IEEJ Transactions on Electronics, Information and Systems
Online ISSN : 1348-8155
Print ISSN : 0385-4221
ISSN-L : 0385-4221
Volume 130 , Issue 4
Showing 1-31 articles out of 31 articles from the selected issue
Special Issue on “Systems Technology for Supporting the Knowledge Information Society”
Preface
Special Issue Review
  • Motohisa Funabashi
    2010 Volume 130 Issue 4 Pages 528-533
    Published: April 01, 2010
    Released: April 01, 2010
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    This paper presents an emerging direction of systems thinking, transdisiciplinary science and technology, that is expected to respond to critical issues such as environmental sustainability in our knowledge based information society. Firstly today's systems analysis to global warming is presented for reviewing current systems approaches, then some hypothetical requisites for the further advancements are investigated with historical consideration on systems thinking. Finally present efforts for developing transdisciplinary science and technology are presented to meet the societal requirements.
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  • Eitaro Aiyoshi, Kazuaki Masuda
    2010 Volume 130 Issue 4 Pages 534-539
    Published: April 01, 2010
    Released: April 01, 2010
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    On the basis of market fundamentalism, new types of social systems with the market mechanism such as electricity trading markets and carbon dioxide (CO2) emission trading markets have been developed. However, there are few textbooks in science and technology which present the explanation that Lagrange multipliers can be interpreted as market prices. This tutorial paper explains that (1) the steepest descent method for dual problems in optimization, and (2) Gauss-Seidel method for solving the stationary conditions of Lagrange problems with market principles, can formulate the mechanism of market pricing, which works even in the information-oriented modern society. The authors expect readers to acquire basic knowledge on optimization theory and algorithms related to economics and to utilize them for designing the mechanism of more complicated markets.
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Special Issue Paper
<Systems, Instrument, Control>
  • Akio Naito, Shingo Aoki, Hiroshi Tsuji
    2010 Volume 130 Issue 4 Pages 540-545
    Published: April 01, 2010
    Released: April 01, 2010
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    To extend the sensitivity analysis capability for DEA (Data Envelopment Analysis), this paper proposes frontier assignment based DEA (FA-DEA). The basic idea of FA-DEA is to allow a decision maker to decide frontier intentionally while the traditional DEA and Super-DEA decide frontier computationally. The features of FA-DEA are as follows: (1) provides chances to exclude extra-influential DMU (Decision Making Unit) and finds extra-ordinal DMU, and (2) includes the function of the traditional DEA and Super-DEA so that it is able to deal with sensitivity analysis more flexibly. Simple numerical study has shown the effectiveness of the proposed FA-DEA and the difference from the traditional DEA.
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<Speech and Image Processing, Recognition>
  • Yoshio Iwai, Yasuhiro Aoki, Hiroshi Ishiguro
    2010 Volume 130 Issue 4 Pages 546-556
    Published: April 01, 2010
    Released: April 01, 2010
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    In this paper, we propose a generic framework for detecting suspicious actions with mixture distributions of action primitives, of which collection represents human actions. The framework is based on Bayesian approach and the calculation is performed by Sequential Monte Carlo method, also known as Particle filter. Sequential Monte Carlo is used to approximate the distributions for fast calculation, but it tends to converge one local minimum. We solve that problem by using mixture distributions of action primitives. By this approach, the system can recognize people's actions as whether suspicious actions or not.
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  • Ryuta Terashima, Takayoshi Yoshimura, Toshihiro Wakita, Keiichi Tokuda ...
    2010 Volume 130 Issue 4 Pages 557-564
    Published: April 01, 2010
    Released: April 01, 2010
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    We describe an efficient method that uses a HMM-based speech synthesis technique as a test pattern generator for evaluating the word recognition rate. The recognition rates of each word and speaker can be evaluated by the synthesized speech by using this method. The parameter generation technique can be formulated as an algorithm that can determine the speech parameter vector sequence O by maximizing P(O¦Q,λ) given the model parameter λ and the state sequence Q, under a dynamic acoustic feature constraint. We conducted recognition experiments to illustrate the validity of the method. Approximately 100 speakers were used to train the speaker dependent models for the speech synthesis used in these experiments, and the synthetic speech was generated as the test patterns for the target speech recognizer. As a result, the recognition rate of the HMM-based synthesized speech shows a good correlation with the recognition rate of the actual speech. Furthermore, we find that our method can predict the speaker recognition rate with approximately 2% error on average. Therefore the evaluation of the speaker recognition rate will be performed automatically by using the proposed method.
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  • Yi Zhan, Jun Nishimura, Tadahiro Kuroda
    2010 Volume 130 Issue 4 Pages 565-572
    Published: April 01, 2010
    Released: April 01, 2010
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    Sound feature extraction Mel Frequency Cepstral Coefficients (MFCC) and Vector Quantization (VQ) classification Linde-Buzo-Gray algorithm (LBG) algorithms are applied for recognizing the background sounds in the human daily activities. Applying these algorithms to twenty typical daily activity sounds, average recognition accuracy of 93.8% can be achieved. In these algorithms, how three parameters (i.e., Mel filters number, frame-to-frame overlap and LBG codebook cluster number) affect system's calculation burden and accuracy is also investigated. By adjusting these three parameters to an optimized combination, the multiplication and addition calculation burden can be reduced by 87.0% and 87.1% individually while maintaining the system's average accuracy rate at 92.5%. This is promising for future integration with other sensor (s) to fulfill daily activity recognition by using power aware Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) systems.
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<Softcomputing, Learning>
  • Kazuaki Masuda, Kenzo Kurihara
    2010 Volume 130 Issue 4 Pages 573-579
    Published: April 01, 2010
    Released: April 01, 2010
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    This paper proposes a novel particle swarm optimization (PSO) model focused on updating the global best solution (gbest). It is fundamentally different from the standard PSO model that gbest subordinates particles and locates them in the proposed one. Particles are generally distributed around gbest so as to search locally; however, when gbest almost stops at some point, they are forcibly moved farther away from it. The above search characteristics of the proposed model is achieved by the introduction of non-uniformly distributed random numbers and the adjustment of the distance how far to spread particles from gbest according to its velocity. It is also of advantage that the functionality of the proposed PSO model is essentially independent of the choice of its parameters. Numerical results for benchmark problems verify that for most cases the proposed model outperforms the standard PSO with the aid of Linearly Decreasing Inertia Weight Approach (LDIWA). Results also show that the proposed model is likely to work better for higher dimensional problems.
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<Information System, Electronic Commerce>
  • Ye Liu, Zhi Teng, Fuji Ren
    2010 Volume 130 Issue 4 Pages 580-588
    Published: April 01, 2010
    Released: April 01, 2010
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    In this paper, a restricted domain question answering (QA) system is described. This research presents a practical sightseeing question answering system based on integrated knowledge-base. First, we use hand-crafted corpus and online resources as knowledge-base, then perform question understanding based on sightseeing place word detection and question classification. We exploit different answer extraction strategies while based on various knowledge-base (hand-crafted corpus or online resources) for answer retrieval and generation. Experimental results show the proposed method is effective for improving our former models.
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  • Masaki Samejima, Keisuke Negoro, Koshichiro Mitsukuni, Masanori Akiyos ...
    2010 Volume 130 Issue 4 Pages 589-597
    Published: April 01, 2010
    Released: April 01, 2010
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    We propose a finding method of business risk factors on qualitative and quantitative hybrid simulation in time series. Effect ratios of qualitative arcs in the hybrid simulation vary output values of the simulation, so we define effect ratios causing risk as business risk factors. Finding business risk factors in entire ranges of effect ratios is time-consuming. It is considered that probability distributions of effect ratios in present time step and ones in previous time step are similar, the probability distributions in present time step can be estimated. Our method finds business risk factors in only estimated ranges effectively. Experimental results show that a precision rate and a recall rate are 86%, and search time is decreased 20% at least.
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  • Hiroyuki Kojima, Ken Iwata
    2010 Volume 130 Issue 4 Pages 598-606
    Published: April 01, 2010
    Released: April 01, 2010
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    Due to the progress of Internet technology and the increase of distributed information on networks, the present knowledge management has been based more and more on the performance of various experienced users. In addition to the increase of electronic documents, the use of paper documents has not been reduced because of their convenience. This paper describes a method of tracking paper document locations and contents using radio frequency identification (RFID) technology. This research also focuses on the expression of a task process and the seamless structuring of related electronic and paper documents as a result of task knowledge formalization using information organizing. A system is proposed here that implements information organization for both Web documents and paper documents with the task model description and RFID technology. Examples of a prototype system are also presented.
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  • Matsuki Yoshino, Michiko Oba, Norihisa Komoda, Taiko Yamade, Shigeru N ...
    2010 Volume 130 Issue 4 Pages 607-614
    Published: April 01, 2010
    Released: April 01, 2010
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    Based upon survey conducted by the authors to large scale data centers, monitoring of messages produced by operating systems, middleware and applications is widely adopted as a method for detecting system failures and malfunctions. According to the result of survey, not only the monitoring of message occurrences, but also analyzing message occurrences in particular patterns is used. Those patterns include, multiple occurrences surpassing a threshold in a predefined time period, consecutive occurrences within a predefined time period, or occurrences violating predefined sequences and so on. A custom made application is currently used for message analysis. Some problems are known in operation of the application and implementation of patterns of message analyzing. The authors proposed a message analyzing mechanism for information system management using stream database to overcome these problems and proved its effectiveness by experiments.
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<Information Processing, Software>
  • Masatoshi Murakami, Tomoaki Maruo, Keinosuke Matsumoto, Naoki Mori
    2010 Volume 130 Issue 4 Pages 615-621
    Published: April 01, 2010
    Released: April 01, 2010
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    A multiagent simulator (MAS) attracts attention as an approach to analyze social phenomena and complex systems in recent years. In addition, many frameworks for developing MAS are also proposed. These frameworks make the amount of development work reduce. But it is necessary to build models that are required to develop simulators from scratch. It becomes a burden to developers. These models would be specialized in the frameworks and lack in reusability. To solve these problems, this paper proposes a graphical model editor that can diagrammatically build models and a simulator development method using the editor. Saving models in a general-purpose form, these models are applicable to various frameworks. Numerical experiments show that the proposed method is effective in MAS development.
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  • Kota Itakura, Go Hatakeyama, Masanori Akiyoshi, Norihisa Komoda
    2010 Volume 130 Issue 4 Pages 622-628
    Published: April 01, 2010
    Released: April 01, 2010
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    Recently, there are various proposals on tool for multi-agent simulation. However, in such simulation tools, analysts who do not have programming skill spend a lot of time to develop programs because notation of simulation models is not defined sufficiently and programming language is varied on tools. To solve this problem, a programming environment that defines the notation of simulation model has poposed. In this environment, analysts can design simulation with a graph representation and get the program code without writing programs. However, it is difficult to find errors that cause unintended behavior in simulation. Therefore, we propose a support method as a model debugger which helps users to find errors. The debugger generates candidates of errors, using a user's report of unintended behavior based on “typical report patterns”. Candidates of errors are extracted from “tree structure of error-inducing factors” that consists of source patterns of errors. In this paper, we executed experiments that compare time needed for examinees to find errors. Experimental results show the time to find errors by utilizing our model debugger is shortened.
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Special Issue Letter
<Softcomputing, Learning>
  • Shinji Hara, Hironori Nadamoto, Tadashi Horiuchi
    2010 Volume 130 Issue 4 Pages 629-630
    Published: April 01, 2010
    Released: April 01, 2010
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    This paper presents an extraction method of keywords related with actual changes of stock price from bloggers' hot topics. We realized the computer program to collect bloggers' hot topics about stocks and actual stock prices. Then, the important keywords, which have correlation with changes of the stock prices, are selected based on stochastic complexity. We classify information of stock price changes by using text classification method such as Naive Bayes method and decision tree learning. We confirm the effectiveness of our method through the classification experiment.
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<Information Processing, Software>
Paper
<Electronic Materials and Devices>
  • Keita Nakamura, Takanori Aoki, Akio Suzuki, Tatsuhiko Matsushita, Masa ...
    2010 Volume 130 Issue 4 Pages 633-636
    Published: April 01, 2010
    Released: April 01, 2010
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    In order to cope with the depletion of iudium, a strong interest has been recently turned to transparent conducting oxide (TCO) films based on a zinc oxide system. Focusing to this theme, it was tried to fabricate Gallium-doped zinc oxide (GZO) TCO films. But, it was difficult to make good films of GZO at low temperature. Therefore, it was tried to use laser-annealing-method for improved characteristics of GZO films. Approximately 200-nm-thick 5.0 wt.% Ga-doped zinc oxide (GZO: 5.0 wt.% Ga2O3) films have been deposited on glass substrates at Room Temperature by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) using the fourth harmonic generation (FHG) of Nd: YAG laser (λ=266 nm). In order to reduce resistivity of as-deposited films, annealing process was carried out by Nd:YAG (FHG) laser with laser energy density of 40 mJ/cm2. As a result, the resisivity was improved from 8.16×10-4 to 6.27×10-4 Ω·cm (improvement effect of 23.2 %). An average transmittance of more than 85% in the visible region was obtained for the fabricated.
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<Information and Communication Technology>
  • Yasumitsu Miyazaki, Takuya Takada, Koichi Takahashi
    2010 Volume 130 Issue 4 Pages 637-643
    Published: April 01, 2010
    Released: April 01, 2010
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    WiMAX wireless communication has been rapidly developed for broadband mobile communication. To design excellent high performance mobile communication systems, accurate evaluation of communication systems is indispensable. In the past, building and street effects on high speed signal propagation were studied by FDTD method. However, wave propagation and scattering characteristics by presence of forest and trees are not so much studied. In this paper, the effects of multiple scattering and attenuation of microwaves over forests in WiMAX wireless communications are analyzed numerically using FDTD method. These results may yield important factors for design of high performance and reliable WiMAX communication systems.
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<Systems, Instrument, Control>
  • Masaki Amemiya, Michito Imae, Yasuhisa Fujii, Tomonari Suzuyama, Takas ...
    2010 Volume 130 Issue 4 Pages 644-650
    Published: April 01, 2010
    Released: April 01, 2010
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    A precise frequency dissemination system using optical fiber is studied. The purpose of the system is to transmit frequency standard with little deterioration to distant many users. It is composed of a phase compensation transmitter, bidirectional optical amplifiers, optical amplified distributor, and receiver. The system target is to achieve a stable transmission of hydrogen maser class signals. For short term stability, it is shown the required optical received power to realize the Allan deviation of 1×10-13 (averaging time of 1 s). For long term stability, a new compensation method using third wavelength transmission is effective to suppress phase fluctuation induced by fiber temperature change. Experimental result shows stability of 8×10-17 at 105 s in a fiber link of 160 km in total with one bidirectional optical amplifier.
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<Intelligence, Robotics>
  • Katsuhide Fujita, Takayuki Ito, Mark Klein
    2010 Volume 130 Issue 4 Pages 651-659
    Published: April 01, 2010
    Released: April 01, 2010
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    Multi-issue negotiation protocols represent a promising field since most negotiation problems in the real world involve multiple issues. Our work focuses on negotiation with multiple interdependent issues in which agent utility functions are nonlinear. Existing works have not yet concerned with agents' private information that should be concealed from others in negotiations. In this paper, we propose Distributed Mediator Protocol and Take it or Leave it Protocol for negotiation that can reach agreements and completely conceal agents' private information. Moreover, we propose Hybrid Secure Protocol that combines Distributed Mediator Protocol with Take it or Leave it Protocol. The Hybrid Secure Protocol can also reach agreements while completely concealing agents' private information. Furthermore, the Hybrid Secure Protocol achieves high optimality and uses less communication cost. We demonstrate that Hybrid Secure Protocol can improve communication cost more than DMP with high optimality.
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  • Akihiro Torii, Masaaki Banno, Akiteru Ueda, Kae Doki
    2010 Volume 130 Issue 4 Pages 660-667
    Published: April 01, 2010
    Released: April 01, 2010
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    This paper describes a self-propelled Stewart-platform. The Stewart-platform usually consists of a base platform, a moving platform, and linear actuators connecting both the platforms. We use six stacked-type piezoelectric actuators as the linear actuators. Mechanical joints connect the linear actuators and both the platforms. We insert electromagnets between the linear actuators and the base platform instead of the mechanical joints. This structure enables the Stewart-platfom to move on a surface by using the principle of an inchworm. While the electromagnets fix the linear actuators on the base platform, the proposed Stewart-platform realizes a precise 6-DOF motion. Control signals are designed for the small displacement based on the inverse kinematics, and for the wide working area based on the principle of an inchworm. The position and orientation of the moving platform is measured, and some experimental results indicate the feasibility of the proposed mechanism. The mechanism is effective for a precise positioning system which has unlimitted working area.
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<Media Information, User Interface>
  • Akira Tomono, Syunya Otake
    2010 Volume 130 Issue 4 Pages 668-675
    Published: April 01, 2010
    Released: April 01, 2010
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    In this paper, the effective method of inducing a glance aimed at the digital signage by emitting a scent is described. The simulation experiment was done using the immersive VR System because there were a lot of restrictions to the experiment in an actual passageway. In order to investigate the eye catching property of the digital signage, the passer-by's eye movement was analyzed. Through the experiment, they were clarified that the digital signage with the scent was paid to attention, and the strong impression remained in the memory. Next, a scent-emitting video display system applying to the digital signage is described. To this end, a scent-emitting device that is able to quickly change the scents it is releasing, and present them from a distance (by the non-contact method), thus maintaining a relationship between the scent and the image, must be developed. We propose a new method where a device that can release pressurized gases is placed behind the display screen filled with tiny pores. Scents are then ejected from this device, traveling through the pores to the front side of the screen. An excellent scent delivery characteristic was obtained because the distance to the user is close and the scent is presented from the front. We also present a method for inducing viewer reactions using on-screen images, thereby enabling scent release to coincide precisely with viewer inhalations. We anticipate that the simultaneous presentation of scents and video images will deepen viewers' comprehension of these images.
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  • Jun-ichi Iwashita, Yoshiaki Tozawa, Akio Nakamura
    2010 Volume 130 Issue 4 Pages 676-685
    Published: April 01, 2010
    Released: April 01, 2010
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    We develop an interface system using hand gestures to operate electrical appliances intuitively in a daily life scene. Hand-waving detected in the image is used as a cue to start the system, to distinguish gestures based on the user's intension of operation from other daily-life motions, and to specify the position of the user's hand. Hand-waving detection is implemented based on combination of dynamic background subtraction method and skin color extraction. In addition, we focus on changes of brightness value in each pixel. The user selects a target appliance to operate by pointing out with a hand under a ceiling camera with fisheye lens. The appliance within the region that the user indicates is decided as target one. A PTZ camera is also used to zoom in the user's hand area and to observe hand gestures. The shape of the hand is basically recognized using HLAC features. We add a size of hand region as a new feature to the HLAC and employ a coarse-to-fine strategy using image pyramid. Robustness and the success rate of gesture recognition, consequently, are improved. In this paper, we prepare seven types of hand shapes to operate the channel of TV. Effectiveness of the proposed system is shown through experiments.
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<Speech and Image Processing, Recognition>
  • Takuya Takahashi, Yoshimitsu Aoki, Makiko Kouchi, Masaaki Mochimaru
    2010 Volume 130 Issue 4 Pages 686-695
    Published: April 01, 2010
    Released: April 01, 2010
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    A hand version of the computer manikin, called “digital hand”, is considered as an effective assessment tool for hand-operated products at the design stage. In order to construct various sizes and proportions of hands in a computer, it is required to develop the system that can measure the accurate dimensions of hands automatically.
    In this paper, an image-based measurement system of hand dimensions has been proposed. The system utilizes an image scanner for acquiring a hand image in 2D. First, the joint positions of fingers are estimated by extracting the edges of the wrinkles on a palm and fingers in this image. For this process, anatomical constraint is effectively considered. Then, the 2D dimensions of a hand are automatically calculated. In addition, based on the fact that the dimensions of a hand are highly correlated each other, the system estimates the 3D measures of a hand, such as the thickness and circumference of fingers and a palm by regression analysis.
    The accuracy and reproducibility was validated using the proposed system by comparison with actual results measured by traditional method. The results prove our system has enough capability for actual hand measurement and its applications.
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  • Keita Okada, Fumihiko Saitoh
    2010 Volume 130 Issue 4 Pages 696-703
    Published: April 01, 2010
    Released: April 01, 2010
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    In normalized correlation matching, a template image is set by manual operation before the matching process. Namely, the contents and the size of a template image are determined by the human sense. This paper proposes a method to perform a high-speed normalized correlation matching by extracting plural partial areas automatically that is effective in the image matching. These extracted plural partial areas become the new template image. The proposed method extracts plural partial areas suitable for matching by genetic algorithm. The experimental results show that the plural partial areas including an image pattern that was useful for the matching was extracted by the proposed method and processing time for image matching was reduced to 50%. The proposed method has a higher reliability in comparison with the conventional methods.
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<Softcomputing, Learning>
  • Hisaki Inoue, Mitsuo Gen
    2010 Volume 130 Issue 4 Pages 704-711
    Published: April 01, 2010
    Released: April 01, 2010
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    The logistics model used in this study is 3-stage model employed by an automobile company, which aims to solve traffic problems at a total minimum cost. Recently, research on the metaheuristics method has advanced as an approximate means for solving optimization problems like this model. These problems can be solved using various methods such as the genetic algorithm (GA), simulated annealing, and tabu search. GA is superior in robustness and adjustability toward a change in the structure of these problems. However, GA has a disadvantage in that it has a slightly inefficient search performance because it carries out a multi-point search. A hybrid GA that combines another method is attracting considerable attention since it can compensate for a fault to a partial solution that early convergence gives a bad influence on a result. In this study, we propose a novel hybrid random key-based GA(h-rkGA) that combines local search and parameter tuning of crossover rate and mutation rate; h-rkGA is an improved version of the random key-based GA (rk-GA). We attempted comparative experiments with spanning tree-based GA, priority based GA and random key-based GA. Further, we attempted comparative experiments with “h-GA by only local search” and “h-GA by only parameter tuning”. We reported the effectiveness of the proposed method on the basis of the results of these experiments.
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<Information Processing, Software>
  • Yoshio Iwai, Hajime Nagahara, Masahiko Yachida
    2010 Volume 130 Issue 4 Pages 712-722
    Published: April 01, 2010
    Released: April 01, 2010
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    An omnidirectional vision is an imaging system that can capture a surrounding image in whole direction by using a hyperbolic mirror and a conventional CCD camera. This paper proposes a streaming server that can efficiently transfer movies captured by an omnidirectional vision system through the Internet. The proposed system uses multiple channels to deliver multiple movies synchronously. Through this method, the system enables clients to view the different direction of omnidirectional movies and also support the function to change the view are during playback period. Our evaluation experiments show that our proposed streaming server can effectively deliver multiple movies via multiple channels.
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Letter
<Systems, Instrument, Control>
  • Kazuyuki Yazawa, Makoto Motoki, Atsushi Ishigame, Keiichiro Yasuda
    2010 Volume 130 Issue 4 Pages 723-724
    Published: April 01, 2010
    Released: April 01, 2010
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    A new cluster-structured Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) with interaction and diversity of parameters is proposed in this letter. After a swarm of PSO is divided into some sub-swarms (clusters), interactions between sub-swarms and diversity of PSO parameters are added so as to improve the search ability of PSO in the proposed cluster-structured PSO. The feasibility and the advantage of the proposed cluster-structured PSO are demonstrated through numerical simulations using two typical optimization test problems.
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