Journal of Japan Industrial Management Association
Online ISSN : 2187-9079
Print ISSN : 1342-2618
ISSN-L : 1342-2618
Volume 51 , Issue 4
Showing 1-17 articles out of 17 articles from the selected issue
  • Type: Cover
    2000 Volume 51 Issue 4 Pages Cover7-
    Published: October 15, 2000
    Released: November 01, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • Type: Cover
    2000 Volume 51 Issue 4 Pages Cover8-
    Published: October 15, 2000
    Released: November 01, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (65K)
  • Type: Index
    2000 Volume 51 Issue 4 Pages Toc4-
    Published: October 15, 2000
    Released: November 01, 2017
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  • Masao YOKOYAMA
    Type: Article
    2000 Volume 51 Issue 4 Pages 293-305
    Published: October 15, 2000
    Released: November 01, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    A hybrid scheduling model for production systems including both parts machining and assembly operations is studied. Several products of the same kind are ordered to be produced and parts for the products are manufactured in a flow-shop consisting of multiple machines and assembled into products in a single assembly station. Setup operation and setup time are needed when a machine changes from production of one item to another. Operations are divided into several blocks. Each block consists of parts machining operations and assembly operations(s) for one or several products. Machining of parts of the same item in each block is executed successively. In this paper, the objective function or the measure of performance is the mean completion time of the products, and the problem to decide the block size and permutation of parts machining operations to minimize the objective function is considered. A technique to get better lower bound, and the procedure of branch and bound with it, are developed and a new approach using pseudo-dynamic programming named by the author is proposed in order to obtain a near optimum schedule. The meaning of the model is demonstarted by numerical examples and the effectiveness of the proposed calculation procedure is shown by several computational experiments.
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  • Yann-Liang LI, Toshio UENO, Yousuke SANBAYASHI
    Type: Article
    2000 Volume 51 Issue 4 Pages 306-311
    Published: October 15, 2000
    Released: November 01, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    In this study, we considered the scheduling for setting up two additional machining process stages in parallel with the machining of pre-stage machining process in 3-stage flow-shop scheduling. As a result, the following could be clarified. 1) In the case that two more machining stage processes can be performed in parallel with the machining of the pre-stage machining process, the theory and procedure fora 3-stage machining process schedule was proposed. 2) The optimal scheduling through the proposed theory in this study produced better results than the one using traditional theory. 3) The traditional theory of 3-stage flow-shop machining processes (Johnson's theory) can be applied only within a range of conditions, but the proposed theory can be applied unconditionally. Namely, the total processing period using the proposed theory is less than that using traditional theory. 4) The applicability of the proposed theory was confirmed using numerical examples. Namely, the calculating time of scheduling using the proposed theory is faster than the one using the traditional theory. The scheduling of the parallel setup performed with the pre-stage machining in a 3-stage flow-shop could be proposed through the above results.
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  • Hiroki YAMASHITA
    Type: Article
    2000 Volume 51 Issue 4 Pages 312-320
    Published: October 15, 2000
    Released: November 01, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The target profit is the profit which management wants to earn for a particular future period of time. Setting this profit is an important process in profit planning. The method that includes the items of the appropriation of surplus (i.e., dividends, officer's bonuses, and legal reserve) and corporate income taxes is one of the useful methods of setting the target profit. This is valuable in the sense that it is the only method focusing on future surplus appropriations. However, the traditional method does not consider the relationship among the items of the appropriation of surplus or between the items of the appropriation and corporate income taxes. This study will : (1) Discuss the relationship among the items of appropriation and their relationship to corporate income taxes to derive the pretax target profit functions ; and (2) Propose a method of setting the pretax target profit that includes the relationship among them (see (1)). We can find that, for setting the target profit by this method, it is necessary to classify the corporation into 12 categories determined by the size of capital stock, the amount of legal reserve increases targeted ; and the existence of an excess of dividends and officer's bonuses over the profit available for distribution.
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  • Shinji SHINODA, Akira NIWA
    Type: Article
    2000 Volume 51 Issue 4 Pages 321-329
    Published: October 15, 2000
    Released: November 01, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    In the area of industrial engineering, in order to improve the efficiency of a given work process, " the analyst (industrial engineer)" observes a given work process and breaks it down into predetermined categories of work elements such as Therbligs. Then, the analyst lists "alternative processes" by synthesizing the classified data applying value judgement based upon past experiences in such forms as principles and checklists. However, in spite of using principles and checklists, listing alternative processes still largely depends on individual ability, knowledge and experience, and therefore the quality of outcome varies widely. This is an obstacle in the improvement of the quality and efficiency of industrial engineering activities for developing better work processes. This paper presents the results of a study on the human brain processes in developing a variety of alternative work processes. Furthermore, this paper proposes an algorithm for listing such alternatives based upon the aforementioned analysis. The approach used in this study is characterized by the division of given task into two categories, namely, essential transformation (ET) and non-essential but necessary transformation (NENT). ET is a minimum set of indispensable transformations to build a product unit from a set of necessary parts. NENT is a set of transformations considered to be required in addition to achieve all of the ETs by utilizing the given resources. There are numerous ways to build a product unit utilizing a set of ETs depending upon the combination of the sequence of ETs and the kind, number and sequence of the NENTs. In order to establish a desired alternative combination one must : 1) Determine the desired sequence of ETs, and 2) Add the necessary NENTs required to achieve feasible work performance.
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  • Saburo TENDA, Tatsuo MATSUTOMI, Eiichi TSUDA
    Type: Article
    2000 Volume 51 Issue 4 Pages 330-340
    Published: October 15, 2000
    Released: November 01, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    This paper presents a method for designing flexible mixed-product lines. The word "flexible" means product-mix flexibility. The flexible mixed-product line executes various production plans. Each production plan represents the quantity scheduled to assemble each product type in a time period. Our design method consists of a search method for solving the design problem on flexible mixed-product lines. This method searches out a solution of the design problem by assigning tasks (elemental work) to each workstation and selecting a kind of subject (worker, robot, equipment or combination of those) and kinds of tools to perform the tasks assigned to each workstation. This design method requires the following data and information. (1) The product types to be assembled on the same line. (2) The various production plans to be executed. (3) The precedence diagram of each product type and the combined precedence diagram. Kinds of subjects and kinds of tools able to perform each task and performance times are written in the diagram. A combination of the subject and the tool able to perform a task determines the task performance time. This design method adopts the goal of minimizing the number of workstations to execute each production plan under a time period. To attain the goal, this design method utilizes a composite lower bound, but is not a branch and bound method. The validity of this method was confirmed by solving many problems. The solutions were mainly assessed by the following criteria. (1) Whether or not the number of workstations on the line that is designed by this method is minimized. (2) Whether or not the design suggested by this method is efficient.
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  • Seiichi HAYAKAWA, Katsunori SUMI
    Type: Article
    2000 Volume 51 Issue 4 Pages 341-347
    Published: October 15, 2000
    Released: November 01, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    This paper clarifies how the leader's "Type A Behavior" affects the morale and mental and physical health of followers. This survey was using 67 leaders and their 152 of their followers in a car-related manufacturing plant. Measurement of the "Type A Behavior" questionnaire was made using Maeda's scale. Leadership behavior and morale was based on Misumi's scale. Mental health was measured using the Hopkins Symptom Checklist, and physical health used Watanabe et al.'s scale. The results were as follows : (1) Leader's Type A Behavior is not related to leader's PM behavior, (2) Leader's Type A Behavior increases the morale of followers, (3) Leader's Type A Behavior improves the mental and physical health conditions of followers, (4)Leader's Type A Behavior interacts with the M behavior of follower's morale.
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  • Shinichi TAGAWA, Kazushige TAKEOKA
    Type: Article
    2000 Volume 51 Issue 4 Pages 348-355
    Published: October 15, 2000
    Released: November 01, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Today, with the advance of automatization of industrial machines, it has become common in manufacturing companies to assign multiple machines to an operator or an operator group. In such cases, if many machines are assigned to an operator, operator utilization increases, but at the same time, machine utilization decreases because of machine interference. On the contrary, if fewer machines are assigned to an operator, machine interference decreases and machine utilization rises, but operator utilization falls. Consequently, when we assign multiple mashines to an operator, appropriate assignment should be done by keeping a balance between operator utilization and machine utilization. Although many studies on this problem have been conducted to date, no practical and appropriate assignment method has been proposed, nor practical estimate method of operator and machine utilization introduced. The purpose of this paper is to propose an estimete method for machine and operator utilization. The requirements for the estimate method are simplicity and accuracy. In this paper, the most fundamental multi-machine assignment model in which an operator should charge the same type of machines which produce the same products by constant processing time is constructed. As the first step, the behavior of idle time is to be made clear by introducing a no-interference maximum assignment number and classifying the processing conditions. Secondly, operator utilization and machine utilization are formulated based on the behavior of idle time, and it is found that these formulas are fairly simple and accurate.
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  • Hiroyuki OHMORI, Hitoshi TSUBONE
    Type: Article
    2000 Volume 51 Issue 4 Pages 356-364
    Published: October 15, 2000
    Released: November 01, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    This paper deals with a production scheduling problem in a two-stage production process, where setup is required when switching one product family to another at each process. The uniqueness in the manufacturing system is that product families making up a production lot differ between two stages due to such elements as size, thickness, content, etc. For example, in the stainless-steel tube production system, setup is required when switching the diameter of the tubes at the welding process as well as when switching the thickness of the tubes at the annealing process. Thus, manufacturing performance is affected by the product mix as well as the lot sizing and sequencing rule in such a production system. The purpose of this paper was twofold : First, we analyzed, through a series of numerical experiments, how the performance measure is affected by lot sizing, sequencing rules, and the scheduling scenario under various product mixes. Second, we propose the best lot-sizing and scheduling system according to the imbalance in workload. The makespan is adopted as a measure of manufacturing performance. The following points were clarified : (1) The sequencing rule and lot size yield the best performance with regard to the makespan difference from the product mix and bottleneck process. (2) Which scheduling scenario, basic cycle scheduling or irregular scheduling, is superior can be expressed by using the domain diagram consisting of two parameters, imbalance in workloads between product families in each process and the imbalance between both processes.
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  • Kyoko WATAKABE, Jun'ichi KOBAYASHI, Yukihiro AOYAMA, Ikuo ARIZONO
    Type: Article
    2000 Volume 51 Issue 4 Pages 365-371
    Published: October 15, 2000
    Released: November 01, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Assume that lot quality characteristics obey a normal distribution. Kanagawa et al. have proposed the (x^^-, s) simultaneous control chart, based on the estimator of Kullback-Leibler information, which is designed in conformity with the probability limit method and enables the user to monitor both changes of the mean and variance simultaneously. Further, based on the results derived by Arizono et al., we can evaluate the power characteristics for out-of-control state when using the (x^^-, s) simultaneous control chart. In this paper, we define the expected total operation cost function based on the sampling cost for the (x^^-, s) simultaneous control chart and the loss derived from lot quality, and consider economical operation of the (x^^-, s) simultaneous control chart minimizing the expected total operation cost.
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  • De-bi TSAO
    Type: Article
    2000 Volume 51 Issue 4 Pages 372-379
    Published: October 15, 2000
    Released: November 01, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Demand fluctuation can be separated into trends(linear and non-linear), cycles(including seasonal fluctuation), and white noises. The trends and cycles can be subtracted by demand forecasting, and it is possible to take action previously for trends and cycles in procurement, production, delivery, etc. Meanwhile, safety stock covers uncertain demand caused by white noises. However, if the patterns of trends or cycles vary dynamically, it is difficult to substract them using a forecasting model. Two approaches are considered to cope with this problem. The first approach is to revise the forecasting model progressively, and the second approach is to vary safety stock dynamically for a given forecasting model. Since the first approach is time consuming and it is some times difficult to identify changes in trend patterns, we propose a simple second approach or method, varying safety stock dynamically according to forecasting error and bias during the latest several periods. This proposed method might also be an assistance of the first approach. To justify the proposed method, the average inventory level and stock-out ratio of four different methods are compared in numerical simulation under the condition of (R, Q) policy and simple moving-average forecasting. Method A determines safety stock based on the mean and variance of demand without demand forecasting, and methods B, C, D determine safety stock using forecasting error. Forecasting error in method B is supposed to be zero. Method C ignores the bias of forecasting error, and method D, the proposed method, determines the safety stock using the bias and variance of forecasting error. The simulation results showed that the proposed method has quite good performance for all cases of demand patterns, including stable demand, increasing trend, decreasing trend and Bass model trend, while method B, which is supposed to have zero bias of forecasting error, gives the best performance.
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  • Hiroyuki MASUDA, Tomohiko YOKOSE, Yoshiaki TSUNODA, Shin-ichiro YOKOYA ...
    Type: Article
    2000 Volume 51 Issue 4 Pages 380-388
    Published: October 15, 2000
    Released: November 01, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The Product Liability (PL) Law became effective on July 1,1995. Japanese industries, lawyers, and customers are considering how to deal with PL from each position. The PL prevention concept is classified as product safety (PS) and PL defense (PLD). In this paper we emphasizes that PS is more important than PLD. To achieve PS, it is necessary to consider the product lifecycle. Though activities for quality assurance in the construction industry are conducted, accident reports at housing and building sites are increasing. There is some doubt as to whether the construction companies make good use of these accident reports. Therefore, construct such companies should analyze the causes of these accidents and use the results for "safe construction" in the design phase. The purpose of this paper is to propose a quality assurance system considering product lifecycle in the case of the construction industry. A flowchart of customer' s information and results of analyzed accident reports to design "safe construction, " a method of classification of accident reports in the design phase, and product safety management considering product lifecycle are proposed. The method of classification for the causes of accident reports is classified into 4 types (Type I Defects from building deterioration over time, Type II Defects from remodeling by residents, Type III Defects from interfacing between building and residents, and Type IV Defects from external causes which are difficult to foresee). We developed support software with a database for customer information and accident reports.
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  • Geonha KIM, Keiichiro NAKAGAWA, Takahiro OHNO
    Type: Article
    2000 Volume 51 Issue 4 Pages 389-396
    Published: October 15, 2000
    Released: November 01, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    This paper proposes a model that answers some questions on the replacement behavior of consumer durables : when and why a consumer replaces his or her existing product with a new one, and to which brand or to which maker he or she switches. We consider current product used as alternative benchmark in addition to other consumer durable goods in order to incorporate the replacement need arousal process of consumer durables. To analyze the dynamics of replacement timing, we suppose that the utilities of existing products and other new ones vary over time, and the time-varying utilities are affected by hazard rate, switching cost and time-dependent marketing variables. To make brand switching and brand selection behaviors trackable, we adopt a switching-cost variable and use the MNL model. In the empirical section, we applied our model to the replacement behaviors of consumers who have experienced replacing their mobile telephone terminals, and we found that our model predicts and fits well the replacement timing of mobile telephone terminals and brand switching results observed. Therefore, we concluded that the replacement need arousal process and replacement timing of consumer durables is predicted well by our utility dynamics assumption that current products used should be considered as alternatives like other new consumer durable goods in the evoked set. Additionally, brand switching and brand choice behaviors can be explained well by time-varying marketing mix variables and switching cost.
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  • Kenichi FUNAKI, Kazuho YOSHIMOTO
    Type: Article
    2000 Volume 51 Issue 4 Pages 397-407
    Published: October 15, 2000
    Released: November 01, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Most of the previous papers related to periodic preventive maintenance policy neglected the repair time incurred upon failure. Actually, however, there exist many cases in which the repair time is not negligible. In this paper, we model and analyze the periodic preventive maintenance policy with minimal repair incorporating time to repair, which can be arbitrarily distributed. In modeling the policy, we consider two types of measurement by which the preventive maintenance cycle is determined; one is age exclusive of repair time, and the other is total elapsed time including repair time. The measurement by total elapsed time is easier to implement because the actual time point of preventive maintenance is fixed indifferently to resultant repair time length, while the actual time point of preventive maintenance depends on realized repair time length when age is used as the measurement. We derive some mathematical conditions related to the existence of optimal solution under a criterion of long-run total expected cost per unit of time. In order to clarify the characteristics of the models, we give some numerical examples with calculation procedures. Further, we show a case study that one should determine which measurement of preventive maintenance cycle is to be used and simultaneously optimize the length of the preventive maintenance cycle.
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  • Type: Appendix
    2000 Volume 51 Issue 4 Pages App4-
    Published: October 15, 2000
    Released: November 01, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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