IEEJ Transactions on Electronics, Information and Systems
Online ISSN : 1348-8155
Print ISSN : 0385-4221
ISSN-L : 0385-4221
Volume 123 , Issue 7
Showing 1-26 articles out of 26 articles from the selected issue
Special Issue on "The Noise Coutermeasure of Electronic Equipment"
Special Issue Review
Special Issue Paper
  • Seiichi Saito, Tetsuro Shimomura, Shigeto Fujita, Shuichi Nitta
    Type: Others
    Subject area: Others
    2003 Volume 123 Issue 7 Pages 1204-1211
    Published: 2003
    Released: April 19, 2004
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    In gas insulated switchgear (GIS), the arc discharge due to a disconnector on/off generates fast transient surge, which can be the cause of malfunction and damage of electronic devices such as microprocessors and AD converters if the fast transient surge exceeds a specified level. In this paper, it is shown that the comparison and evaluation are realized between the measured results and the calculated ones of fast transient surges generated due to a disconnector on/off in 300kV GIS by adopting the evaluation index. The calculation is carried out by applying the authors proposed equivalent circuits using distributed constant lines in consideration of the structure of GIS and a newly developed divided-type voltage sensor. And, it is found by using the evaluation index that the measured results and the calculated ones are good agreement each other. Further, the cause of occurring the peak of the evaluation index is clarified by analyzing the equivalent circuit. And, the signal conditioning using low-pass filter for electronic circuits connecting the divided-type voltage sensor is designed.
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  • Tetsuo Kubota, Akiyoshi Hakoyama, Yasunobu Hasegawa, Kohji Koshiji
    Type: Others
    Subject area: Others
    2003 Volume 123 Issue 7 Pages 1212-1218
    Published: 2003
    Released: April 19, 2004
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    A new sealing structure for helical heater terminal used in a combination heating microwave oven is suggested, and its sealing characteristics are investigated by analysis and measurement. The new structure is simply a conductor tube coaxially covering the heater at the input terminal. With an optimally-designed structure of this type, the transmission coefficient of the heater at 2450 MHz can be reduced to -47dB in TLM analysis and -50dB in measurement. When installed in a test set, the power leaking out from the heater terminal is found to be less than 0.2mW/cm2.
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  • Kenji Shiba, Kohji Koshiji
    Type: Others
    Subject area: Others
    2003 Volume 123 Issue 7 Pages 1219-1227
    Published: 2003
    Released: April 19, 2004
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Transcutaneous Energy Transmission (TET) is one way of providing the energy needed to power a totally implantable artificial heart (TIAH). In the present study, an externally coupled TET system was implanted in a prototype human phantom to evaluate emission and immunity. In the emission evaluation, measurements were conducted based on CISPR Pub.11 and VDE 0871 standards, while immunity tests were based on the standards of the IEC 61000-4 series.
    The magnetic field of the radiated emission was measured using a loop antenna. At 0.1[MHz], we found the greatest magnetic field of 47.8 [dBμA/m], somewhat less than CISPR’s upper limit of 54 [dBμA/m]. For the conducted emission, by installing a noise filter and ferrite beads in the input section of the DC-power supply, conducted emission could be kept within the allowable limits of CISPR Pub.11 and VDE 0871. Finally, the immunity tests against radiated and conducted emission, electrostatic discharge and voltage fluctuation proved that the prototype could withstand the maximum level of disturbance.
    These results confirmed that the TET system implanted in a human phantom could, through modification, meet the emission and immunity standards.
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  • Nobuyoshi Mutoh, Mitukatu Ogata
    Type: Others
    Subject area: Others
    2003 Volume 123 Issue 7 Pages 1228-1235
    Published: 2003
    Released: April 19, 2004
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    A new method to control EMI noises produced in power converters (rectifier and inverter) composed of IPMs (Intelligent Power Modules) is studied especially focusing on differential mode noises. The differential mode noises are occurred due to switching operations of the PWM control. As they are diffused into the ground through stray capacitors distributed between the ground and the power transmission lines and machine frames, differential mode noises should be confined and suppressed within the smallest area where power converters are laid out. It is impossible to control differential mode noises easily occurring diffusion by the conventional methods like filtering techniques. So, a new EMI noise control method using a multi-power circuit technique is proposed. The proposed method of the effectiveness has been verified through simulations and experiments.
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Paper
  • Mitsugi Tokuyama, Hirokazu Ohtagaki
    Type: Others
    Subject area: Others
    2003 Volume 123 Issue 7 Pages 1236-1242
    Published: 2003
    Released: April 19, 2004
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    This paper proposes a nonlinear circuit that generates chaotic oscillations. The proposed nonlinear circuit includes a nonlinear capacitor and a nonlinear inductor by using Generalized Impedance Converters. Both computational experiments and experiments on the real circuits exhibit that the region for chaotic oscillation is very wide, which show that the proposed circuit is effective for a chaos generator.
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  • Bin Chen, Mitsuhiko Meguro, Masahide Kaneko
    Type: Others
    Subject area: Others
    2003 Volume 123 Issue 7 Pages 1243-1252
    Published: 2003
    Released: April 19, 2004
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    In human-robot interaction, the ability to detect and share user’s attention is the minimal requirement for an intelligent robot, since it is very important for robot to know human’s internal state. Here we present an algorithm, which is based on face posture estimation and the spatiotemporal image processing, to calculate a saliency map in order to form share attention. After the face posture estimation, we introduce an elliptic cone to approximate the user’s visual field, whose axis is fitted to the user’s gaze line that is not necessary to be detected beforehand. A visual acuity map on the user’s retina can be yielded according to the formulization of human’s visual acuity. We calculate the saliency map in terms of recency-weighted average of visual acuity maps along time axis so that the dynamic scene (for example, the case that user’s gaze line is shifting to a new object or the gazed object is moving) can affect the saliency map calculation, as well as the moving image areas are tracked to propagate the value of the visual acuity map from the current frame to the next one. Finally, we use the saliency map to form share attention in human-robot interaction, and it is also manifested that it will be possible to detect the user’s attention by only considering face orientation even when the eyes cannot be observed clearly.
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  • Teruaki Hirano, Takaaki Muraguchi, Osamu Nakamura
    Type: Others
    Subject area: Others
    2003 Volume 123 Issue 7 Pages 1253-1263
    Published: 2003
    Released: April 19, 2004
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    In this paper, a robust personal identification system which is adaptable for the face wearing spectacles is presented.
    A human face identification system based on the isodensity maps has been already presented.It has been confirmed that the three dimensional personal features are well reflected in the isodensity maps. On the other hand, when the registered image is a face without spectacles and the input image is a face with spectacles, the shapes of the input isodensity maps are changed caused by the spectacles and are different from the registered isodensity maps. Then, the identification accuracy was deteriorated. From this point of view, the spectacles are removed from input faces, and we tried to improve the the matching accuracy.
    Computer simulation using 50 people shows 95.2% correct discrimination accuracy.
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  • Fumihiko Saitoh
    Type: Others
    Subject area: Others
    2003 Volume 123 Issue 7 Pages 1264-1270
    Published: 2003
    Released: April 19, 2004
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Even if the contrast of a scene images is not good, a single image that has good contrast can be generated by the accumulation of plural frames. However, the scene images must be shot by a fixed camera. This paper proposes a method to generate a single image with good contrast from scene images with low contrast that are shot by a portable video camera carried by hand. The partial frames are selected from all frames by the genetic algorithm. These frames are accumulated and the output image is generated by the liner transform of gray-levels. The individual fitness is evaluated by the total value of liner gradients in the generated output image. The experimental results show that the generated images by the proposed method had good contrast, clearness and less noises in comparison with the generated images by the conventional methods.
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  • Kenji Suyama, Kota Takahashi
    Type: Others
    Subject area: Others
    2003 Volume 123 Issue 7 Pages 1271-1276
    Published: 2003
    Released: April 19, 2004
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    In this paper, we propose a novel learning method of linear filters for a target sound extraction in a non—stationary noisy environment via a microphone array with 2 elements. The method is based on a phase difference between two microphones, which is detected from outputs of the Hilbert transformer whose length is corresponding to a fundamental period of vowel parts of speech signals. The cue signal, which has a correlation with a power envelop of target sound, is generated using a mean square of phase difference and applied to the learning. A superior performance of the proposed method is presented by several computer simulation results.
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  • Kudoh Norimasa, Tadokoro Yoshiaki
    Type: Others
    Subject area: Others
    2003 Volume 123 Issue 7 Pages 1277-1284
    Published: 2003
    Released: April 19, 2004
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    There are many applications where it is necessary to estimate accurately the amplitude and phase of signals when the information regarding the frequencies is obtained in advance. This paper presents a new algorithm for estimating more accurately Fourier coefficients of a signal contaminated by additive noise where sinusoidal frequencies of interest are not distributed uniformly. In the proposed method, Fourier coefficients are adaptive parameters. It uses averaged gradient signals and has almost the same acquisition time as the conventional LMS algorithm with more accurate estimation. The performance analysis of the proposed method is presented and its validity and limits are verified under various conditions by computer simulations. Furthermore, it is shown that the proposed method has especially better performance compared with the LMS algorithm in case that both of the number of frequencies and the step size parameter, μ, are large.
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  • Kazuaki Shiraishi, Tomoki Hamagami, Seiichi Koakutsu, Hironori Hirata
    Type: Others
    Subject area: Others
    2003 Volume 123 Issue 7 Pages 1285-1291
    Published: 2003
    Released: April 19, 2004
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    In this paper, the application of the learning automaton (LA) network with multi environments is proposed for the adaptive controller for ITS autonomous driving. The LA network, which we have introduced previously, has the ability of the learning which deals with both plural reinforcement signals and information of multiple environments at the same time. The feature is found to be useful for improving the response of the adaptation in the dynamic environment like the highway. In order to evaluate the practical advantage of using the network, we designed the simulational highway system, constructed the autonomous travel controller using the simple LA and the LA network, and executed comparative experiments which evaluate the performance of adaptation response and the collision avoidance. The results show that the performance of LA network with multi environments is superior to the one using simple LA application on its stability and safety.
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  • Makoto Niwakawa, Nobuyuki Fujiwara, Toshikazu Onda
    Type: Others
    Subject area: Others
    2003 Volume 123 Issue 7 Pages 1292-1297
    Published: 2003
    Released: April 19, 2004
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    It is important to watch over the people passing through the back gate in the images of the observation camera. Especially, they want to detect the passing people through the gate other than harmless ones crossing by the gate. To accomplish this, we have estimated the changes of time correlation values of segmented small windows in the image sequence of the camera looking at the gate and analyzed directions of optical flows on the changing windows. So that, we detect something moves toward or along the gate. This paper describes how to detect changes and their moving directions in the image of the gate and shows some experimental results.
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  • Jianming Lu, Kyohei Ishihata, Takashi Yahagi
    Type: Others
    Subject area: Others
    2003 Volume 123 Issue 7 Pages 1298-1304
    Published: 2003
    Released: April 19, 2004
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    A method for the design of a robust MRAC(model reference adaptive control) for discrete-time systems in the presence of unmodeled dynamics is proposed. This controller robustly stabilizes the nominal plant in the presence of unmodeled dynamics and achieves the desired model reference adaptive control simultaneously. Furthermore, in this method, we introduce the output-loop compensator for the unmodeled dynamics. Sufficient condition for stabilizing the nominal plant in the presence of unmodeled dynamics is established. Finally, the results of computer simulation are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.
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  • Zheng Tang, Rong Long Wang, Jia Hai Wang, Qi Ping Cao
    Type: Others
    Subject area: Others
    2003 Volume 123 Issue 7 Pages 1305-1310
    Published: 2003
    Released: April 19, 2004
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The goal of the bipartite subgraph problem, which is an NP-complete problem, is to remove the minimum number of edges in a given graph such that the remaining graph is a bipartite graph. Enlightened by the elastic net method that was introduced by Durbin and Willshaw for finding shortest route for the Traveling Salesman Problem (TSP), we proposed a new parallel algorithm for the bipartite subgraph problem. The approach jointly tends to satisfy the constraint condition and minimizes the number of removed edges. The collective computational properties of the proposed approach are also proved theoretically. A large number of instances have been simulated to verify the proposed algorithm. The simulation results show that our algorithm finds a solution superior to that of the best existing parallel algorithms.
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  • Koji Murai, Yuji Hayashi, Yuichi Miyoshi, Seiji Inokuchi
    Type: Others
    Subject area: Others
    2003 Volume 123 Issue 7 Pages 1311-1318
    Published: 2003
    Released: April 19, 2004
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    A navigator gets navigational information for safe navigation from own ship and her environment through their five senses, and navigates her. We think that the most important thing is the ability to judge in various environments more than the knowledge of how to handle some instruments or equipments. What does the navigator do when he/she navigates? Recently, we use a ship handling simulator (simulator in short) to train the ship handling for safe navigation. We need to recognize the effect of training, the better usage of a simulator and the difference of stress level between actual ships and simulators.
    The purpose of this paper is to find characteristics of visual observation area and stress level of the navigator in the case of arriving and leaving port. In our experiments, we measured subject’s eye movement and heart rate variability which means the R-R interval. Our experimental ship is Training Ship FUKAE-MARU of Kobe University of Mercantile Marine (KUMM in short). The results show that characteristics of subject’s visual observation area and Sympathetic Nervous System (SNS in short) value calculated with R-R interval is how dependency of cue for both navigational environments.
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  • Pyong Sik Pak, Gwan Kim
    Type: Others
    Subject area: Others
    2003 Volume 123 Issue 7 Pages 1319-1326
    Published: 2003
    Released: April 19, 2004
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    This paper proposes a method of predicting the population by sex and age for each of 402 districts over a long-range period in the Kansai region, Japan, by applying fuzzy theories. First, to predict the total social increase for 402 districts by directly taking into consideration of differences in factors of migration in each district, nine rules or domains were set up by using the migration rate and the total social increase in each district as the premise variables. Regression models were constructed in the consequences which use various socioeconomic indicators as explaining variables. The future value of the total social increase in each district can be obtained by weighting the values calculated from the estimated regression models with the membership values denoting the degree of belonging to each rule. Second, a method to estimate the social increase by sex and age in each district is proposed based on fuzzy clustering method for dealing with long-range socioeconomic changes in population migration by sex, age and district. All the samples of the migration ratio were classified into the same nine domains. By applying Fuzzy c-Means on districts belonged to each domain, all samples were classified into 20 clusters. The future migration ratio in each district can be estimated by weighting the migration pattern in each cluster with the values of membership function denoting the degree of belonging to each cluster. Results of the validity test of the constructed population model based on the proposed methods are also presented. It has been shown that it becomes possible to predict the population by sex, age and district over a long-range period by using the proposed method.
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  • Tatsushi Nishi, Masami Konishi, Shinji Hasebe
    Type: Others
    Subject area: Others
    2003 Volume 123 Issue 7 Pages 1327-1333
    Published: 2003
    Released: April 19, 2004
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    In this paper, we propose a decentralized scheduling method for flowshop scheduling problems with resource constraints using the Lagrangian decomposition and coordination approach. When a flowshop scheduling problem with resource constraints is decomposed into machine-level sub-problems, the decomposed problem becomes very difficult to be solved to obtain the optimal solution even when the production sequence of operations is given. In this study, the decomposed sub-problems are solved by a simulated annealing algorithm combined with dynamic programming. By decomposing the problem into single machine sub-problems, the changeover cost can easily be incorporated in the objective function. In order to reduce the computation time, a heuristic algorithm for calculating the starting times of operations is also proposed. The performance of the proposed method is compared with that of the simulated annealing method in which a schedule of the entire machine is successively improved. Numerical results have shown that the proposed method can generate better solutions than those generated by the conventional method.
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  • Tsutomu Inamoto, Hisashi Tamaki, Hajime Murao, Shinzo Kitamura
    Type: Others
    Subject area: Others
    2003 Volume 123 Issue 7 Pages 1334-1340
    Published: 2003
    Released: April 19, 2004
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    In this paper, we propose a framework for obtaining the optimal car service to elevator operation problems by applying branch-and-bound methods based on the deterministic optimization model. In building the model, we assume the followings: the numbers such as time and car positions are discritized, the movement of cars and passengers synchronized with discrete time, and all passengers arriving to the hall is known beforehand. In the model, the transportation of any passenger is considered as a combination of two jobs, i.e., an into-job and an out-of-job. The into-job corresponds to a passenger's getting into a car, while the out-of-job corresponds to getting out of a car. Here, the optimal car service of the problem is obtained by assigning each into-job to an appropriate car and determining the processing order of into- and out-of-jobs for each car under some constraints including the precedence conditions. In designing a BAB solution, the assignment of into-jobs to cars and the processing order of jobs on each car are taken as decision variables.
    It is expected that the optimal (or near-optimal) car service obtained by applying such techniques as branch-and-bound methods based on the model is helpful to estimate the effectiveness of the utilization of look-ahead information. It is also useful in valuating the performance of the existing rules for elevator operation. In the paper, by using the proposed method, the validity of an existing rule, i.e., the Call-Dispatching and Selective-Collective rule (CDSC), is examined. The results of computational experiments show that the performance of the CDSC rule is not always the optimal or near-optimal, while it reveals a practical potential, i.e., it generates rather good car services within very short time.
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  • Tatsuhiro Sato, Toshiro Sasaki, Teruji Sekozawa
    Type: Others
    Subject area: Others
    2003 Volume 123 Issue 7 Pages 1341-1349
    Published: 2003
    Released: April 19, 2004
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    In this paper, we propose a mathematical model of the aircraft gate assingment problems to relax passengers inconveniences of getting on and off an aircraft. The model is in the form of a 0-1 integer mathematical programming, with which we can express an overflow of aircrafts from terminal gates to remote parking area. An alogrithm based on the Lagrangian relaxation method accompanied by a non-trivial construction of the relaxation problem and a Lagrangian heuristic of getting feasible solutions is also proposed to solve the proglem. The proposed method is evaluated in a variety of test problems, compared to other ones. The results show that the proposed model and algorithm have an significant effect on relaxing passengers inconveniences by simultaneously minimizing both the overflow of aircrafts and the passengers walking distance in the terminal.
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  • Hiroshi Murata, Takashi Onoda, Katsuhisa Yoshimoto, Yukio Nakano
    Type: Others
    Subject area: Others
    2003 Volume 123 Issue 7 Pages 1350-1355
    Published: 2003
    Released: April 19, 2004
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    A non-intrusive monitoring system estimates the behavior of individual electric appliances from the measurement of the total household load demand curve. The total load demand curve is measured at the entrance of the power line into the house. The power consumption of individual appliances can be estimated using several machine learning techniques by analyzing the characteristic frequency contents from the load curve of the hosehold. In this paper, we present results of applying several regression methods such as multi-layered perceptrons (MLP), radial basis function networks (RBFN) and Support Vector regressors (SVR) to estimate the power consumption of an air conditioner. Our experiments show RBFN can achieve the best accuracy for the non-intrusive monitoring system.
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Letter
  • Akihiro Yamamura, Dilmurat Uprjian, Masanori Jyumonji
    Type: Others
    Subject area: Others
    2003 Volume 123 Issue 7 Pages 1356-1357
    Published: 2003
    Released: April 19, 2004
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The pre-discharge of a flashlamp has been applied to solid state lasers and dye lasers in order to improve the laser output and their stability. Self-starting circuits by using of a low regulation Cockcroft circuit or an AC circuit with fold-back characteristics have been developed, but these circuits are much complicated. In this paper, we report a new and simple self-starting simmer circuit with DC biased clamp circuit.
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  • Ali Ahmadi, Sigeru Omatu, Toshihisa Kosaka
    Type: Others
    Subject area: Others
    2003 Volume 123 Issue 7 Pages 1358-1359
    Published: 2003
    Released: April 19, 2004
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    We propose an approach to increase the reliability of a neuro-classifier for paper currency recognition by using a principal component analysis (PCA) algorithm. The PCA is used to extract the main features of input data and reducing the data size. A learning vector quantization (LVQ) neural network is applied as the main classifier of the system. By defining a new algorithm for rating the reliability, we evaluate the reliability of the system for 1, 200 sample test data. The result shows that the average reliability measure is increased up to 99.6% when the number of PCA components as well as number of LVQ codebooks are taken properly.
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  • Takaaki Muraguchi, Gou Nojiri, Osamu Nakamura
    Type: Others
    Subject area: Others
    2003 Volume 123 Issue 7 Pages 1360-1361
    Published: 2003
    Released: April 19, 2004
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    This paper presents an improved facial area extraction algorithm. In our previous method, the facial area occasionally misextracted when the subject wear the spectacles. In this paper the improved algorithm which can be applied for the person with spectacles is presented. From the experimental results executed with 1226 frames, the extraction accuracy was improved from a 91.1 % to a 98.7 %.
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