Legal History Review
Online ISSN : 1883-5562
Print ISSN : 0441-2508
ISSN-L : 0441-2508
Volume 1958 , Issue 8
Showing 1-50 articles out of 74 articles from the selected issue
  • En-fui Tai
    1958 Volume 1958 Issue 8 Pages 1-56,I
    Published: March 30, 1958
    Released: November 16, 2009
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    In the Ching Dynasty, the "guards" system (_??_ Ai) was established throughout the middle, northern and northeastern parts of Taiwan. It was aimed at protecting the Chinese and the sinicized aborigines from being disturbed or attacked by the wild aborigines, while they were engaged in exploiting the land in these areas. The "guards" were usually classified as "official guards" and "civil guards". There were only a few official guards, although the civil guards were of a great number. The official guards were subdivided into two different classes. Under one class the guards expenditure was financed wholly by the government; and under the other class, the government only assumed four-tenths of its expenditure and the rest were shared by the landlords and the tenants domiciled within the border of the "guards". Next, the "civil guards" were also subdivided into two classes : "public guards" and "private guards". The public guards were financed by the landlords or lessors (_??__??__??_ Ta-tsu-hu) and the long-lease tenants (_??__??__??_ Hsiao-tsu-hu) both inhabiting the local community which usually composed of one or several villages, in proportion to size of the land they owned and exploited. The "private guards" or the so-called "manorial guards", being built by the manorial landowner, were devised to safeguard the exploitation of their lands. The manorial tenants (_??__??__??_ Untereigentümer), under the long-lease from the manorial landowner (_??__??_ Obereigentümer), payed the rent (_??__??_ Zins) to the latter for the possession of their lands.
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  • Seiji Imabori
    1958 Volume 1958 Issue 8 Pages 57-104,II
    Published: March 30, 1958
    Released: November 16, 2009
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    Ho-hou _??__??_ is a kind of partnership which is usually based upon joint ownership of properties (Eigentum zur gesamten Hand). This form of partnership was used frequently, when two or more partners established an enterprise to undertake commerce, manufacturing industry, agriculture, forestry or fishing.
    Prototypes of ho-huo can be traced back at least to the Sung dynasty. But its classical form was completed under the Ming dynasty.
    The classical form involves two or more merchants, handicraftsmen or farmers in a joint enterprise, who invest equal sums and share the work pertaining to the operation of the enterprise. The members are liable unlimitedly.
    This form represents the first stage in the process of transition from personal management of enterprises in the feudal age to the capitalistic form of enterprises. Its historical role was to institutionalize capital accumulation and social division of labor in an enterprise. In Italy, similar developments were observed in the formation of societas. Ho-huo represents a form of enterprise in the stage of the small-scale commodity production in the historical development of economy.
    Under the Ching dynasty, which succeeded Ming, the classical form of ho-huo remained to be the principal form. But the number of the members was on the increase and ho-huo was thus quantitatively enlarged.
    As for historical data concerning ho-huo, many examples are found in court records and official documents, while several specimens of ho-huo contract were discovered by Dr. Noboru Niida in a vade mecum of the Ming period.
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  • Shosaburo Kimura
    1958 Volume 1958 Issue 8 Pages 105-171,III
    Published: March 30, 1958
    Released: November 16, 2009
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    La féodalité en France au moyen âge se pent diviser en deux époques distinctes: le premier âge féodal (du IX<SUP>e</SUP> à la première moitié du X<SUP>e</SUP> siècle) et le deuxième (de la seconde moitié du X<SUP>e</SUP> à la première moitié du XII<SUP>e</SUP> siècle). L'indépendance du comte au roi caractérise le premier qui pourtant n'a pas encore generalisé la féodalisation dans le comté, dont l'ordre public se maintenait par le comte et ses fonctionnaires en dépit de 1'existance de beaucoup des immunistes n'ayant qu'à son tour le pouvoir de juridiction inférieure (des causale minores) comme un privilège fiscal. Féodalisation complète, c'est-à-dire celle jusque dans le comté est de 2<SUP>e</SUP> âge féodal. Ici, it n'y avait dans la société politique autre ordre des pouvoirs que de la féodalité, du lien vassalique dont 1'élément fondamentale était la châtellenie, unité de pouvoir indépendant aussi bien que de territoire. Le chatelain aurait derivré pour la plupart de fonctionnaire ou de vassal du comte (vicecomes, vicarius, miles, advocatus, etc.) qui s'était approprié le château comtal à son aise profitant de l'anarchie, le désagrégation de pouvoir public. Le seul gardien de la paix dans toute sa châtellenie, it exercait la justice de sang à cause de son pouvoir militaire qui se bien fondait sur son château, et it devient un des souches de la noblesse héréditaire de condition juridique en France médiévale. Il était en d'autre part un seigneur banal, faisant ses sujets de tous les paysans qui habitaient et cultivaient dans sa châtellenie.
    L'installation de la châtellenie aurait requis deux causes motrices : d'abord, la régression de la pouvoir de seigneur foncier d'ordinaire conformément à la dissolution du régime domanial qui s'est commencée à partir du IX<SUP>e</SUP> siècle, devenue décisive an XI<SUP>e</SUP> siècle ; ensuite, le renouveau commercial, beaucoup plus avantageux au châtelain qu'au seigneur foncier, car le paix dans un certain territoire était indispensable à la circulation et la transaction des marchandises.
    La châtellenie était -done une cellule de la féodalité en sa fleuraison et aussi une prémisse logique et historique de 1'établissement de pouvoir capétien dans le domaine royal au XIII<SUP>e</SUP> siècle.
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  • Hidemasa Miyagi
    1958 Volume 1958 Issue 8 Pages 172-199,IV
    Published: March 30, 1958
    Released: November 16, 2009
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    The main contents of Seikyuki are the description of both the regular and the extraordinary court-ceremonies which took place during the tenure of office of Minister of The Left (_??__??__??_) Minamoto-no-Takaakira in comparison with court precedents. Most of the ceremonies described are routine annual events.
    In the period characterized by the system of the basic codes of Ritsu and Ryo (_??__??_) in legal history, annual events and ceremonies were subject to regulation by Shiki (_??_), which was an ordinance to implement Ritsu and Ryo. Seikyuki, therefore, has its historical significance as a document to reveal the extent of actual binding force of Konin-shiki (_??__??__??_) and Jogan-shiki (_??__??__??_) and also of Engi-shiki (_??__??__??_) in the periods before and after 967 A. D., the year of enforcement of Engi-shiki.
    In the political thinking of that time, precedents should always be respected to the utmost and, as a result, the written law was sometimes compromised. Furthermore, the Onmyo (_??__??_) superstition and the fear of pollution as a taboo were prevalent, hampering practical execution of legal duties. Seikyuki gives us a realistic picture of a society so much steeped in superstition and blind submission to precedents.
    This book as literature belongs to the category of diaries written by court nobles of the Heian period.
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  • Akira Sugitani
    1958 Volume 1958 Issue 8 Pages 200-225,V
    Published: March 30, 1958
    Released: November 16, 2009
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    The author introduces a record of a village chiefs' assembly (called Ittohyogisho_??__??__??__??__??_) in three volumes covering the second, third and fourth years of Meiji (1869-1871), preserved in a local family of Irino Village, Higashi-matsuura County, Saga Prefecture, and by using this material tries to clarify the organization and the function of the village chiefs' assembly at that time. (Editor)
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  • Kaziaburo Hino
    1958 Volume 1958 Issue 8 Pages 226-236,V
    Published: March 30, 1958
    Released: November 16, 2009
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    Under the T'ang dynasty, capitations called tsu _??_, yung _??_ and t'iao _??_ were levied on men of productive age (between 21 and 59).
    Tsu consisted in two tan _??_ 4 of unhulled millet, yung in 1.5 p'i _??_ of silk or 1.5 tuan _??_ of flax, and t'iao in 0.5 p'i of silk plus three liang _??_ of silk wadding or 0.5 tuan of flax plus three chin _??_ of hemp. Both tsu and t'iao could be replaced with 15 days of labor for the Government, and yung with 20 days of labor. Even at the beginning of the Tang period, however, paupers were exempted from yung and t'iao for grace, tsu alone remaining. Those who were registered as fu-ping _??__??_ in the regular army could also claim this benefit when the actual service was not demanded for reasons of poverty. In the early years of T'ien Pao _??__??_, this exemption was replaced with the tsu-yung exemption, which leaves t'iao alone.
    The reason for this change was that flax or silk had the nature of currency more than unhulled millet. In the fifth year of T'ien Pao, the scope of exemption was enlarged so that 30 men, instead of 10 men as was formerly the case, could claim the benefit in one hsiang _??_, that is, an administrative unit made up of 500 households.
    This enlargement of the scope of exemption was effected, because the number of taxable men had increared from 1, 000, 000 to 7, 000, 000 or even 8, 000, 000 as a result of the more efficient census taking.
    The fact that there were so many paupers exempt from yung-t'iao or tsu-yung duties, or even from the military service as fu-ping, however, suggests the conclusion that the chün-t'ien _??__??_ method of dividing land for cultivation was not enforced even in the early T'ang period.
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  • Setsu Akai
    1958 Volume 1958 Issue 8 Pages 237-265,VI
    Published: March 30, 1958
    Released: November 16, 2009
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    This thesis deals with the question whether it can be proved that the ban on habitation at particular localities, i. e. banishment from particular places, was used as a legal punishment in the Hebrew law of the Old Testament.
    First, I examined the legal meanings of the stories of "Adam and Eve" and "Cain and Abel". Then, I examined all the instances where the word "garash " (to banish) occurs throughout the text of the Old Testamant and classified the different usages into seven groups. Considering them one by one, I have found the fundamental meaning of "garash" and it's variations.
    As the result, I have reached the conclusion that there is little possibility that banishment was used as a legal punishment.
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  • [in Japanese]
    1958 Volume 1958 Issue 8 Pages 266-268
    Published: March 30, 1958
    Released: November 16, 2009
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  • [in Japanese]
    1958 Volume 1958 Issue 8 Pages 268-269
    Published: March 30, 1958
    Released: November 16, 2009
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  • [in Japanese]
    1958 Volume 1958 Issue 8 Pages 269-271
    Published: March 30, 1958
    Released: November 16, 2009
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  • [in Japanese]
    1958 Volume 1958 Issue 8 Pages 271-272
    Published: March 30, 1958
    Released: November 16, 2009
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  • [in Japanese]
    1958 Volume 1958 Issue 8 Pages 272-273
    Published: March 30, 1958
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  • [in Japanese]
    1958 Volume 1958 Issue 8 Pages 273-274
    Published: March 30, 1958
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  • [in Japanese]
    1958 Volume 1958 Issue 8 Pages 274-277
    Published: March 30, 1958
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  • [in Japanese]
    1958 Volume 1958 Issue 8 Pages 277-278
    Published: March 30, 1958
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    1958 Volume 1958 Issue 8 Pages 278-279
    Published: March 30, 1958
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    1958 Volume 1958 Issue 8 Pages 279-280
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    1958 Volume 1958 Issue 8 Pages 280-281
    Published: March 30, 1958
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  • [in Japanese]
    1958 Volume 1958 Issue 8 Pages 281
    Published: March 30, 1958
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    1958 Volume 1958 Issue 8 Pages 281a-282
    Published: March 30, 1958
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    1958 Volume 1958 Issue 8 Pages 282-283
    Published: March 30, 1958
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    1958 Volume 1958 Issue 8 Pages 283
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    1958 Volume 1958 Issue 8 Pages 283a-284
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    1958 Volume 1958 Issue 8 Pages 284-285
    Published: March 30, 1958
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  • [in Japanese]
    1958 Volume 1958 Issue 8 Pages 285-286
    Published: March 30, 1958
    Released: March 14, 2014
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    1958 Volume 1958 Issue 8 Pages 286-287a
    Published: March 30, 1958
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    1958 Volume 1958 Issue 8 Pages 287
    Published: March 30, 1958
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    1958 Volume 1958 Issue 8 Pages 287a-288
    Published: March 30, 1958
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    1958 Volume 1958 Issue 8 Pages 288-289
    Published: March 30, 1958
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    1958 Volume 1958 Issue 8 Pages 289
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    1958 Volume 1958 Issue 8 Pages 290
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    1958 Volume 1958 Issue 8 Pages 291
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    1958 Volume 1958 Issue 8 Pages 291a-292
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    1958 Volume 1958 Issue 8 Pages 292-293
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    1958 Volume 1958 Issue 8 Pages 293
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    1958 Volume 1958 Issue 8 Pages 293a-295
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    1958 Volume 1958 Issue 8 Pages 295-296
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    1958 Volume 1958 Issue 8 Pages 296-297
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    1958 Volume 1958 Issue 8 Pages 297
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    1958 Volume 1958 Issue 8 Pages 297a-298
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    1958 Volume 1958 Issue 8 Pages 298-300
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    1958 Volume 1958 Issue 8 Pages 300
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  • [in Japanese]
    1958 Volume 1958 Issue 8 Pages 300a-301
    Published: March 30, 1958
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    1958 Volume 1958 Issue 8 Pages 301-302
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    1958 Volume 1958 Issue 8 Pages 302-303
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    1958 Volume 1958 Issue 8 Pages 303-304
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    1958 Volume 1958 Issue 8 Pages 304
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    1958 Volume 1958 Issue 8 Pages 305-306
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  • [in Japanese]
    1958 Volume 1958 Issue 8 Pages 306-307
    Published: March 30, 1958
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  • [in Japanese]
    1958 Volume 1958 Issue 8 Pages 307-308
    Published: March 30, 1958
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