Since an objective instrument for measuring the nature of the coach-athlete relationship (i.e. The Coach-Athlete Relationship Questionnaire: CART-Q) was developed by Jowett and Ntoumanis (2004), a series of research related with the coach-athlete relationships and their psychology and behavior in sport activities have been published. The purpose of this article is to make an integrative review of those papers with their summation. Obtained research through the sport science data bases were categorized into two types. The research of the first type dealt with the consequences of the quality of the coach-athlete relationship, which indicated that the relationship influenced a wide range of individual athletesʼ behavior from self-concept, positive experience in sport, satisfaction, perceived improvement of performance, stress control, etc. This influence was extended not only to individual athletes but also to teams. The second type dealt with the influences of the quality of the relationship on teams, including group efficacy and cohesiveness of teams. As most research have focused upon the consequence of the coach-athletesʼ relationship, such research and coach education program as those focused on the psycho-educational interventions for improving the quality of the coach-athlete relationship are expected to be realized in the future.
This study uses an ideographic questionnaire based on a philosophical concept-phenomenology- to interpret athletes' individual viewpoints and integrates these viewpoints into a performance analysis. The role of researchers specializing in performance analysis is twofold: (1) to clarify scientific knowledge; (2) to facilitate knowledge transfer. In the first role, researchers focus on the performances of a large number of elite athletes and identify factors that enable high performance. In the second, researchers transfer scientific knowledge through the publication of papers in science journals. The popularization of performance analysis has recently also led a large number of researchers to examine the role of personal support through performance analysis. In these cases, researchers focus not on general viewpoints and knowledge but on each athlete's individual analysis viewpoint. Here scientific knowledge transfer bears on each athlete's perspective. However, how researchers should assess athletes' performances through athletes' individual analysis viewpoint has yet to be clarified. This study answers this question using an ideographic approach based on phenomenology, focusing on one elite high jumper (an Olympic and World Indoor Championships medalist) and exploring his jump performance through his individual viewpoint.
The purpose of this study was to clarify technical tasks that affect discus throw performance in decathletes and compare their performance with discus throwers with comparable performance. The subjects were 59 decathletes and 74 discus throwers with record throws ranging from 30 to 50 meters. The discus throwing movements were recorded with two video cameras. Throwing movements were evaluated by the observational evaluation criteria. The evaluation for each factor was made with two-options, satisfied or not. Subjects were divided into two performance groups based on their throw distances within each specialty, decathletes or discus throwers. Interactions of throw distances were examined between the performance and specialties with a two-way ANOVA. Differences in the achievement rate for each factor were analyzed between performance groups with a chi-square test. No significant difference in throwing distance was found between the two (higher and lower performance) groups. The higher performance decathletes showed significantly greater scores on factors related to the body drive in the throwing direction. On the other hand, the higher performance discus throwers showed significantly greater scores on rotational motion and power position factors. The results of this study suggest that techniques required for obtaining higher discus throw performance differs between decathletes and discus throwers.
Focusing on the pick play screener which is often used in basketball tournaments and tactics, this study specifically aims at claritying the motion of the screenner in the preparation phase. To achieve the purpose, statistical analysis was conducted for teams that advanced to the semi-final of World Cup hosted by the International Basketball Federation (FIBA) in 2006, 2010 and 2014. Statistical analysis was conducted for 8 games (4 games in the quarterfinals, 2 games in the semi-finals, 2 games in the final and 3rd-place match) in each tournament, therefore a total number of 24 games were analyzed. The following result: The ratio of pick plays used during games increased as each tournament was held. It also turns out that the simple preparation phase of the motion such as run or walk before screen the user instead of screening or faking is effective.
The study aimed to investigate the kinematics of curve skating among national-level Japanese roller speed skaters and world-class skaters in the 300-m time-trial race. The subjects were 12 finalists who were classified as world-class skaters (age, 24.9±4.1 years, height, 177.0±6.0 cm, weight, 73.0±5.2 kg) and 3 Japanese skaters (age, 18.7±0.5 years, height, 169.0±0.0 cm, weight, 64.3±3.1 kg) in the World Roller Speed Skating Championships in 2016. Data on the three-dimensional coordinates were calculated using the direct linear transformation technique. Parameters included the displacement of distance between the center of curvature and the center of body mass at the end and start of stroke, the skating length, speed, the stroke frequency, time in the one- and dual-leg supporting phase, side tilt angle, and segment angle. This study found the following: Japanese skaters (1) glided while climbing the incline owing to their low stroke frequency; therefore, their skating velocity additionally decreased; (2) were unable to control their center of body mass (COM) because they tilted their left shank less inward in the first half of the left stroke, (3) performed larger push-off movements in the duration of the dual-leg supporting phase in both strokes; and (4) restrained their COM as they tilted their shank less forward after tilting backward in both strokes; therefore, their skating velocity in the skating direction was lower.
The purpose of this study is to forward the reflective practice research in which the researcher carefully examines the processes of myself practice as a coach of a female volleyball team at a university, thereby providing practical wisdom that can be usefully applied to coaching in physical training for volleyball players. The subject is the researcher myself as the Agent who coaches the team that is examined in this study. The results of a reflective analysis of the Agent's coaching journal as qualitative descriptive data emphasized the following ideas and actions as necessary for a coach to maximize the effects of a team's physical fitness training. 1) It is important for a coach to grasp the team policies and the head coach's intentions and beliefs in order to reflect them in coaching practices, for which coach must improve communication with other staff members and establish a common understanding. 2) It is important for coaching practices to offering training prescriptions regarding, for instance, frequency and intensity of physical exercises. In addition 3) It is also important for coaching practices to improve the unquantifiable elements of players' performance, such as their motivations and approaches. Ultimately, the study's findings indicate that, as novice coach undergoes the process of acquiring and developing professional skills, it is important to strive to create more effective practices. This can be achieved by establishing cooperative relationships with other team staff members and asking them for coaching advice, in addition to continuously recording, reflecting, and improving my daily coaching practices.
Utilizing public high school sport clubs as a model, this study examined desirable coaching methods by looking at the dilemma mechanism of game theory and visualization of life skills. In this study, interviews of coaches at High School A were verified by applying the following methods: 1) The Prisoner's Dilemma model of game theory was applied to recognize coaches' dilemmas about relationships. 2) Visualization of life skill acquisition level was applied to understand the change in students' attitudes, or in other words the effects of coaching. As a consequence, the following things became clear. 1. High school sports coaches experience a range of distress about relationships. By applying the Prisoner's Dilemma model of game theory to formulate the distress, the mechanism of the natural occurrence of betrayal was discovered. The study suggests that this mechanism reduces coaches' dilemmas and leads to the intended coaching outcomes. In addition, by sharing distress experienced in coaching with other coaches and school management staff, a better environment for the club activity was facilitated thereafter. 2. Change and visualization of students' life skill acquisition level clarified strong and weak points of the team, and coaches actively tried to improve the program in more concrete ways. As a result, not only did students improve their life skills, but coaches also grew. An equal relationship between coaches and students was produced, and this enabled coaching that drew out students' independence.