidations. mfCYP3A5 and CYP3A5 catalyzed midazolam 1′-hydroxylation at a low substrate concentration more efficiently than the corresponding CYP3A4. mfCYP3A5 had higher testosterone 6β-hydroxylase activity than mfCYP3A4, but the reverse relationship was observed in oxidation of nifedipine and hydroxylation of dexamethasone. These results demonstrate that monkey P450 3A enzymes have similar substrate selectivity to that of human P450 3A enzymes, but exhibit wider substrate selectivity toward P450 2D substrates.
Although the effect of obesity on drug disposition remains an important issue for clinicians, little is known about the effects of obesity on organic cation transporter 1 (OCT1) expression and activity. Here, we show that hepatic OCT1 expression was higher in mice fed a high-fat (HF) diet for 19 weeks compared with mice fed a control diet. Since HF diet-induced obese mice exhibited elevation of plasma proinflammatory cytokines, leptin, and insulin levels, we evaluated the effect of leptin, insulin, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) on OCT1 mRNA expression in HepG2 cells. Both leptin and insulin significantly increased OCT1 mRNA expression in HepG2 cells, but TNF-α did not. This finding was consistent with in vivo results. Using the OCT1 substrate metformin, we further measured the extent of hepatic uptake of metformin in obese and lean mice using the ratio of hepatic concentration to plasma concentration of metformin at 1 h after administration. The hepatic uptake of metformin was significantly higher in mice fed a HF diet compared with lean mice. In conclusion, our results suggest, at least in part, that obesity might have an effect on the absorption or distribution pharmacokinetics of metformin through an increase in hepatic OCT1 expression.
Glucuronidation by UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 2B7 (UGT2B7) has been identified as an important pathway for the elimination of its substrate drugs in humans. Alterations in UGT2B7 function or expression may influence individual variations in drug responses. In an effort to screen for UGT2B7 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in Koreans, the UGT2B7 gene was directly sequenced in 50 normal subjects. A total of 19 genetic variations were found: seven in exons, eight in introns, and four in the 5′-untranslated region. The order of the frequency distribution of UGT2B7 variations was: −900A>G, −327G>A, −161C>T, 10539A>G, 10711G>C and 10806T>A (40%); 2099T>A, 2100C>T, 2283A>G and 2316A>G (39%); 12029T>A (37%); 10928C>A (33%); 10541G>A (28%); 10897insA (24%); 372A>G (13%) and 211G>T (12%), as well as other minor alleles with less than 10% frequency. Nineteen variations were used to characterize linkage disequilibrium (LD) structures at the UGT2B7 locus. Eight tagging SNPs in UGT2B7 were determined. Identification of UGT2B7 SNPs with LD and the tagging SNPs lays the foundation for investigating UGT2B7-related genotype/phenotype association studies for Koreans as well as other populations.
Steroid sulfatase (STS) is a microsomal enzyme responsible for the formation of 3β-hydroxysteroid from the corresponding sulfate conjugates. Screening of all exons, exon-intron boundaries and the 5′-flanking region of the STS gene in 93 healthy Japanese individuals was carried out. Among seven single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) identified in this study, six were novel, including one in the untranslated region of exon 1, one in exon 10, and four in the 5′-flanking region. The nonsynonymous SNP (1647G>A) in exon 10 caused amino-acid replacement, Val476Met, with a frequency of 0.014. The allele frequencies of the other SNPs were 0.071 for 155G>A, 0.007 for −21G>A, 0.014 for −1117T>C, 0.106 for −1588G>A, 0.007 for −2427G>A and 0.007 for −2837T>C.