Legal History Review
Online ISSN : 1883-5562
Print ISSN : 0441-2508
ISSN-L : 0441-2508
Volume 1998 , Issue 48
Showing 1-50 articles out of 55 articles from the selected issue
  • Kuninobu OKA
    1998 Volume 1998 Issue 48 Pages 1-34,en3
    Published: March 30, 1999
    Released: November 16, 2009
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    Regarding the legislative process of the Kamakura-Bakufu Government's Law, nothing more than the general explanation "being legislated through the discussion of Hyojoshu (_??__??__??_)" is known.
    The purpose of this article is to clarify the concrete process of legislation of the Kamakura-Bakufu Government's Law. Firstly, this article takes notice of the Re-abolishment of Human Traffic executed from 1239 to 1240 (_??__??__??__??_-_??__??_).
    Consequently, this article presumed Tsuikaho (_??__??__??_) item 112 (contained in volume I of Chusei Hosei Siryoshu (_??__??__??__??__??__??__??_)) was the Mandokoro (_??__??_)'s draft and item 111 was Hyojokotogaki (_??__??__??__??_).
    Accordingly, the Mandokoro (_??__??_) was ordered to make draft of Reabolishment of Human Traffic by the Bakufu.
    Then this draft showed it was discussed and settled by Hyojo (_??__??_).
    And then this article clarified that this series of law contained in Chusei Hosei Siryoshu enacted as an attachment of Tokusei Rei (_??__??__??_) in 1297 (_??__??__??__??_) was the draft of Monchujo (_??__??__??_).
    And those laws shown to make draft was ordered by the Kamakura-Bakufu Government.
    Lastly, referring to Eninsannenki (_??__??__??__??__??_), this article examined the whole process from the beginning when an organ of the Kamakura-Bakufu Government was ordered to make draft by Tokuso (_??__??_) until the law was legislated.
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  • Akio OKADA
    1998 Volume 1998 Issue 48 Pages 35-59,en4
    Published: March 30, 1999
    Released: November 16, 2009
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    On the 2nd of July 1883, "Kanpou" (the Official Gazette) was began publishing. Within the same year, for the convenience of government officers, Dajoukan Bunshokyoku (The Great Council of State Printing Bureau) decided to publish the monthly slip of Tassi (circulars) and Kokuji (notices).
    Based on the monthly slip, in 1884, Dajoukan Bunshokyoku was planning to publish "Tassi Kokuji Zenshuu" (The Collection of Circulars and Notices) and "Hukohu Hutatsu Zenshuu" (The Collection of Proclamations and Departmental Proclamations). This was a burdensome and far-reaching project. Because "Tassi Kokuji Zenshuu" would consist of the monthly slip of Tassi and Kokuji, the 3-month edition with the cumulated index and the annual edition with the cumulated index. Similarly, "Hukoku Hutatsu Zenshuu" was planning to be composed of the 3-month edition with the cumulated index and annual edition with the cumulated index. According to this project, Dajoukan Bunshokyoku had to edit and print 5 different editions simultaneously as chronological editions. At the same time, Dajoukan Bunshokyoku was planning to bring out a retrospective edition which would cover from 1867 (just before the foundation of Meiji Govt.) to 1884 (the chronological edition would cover from 1885).
    Compared with the editing and printing efficiency of Dajoukan Bunshokyoku at that time, it was almost impossible to publish 6 different editions at the same time besides daily "Kanpou". So, the publication project had to be altered. Dajoukan Bunshokyoku researched the systems for the collection of laws and regulations in European countries. So, it decided to reform the publication system of "Tassi Kokuji Zenshuu" and "Hukoku Hutatsu Zenshuu" before publishing any edition. This reformed new collection of laws and regulations was named "Hourei Zensho" (The Complete Collection of Laws and Regulations). This collection was also divided into two categories: The chronological edition which consisted of monthly slips from 1885, and the retrospective edition from 1867 (referred above) to 1884.
    Although "Hourei Zensho" was also divided into a chronological edition and a retrospective edition, two big differences existed between the publication project of "Hourei Zensho" and that of "Tassi Kokuji Zenshuu" and "Hukoku Hutatsu Zenshuu". First of all, "Hourei Zensho" contained every form of laws and regulations; Hukoku and Hutatsu as well as Tassi and Kokuji. Secondly, the chronological edition of "Hourei Zensho" did not have the 3-month edition nor the annual edition. It only had monthly slips. Readers by themselves were supposed to compile 12 monthly slips and the index to the year into an annual bound volume. Much labor and trouble could be saved by publishing only the monthly slips and the retrospective edition.
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  • Makiko HAYASHI
    1998 Volume 1998 Issue 48 Pages 61-91,en6
    Published: March 30, 1999
    Released: November 16, 2009
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    Unlike the Western legal system of the late 19th century where the emphasis was soundly based on the importance of making decisions, in the Japanese legal system in the same periods, Kankai conciliation played more important role.
    The main purpose of this paper is, therefore, to analysis the importance of Kankai within the Japanese legal system, and the process of evolution from Kankai to Tokusoku Mahnverfaren, which started in 1891, in regard to importance and reasons of evolution.
    Dispute resolution from the 1875 to 1890 were mainly based on Kankai, and approximately eighty percent of the litigation was resolved by Kankai. The other twenty percent of the litigation was solely based on adjudication. Kankai was largely in favor of the defendant, being able to assert claims on an equal standpoint against the plaintiff. The judges conciliated both interveners, and when the defendant did not accord, the plaintiff had to newly bring an action.
    This process was, however, greatly changed from the 1890s onwards with the introduction of Tokusoku Mahnverfaren system of dispute resolution. The plaintiff was to put forth his claim to court which would then make a decision without hearing the defendant's opinion.
    This procedure was different from that of Kankai where there was communication between the plaintiff and the defendant.
    This change in the process of dispute resolution in Japan did not take place mainly as a result of the introduction of German Civil Procedure (Zivilprozessordnung vom 30. Januar 1877). It was rather a result of the way in which this law was interpreted and transmitted in drafts form to the courts which played a greater role in the transition stages which took place from about 1886 to 1890. In this period, traditional Kankai declined in popularity, and generally speaking the process of dunning in litigation was generally taken by the courts. The judgment record in Osaka District Court gives authenticity to this idea. Kankai had changed its own procedure to dunning. It seems reasonable to suppose that Tokusoku wasled from the Kankai's reform and the German Civil Procedure. It was forced to yield in the end tothe more efficient and cost-effective system of Tokusoku.
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  • Hideo SHINPO
    1998 Volume 1998 Issue 48 Pages 93-118,en7
    Published: March 30, 1999
    Released: November 16, 2009
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    In meinem Buch versuchte ich, die spezifisch frühmodernen Eigen-schaften der absolutistischen Territorialgewalt mit der Beobachtung ihrer Begriffsbestimmungen, des Verhältnisses der oberen and der niederen Hoheitsrechten, des Territoriums sowie der Untertänigkeit, der Rechtstitel, der Polizei and der Heeresverfassung zu untersuchen. In diesem Zu-sammenhang konnte ich die dualistischen Verhältnisse zwischen dem Landesherrn and den Landstanden oder den anderen reichsunmittelbaren Herren aufhellen. Der Territorialstaat in der Frühen Neuzeit ist der Πolizeistaat and Militärstaat" unter der Obrigkeit des die Förderung des, , Gemeinwohls" erstrebenden Landesherrn, aber er stand enter der Vor-aussetzung jener dualistischen Verhältnisse and der verschiedenen Unter-tanen. Der klassisch moderne Staat entstand im 19. Jahrhundert, als die Ausbildung der Souveränität, der den Staat bestimmenden Gesellschaft, der rationellen Bürokratie, der allgemeinen Wehrpflicht and des reprä-sentativen Parlamentarismus an die Stelle jener spezifisch frühmodernen Eigenschaften der absolutistischen Territorialgewalt traten.
    Es war mir sehr dankbar and ehrenvoll, daß über das solchen Inhalt besitzende Buch ich viele wohlwollende Buchbesprechungen bekommen konnte and Symposien veranstaltet wurden. Ich möchte hier auf die dabei erhaltenen Kritiken in den folgenden Standpunkten antworten.
    1) Periodisierung fiber die Frühe Neuzeit
    2) Das Verhältnis zwischen dem Absolutismus and der Territorial-gewalt überhaupt
    3) Der Kontrast zwischen der ersten and der zweiten Hälfte meines Buches: die begriffsgeschichtliche Forschung
    4 "Territorium clausum" et "Territorium non clausum"
    5) Die zweischichtige Zusammensetzung der absolutistischen Terri-torialgewalt aus zwei Teilen: den herrschaftsbegründenden unteren Hoheitsrechten, Rechtstiteln, and den dadurch begründeten exklusiven oberen Hoheitsrechten, Kern solcher Territorialgewalt
    6) Das Verhältnis zwischen der Polizei des 16. Jahrhunderts und der nach 17. Jahrhundert
    7) Der Binomialantagonismus des Landesfürsten and der Land-ständen
    8) Das Verhältnis zur Reichsverfassung
    9) Die Wirksamkeit der vergleichenden Forschung
    Indem ich die im Buch zitierten Quellen noch einmal prüfte and die neuen analysierte, konnte ich die Gerechtigkeit meiner Theorie im Grunde beweisen.
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  • [in Japanese]
    1998 Volume 1998 Issue 48 Pages 119-152
    Published: March 30, 1999
    Released: November 16, 2009
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  • 1998 Volume 1998 Issue 48 Pages 153
    Published: March 30, 1999
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  • [in Japanese], [in Japanese]
    1998 Volume 1998 Issue 48 Pages 154-171
    Published: March 30, 1999
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  • [in Japanese]
    1998 Volume 1998 Issue 48 Pages 171-180
    Published: March 30, 1999
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  • [in Japanese]
    1998 Volume 1998 Issue 48 Pages 180-185
    Published: March 30, 1999
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  • [in Japanese]
    1998 Volume 1998 Issue 48 Pages 186-194
    Published: March 30, 1999
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  • [in Japanese]
    1998 Volume 1998 Issue 48 Pages 195-201
    Published: March 30, 1999
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  • [in Japanese]
    1998 Volume 1998 Issue 48 Pages 201-207
    Published: March 30, 1999
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  • [in Japanese]
    1998 Volume 1998 Issue 48 Pages 207-211
    Published: March 30, 1999
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  • [in Japanese]
    1998 Volume 1998 Issue 48 Pages 211-213
    Published: March 30, 1999
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  • [in Japanese]
    1998 Volume 1998 Issue 48 Pages 213-218
    Published: March 30, 1999
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  • [in Japanese]
    1998 Volume 1998 Issue 48 Pages 218-222
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  • [in Japanese]
    1998 Volume 1998 Issue 48 Pages 222-225
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  • [in Japanese]
    1998 Volume 1998 Issue 48 Pages 225-227
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  • [in Japanese]
    1998 Volume 1998 Issue 48 Pages 228-230
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  • [in Japanese]
    1998 Volume 1998 Issue 48 Pages 230-232
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  • [in Japanese]
    1998 Volume 1998 Issue 48 Pages 232-236
    Published: March 30, 1999
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  • [in Japanese]
    1998 Volume 1998 Issue 48 Pages 236-239
    Published: March 30, 1999
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  • [in Japanese]
    1998 Volume 1998 Issue 48 Pages 239-241
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  • [in Japanese]
    1998 Volume 1998 Issue 48 Pages 241-243
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  • [in Japanese]
    1998 Volume 1998 Issue 48 Pages 243-246
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  • [in Japanese]
    1998 Volume 1998 Issue 48 Pages 246-248
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  • [in Japanese]
    1998 Volume 1998 Issue 48 Pages 248-251
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    1998 Volume 1998 Issue 48 Pages 251-254
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  • [in Japanese]
    1998 Volume 1998 Issue 48 Pages 254-256
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  • [in Japanese]
    1998 Volume 1998 Issue 48 Pages 257-261
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  • [in Japanese]
    1998 Volume 1998 Issue 48 Pages 261-266
    Published: March 30, 1999
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  • [in Japanese]
    1998 Volume 1998 Issue 48 Pages 266-269
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  • [in Japanese]
    1998 Volume 1998 Issue 48 Pages 269-274
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  • [in Japanese]
    1998 Volume 1998 Issue 48 Pages 274-277
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  • [in Japanese]
    1998 Volume 1998 Issue 48 Pages 277-279
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  • [in Japanese]
    1998 Volume 1998 Issue 48 Pages 279-281
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  • [in Japanese]
    1998 Volume 1998 Issue 48 Pages 281-285
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    1998 Volume 1998 Issue 48 Pages 285-289
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  • [in Japanese]
    1998 Volume 1998 Issue 48 Pages 289-295
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    1998 Volume 1998 Issue 48 Pages 295-300
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    1998 Volume 1998 Issue 48 Pages 300-304
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    1998 Volume 1998 Issue 48 Pages 304-309
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    1998 Volume 1998 Issue 48 Pages 309-314
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    1998 Volume 1998 Issue 48 Pages 314-319
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  • [in Japanese]
    1998 Volume 1998 Issue 48 Pages 319-323
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    1998 Volume 1998 Issue 48 Pages 323-327
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  • [in Japanese]
    1998 Volume 1998 Issue 48 Pages 327-332
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    1998 Volume 1998 Issue 48 Pages 332-337
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  • [in Japanese]
    1998 Volume 1998 Issue 48 Pages 337-340
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  • [in Japanese]
    1998 Volume 1998 Issue 48 Pages 341-345
    Published: March 30, 1999
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