In this paper, we propose “dealing rights to speak” as a communication mechanism for a meeting. The mechanism is designed to facilitate participants in a meeting to communicate more frankly and logically, and to equalize the amount of time each participant speaks. In the proposed simple communication mechanism, cards representing rights to speak for a certain length are used. In the mechanism, each participant is provided with a certain number of the cards. Each participant speaks for several minutes based on the number of cards he/she uses. A participant can also give some of his/her cards to other participants or throw them away if they so desire. We evaluate our proposed method through two experiments. First, we compared three conditions including free discussion, speaking in rotation, and the proposed method through an experiment. It is shown that the proposed mechanism could distribute speaking time almost equally. In addition to that, the method changed discourse qualitatively. It increased the ratio of logical speech. However, the participants rarely gave their rights to others. We discuss the reason from the viewpoint of microeconomics, and we add a voucher of rights to speak into the proposed communication mechanism to overcome the problem. In the second experiment, we compared free discussion, our proposed method and that with the voucher. It was shown that participants gave more rights to others, but the additional voucher made the mechanism more complicated and made meetings less fun.
Bibliobattle is a social book review game spreading in Japan recently. A presentation time limit for a Bibliobattle session is fixed at five minutes. This time limit was determined based on experiences of the founders who developed Bibliobattle. They said that the time limit is neither too short nor too long. However, the time limit has not been empirically investigated by comparing different time limits. In this paper, we investigate what kind of influence different time limits have on a presenter's speech in a Bibliobattle session. We conducted an experiment. For each experimental condition, we changed the time limit of the presenter's speech. We compared the book presenter's speech using a discourse analysis technique. It is proved that the ratio of utterance category is stable in different time limits. Additionally, we asked the presenters and audiences to answer several questionnaires to investigate the effects of different time limits. Most of all the questionnaries showed that the 3-, 5- and 7-minute time limits are not significantly different from each other. In contrast, there's a significant difference between 1 and 10 minutes. It was also revealed that a presenter and audiences have different feelings for the temporal differences in the presentation time limits of a Bibliobattle session. Audiences are more sensitive to the difference of time limit than presenters.
The study describes a service model and its mechanism, addressing a membership-type framework provided by manufacturers. Recently, manufacturing industries are confronted with several problems such as severe price competition, shortening product lifecycle, and the growing commoditization of products. Therefore, there is a movement for manufacturers to shift to the inclusion of service aspects. Along with this trend, the concept of product service systems (PSS) is proposed and several studies have been conducted so far. As a case of PSS, our study focuses on a membership-type service like car-sharing, which has been growing recently. First, our study constructs three kinds of models based on game theory: conventional product selling, non-membership-type service in manufacturing, and membership-type service in manufacturing. These are theoretically analyzed using a game-theoretic approach. Second, we conduct experiments with human subjects, based on the methodology of experimental economics. From those results, human behavioral rules are extracted. Third, implementing agents with the behavioral rules, multi-agent simulation is run. The simulation results present the same tendency as the theoretical analysis and demonstrate that, in the case of large production cost, the membership-type service outperforms the other models in terms of manufacturer's profit.
Recently, it has become easy to collect large volumes of customers' voice through the web as text data. Accordingly, the role of text mining has become more and more important for various business situations to obtain useful knowledge easily and in large quantities. However, the technique of visualizing the correspondence relation between customer reviews and evaluation information is insufficient. The purpose of this paper is to propose a new method of visualizing the information from the text data of a customer review using a self-organizing map robust for non-linearity and multi-collinearity. In this proposal, probabilistic latent semantic indexing, which does not require weighting for dimension contraction of a word vector, was used. Furthermore, the method of visualizing the distribution of evaluation information in a self-organizing map is newly proposed. Here, in order to give a suitable value to the nodes without an evaluation value and the dead nodes, an interpolation formula for the evaluation value was newly defined. To confirm the validity of our proposal, we visualized the customer review data in a major electronic commerce site using the proposed method.
The Crossroad game is a social card game that is used for training to deal effectively with difficult situations such as conflicts under disaster situations. In this paper, a social game, which is used for improving the teamwork of students in an exercise class, has been proposed based on the Crossroad game. In the proposed game, a question is displayed on a computer screen and the players have to select one alternative, yes or no. The questions related to a group work in a practice class. The players have to describe the reason for their own decision. Then, the player who votes for the majority opinion gets a point. The participants can declare their opinion easily because this game does not require one to think “what do I think about the problem,” but “what is the majority opinion?” As a result, the players can learn several opinions that they did not consider and teamwork improves.
In order to properly manage risks concerning a project, possible risk events which can affect the project's performance should be enumerated as thoroughly as possible in the first place. Thus, this paper proposes and experimentally evaluates a diversifying Delphi method for supporting a group of people to enumerate possible risk events relevant to a project of concern. Instead of facilitating consensus building among the participants, the proposed Delphi method encourages them to diversify their ideas. It brings about this effect by feeding back the participants, after each Delphi round, several maps or matrices on which the ideas already raised are spatially located. The performance of the proposed method is investigated through experiments, where student participants are engaged in the task of enumerating risk events concerning a couple of projects which are familiar to them. As a result, it is confirmed that the proposed method actually provides a higher stimulus effect and leads to a higher number and variety of risk events than the control condition where a simple list of ideas already raised is used as the feedback information.
Gaming as a tool benefits communication and education process within groups. This paper introduces a face-to-face negotiation game developed by the authors. This game deals with a health-care dilemma involving a businessperson's work life and personal life. Players as a businessperson are tempted to work hard to get a promotion, however, at the same time, a person has to negotiate and find balance at work and in healthy life. This paper illustrates unique settings of a design and practice of the lifestyle modification game by examining a case study. Two versions with a different structure of player interaction were created in order to discuss issues on bridging gaming method and collective intelligence. One is the design for multi-layered interaction among players and the other is based on one-on-one communication between businessperson player and tempter player. Practices of the lifestyle modification gaming with two versions were evaluated through a questionnaire survey given to university students. Although a gaming field with multilayered interaction generated laughter in the communication, it was suggested that the sum of interaction and the creation of new ideas was not necessary correlated.
In order to utilize knowledge data effectively, “portal sites” which systemize information in limited fields are spreading. It is important to activate user access to the sites through search and referral traffic for the system to function. The portal site “Monodukuri Innovation Navi,” which intends to supply industrial engineering related information, was studied to evaluate some measures to increase access and activate the wisdom of crowds mechanism. The amount of contents in the site and information distributions with mail magazines and Facebook page comments indicated some effect to increase access to the sites in this research. Additionally, the importance of content usefulness for the visitors was suggested in each measure.
The relationship between “employee collaboration” and “productivity” is a very important issue of corporate activities. We introduce a newly developed “enterprise Wiki system with bulletin boards”that can be used to support open collaboration in day-to-day operations. This system makes it possible to measure the degree of “promoting of collaboration” and “improvements in productivity” by analyzing the message log in the system. By utilizing this system, we define”collaboration network” of the organizational activities from the message log classified as each business task and easily measure the productivity as the number of tasks that were resolved during a certain period. We found an extremely interesting relationship and effectiveness: 1) there is a strong correlation between”productivity” and the average path length of the”collaboration network”, which we define as the degree of collaboration, and 2) productivity more than doubled on some tasks as a result of using the system. We discuss the work style of employee based on the structure of the”collaboration network” in order to improve productivity even further.
Lately the role of the office environment in improving knowledge creation capabilities has been gaining more attention, and various types of information systems have been proposed to promote interaction among office workers. This study focuses on the concept of “awareness information,” which shows a worker's presence and status. In previous studies, many types of information systems have been proposed to improve awareness information among geographically separated offices to enhance interaction among workers. However, they mainly focused on the awareness of an individual worker's status, and neither on the relationship among the workers nor the generated context. We propose the concept of “awareness information of Ba,” which we define to mean awareness of the self-assembled dynamic context of workers, objects and their relationships in the office. The researchers constructed an information system called “Office Teller,” which aims to improve the awareness information of Ba between physically separated offices. The system constructed uses cartoon-style stories to express the dynamic context of each office and to share the context information with a remote office. The system was tested at two sites: laboratory rooms of university and offices of company. Results from the experiments indicate that the system implemented improves cross-office context awareness and increases sense of connection, mutual attentiveness and understanding.