Journal of Japan Industrial Management Association
Online ISSN : 2187-9079
Print ISSN : 1342-2618
ISSN-L : 1342-2618
Volume 57 , Issue 3
Showing 1-18 articles out of 18 articles from the selected issue
  • Type: Cover
    2006 Volume 57 Issue 3 Pages Cover5-
    Published: August 15, 2006
    Released: November 01, 2017
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  • Type: Cover
    2006 Volume 57 Issue 3 Pages Cover6-
    Published: August 15, 2006
    Released: November 01, 2017
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  • Type: Index
    2006 Volume 57 Issue 3 Pages Toc3-
    Published: August 15, 2006
    Released: November 01, 2017
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  • Hiroki Kozu, Iiji Ogawa
    Type: Article
    2006 Volume 57 Issue 3 Pages 181-187
    Published: August 15, 2006
    Released: November 01, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    This study carried out two kinds of experiment in order to improve university student's human performance such as multiple-reaction task, occupational suitability test, addition test, and stress using an E.E.G. after night shift work. Experiment I investigated the effect of a one-hour nap while experiment II investigated the effect of bright light (BL) after a one-hour nap. Four days were required to complete each of the experiments since there were four levels of nap-time (no nap, 7:00, 11:00, and 15:00) in experiment I and four conditions (no nap & no BL, no nap & BL, nap & no BL, and nap & BL) in experiment II. As a result, taking a one-hour nap from 15:00 to 16:00 seemed to be more effective than other nap times for human performance and stress in experiment I. Human performance, such as in the occupational suitability test, was found to be improved by both one nap from 11:00 to 12:00 and bright light in experiment II.
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  • Takayuki KOTANI, Etsuko KUSUKAWA, Hiroshi OHTA
    Type: Article
    2006 Volume 57 Issue 3 Pages 188-197
    Published: August 15, 2006
    Released: November 01, 2017
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    Kusukawa and Ohta discussed the CS (Confirmation Sample)_<CCC (cunuiative count of conforming)-r> chart as an alternative chart of the CCC-r chart for monitoring the process fraction defectives, P, in high-yield processes. In order to enhance the performance of the CS_<CCC-r> chart, Mishima et al. presented a synthetic chart which integrates the CS_<CCC-r> chart with the CCC-r chart, referred to as the Synthetic CS chart. Compared to the CS_<CCC-r> chart, the Synthetic CS chart has higher detection powers for small or moderate shifts in P from the in-control state toward both upward and downward directions. However, both the CS_<CCC-r> chart and the Synthetic CS chart are designed to monitor quality characteristics in real-time. Neither of the charts has the detection power required for the above shifts in P from the in-control state. Recently, Kotani et al. presented the EWMA (Exponentially Weighted Moving-Average)_<CCC-r> chart, which considers combining the quality characteristics monitored in the past with quality characteristic monitored in real-time. The EWMA_<CCC-r> chart can be constructed by applying the designing method of the EWMA chart to the CCC-r chart. The EWMA_<CCC-r> chart has higher detection powers for any shift in P when compared to the CS_<CCC-r> chart. In this paper, we present a chart that is more superior to either the EWMA_<CCC-r> chart or the Synthetic CS chart. It is an integration of the EWMA_<CCC-r> chart and the CCC-r chart, and is referred to as the Synthetic EWMA chart. In using the proposed synthetic chart, the quality characteristic is initially judged as either in-control or out-of-control using the upper and lower control limits of the EWMA_<CCC-r> chart. If the process is not judged as in-control by the EWMA_<CCC-r> chart, the process is successively judged using the CCC-r chart to conform the judgement of the EWMA_<CCC-r> chart. In order to assess the performance of the detection power of the proposed synthetic chart, we compare the ANOS (Average Number of Observations to Signal) of the proposed chart with those of both the EWMA_<CCC-r> chart and the Synthetic CS chart. ANOS can be obtained using the Markov chain approach. It is demonstrated from numerical experiments that the proposed Synthetic EWMA chart is most sensitive in detecting small or moderate shifts in P from the in-control state toward both upward and downward directions in high-yield processes among the EWMA_<CCC-r> chart and Synthetic CS chart.
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  • Ippei NAKASE, Kayoko TAKAMORI, Ikuo ARIZONO
    Type: Article
    2006 Volume 57 Issue 3 Pages 198-205
    Published: August 15, 2006
    Released: November 01, 2017
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    In the problem of analysis and evaluation of a system property, it has often been assumed that the time to failure follows an exponential distribution that is known as the distribution for the random failure with a constant failure rate. This assumption is caused from the reason that the analytical expression of the model becomes easy according to the memory-less property of exponential distribution. On the other hand, the distribution of wear-out failure in which the failure rate increases over time, is important in the case of practical use. Moreover, the problem of analyzing the system with multiple failure modes is important too. Takamori et al. has considered the evaluation formulation of a system with two failure modes of random and wear-out failures. Then, the system availability formulations were respectively derived under the conditions of: 1) the system is always initialized after restoration of a random failure or wear-out failure, and 2) the system is only initialized after restoration of a wear-out failure. In this research, we consider the system preservation policy considering of the progress of wear.
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  • Hiroshi OHTA, Tomoaki KOGA
    Type: Article
    2006 Volume 57 Issue 3 Pages 206-213
    Published: August 15, 2006
    Released: November 01, 2017
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    With the current competition in the market place, companies have to develop quality products if they want to survive and be profitable. QFD (Quality Function Deployment) is a powerful tool that translates customer requirements into the technical attributes QFD has been used to reflect the needs of customers in products. Recently, since fuzzy numbers are used to represent the imprecise nature of the judgments for determining importance levels and satisfaction levels, the weight and relationship strength in the QFD method should be treated as fuzzy numbers rather than as crisp numbers. Bovea et al. suggested that a fuzzy number approach based on the HoQ (House of Quality) matrix in the QFD methodology provides a more quantitative method for evaluating the imprecision of the customer requirement. Koga and Ohta proposed the QFD method using linguistic variables, which are expressed by a trapezoidal membership function. They also presented an extended "New Fuzzy Weighted Average" as a new method of operating on fuzzy numbers defined by trapezoidal membership functions to determine a fuzzy weighted average. However, the method is based on only the customer side, which is composed of customer requirements, and takes no thought of technical intention. It also failed to indicate how to develop a product with weights of technical attributes accurately. In this paper, we propose a novel method for specifying consented quality value between customers and company in QFD using linguistic variables. It takes into account both customer satisfaction and company satisfaction. The requirement levels of both customers and company, which are represented by fuzzy numbers, are introduced into the HoQ matrix in the QFD. It is possible to specify a consented target of each quality characteristic that is realistic and feasible. Company satisfaction is obtained by considering constraints such as cost, technical difficulty and market position. As an illustrative purpose, an example of a washing machine is presented to show application of the method.
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  • Hajime MIZUYAMA, Katsunobu ASADA, Kentaro YAMADA
    Type: Article
    2006 Volume 57 Issue 3 Pages 214-221
    Published: August 15, 2006
    Released: November 01, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Detecting causal factors of quality defects is a crucial step in improving manufacturing quality in a multi-stage production system. In order to streamline this task with the help of a manufacturing database, this paper presents an explorative data analysis approach called the multi-stage quality information model (MSQIM) based on decision tree analysis. This approach first defines a subset of the manufacturing database for each single process step of the production system, which contains only the process data that have been collected until the process step. Then, it utilizes decision tree analysis to extract quality information from each defined database subset. This results in plural decision tree models corresponding to the process steps of the production system. The approach finally traces how quality information varies along the process steps, both quantitatively and qualitatively. How the quality information amount changes makes it possible to identify the process steps that require further focus, even when sufficient potential factors cannot be specified from the given database alone. Further, a leaf node transition graph is introduced to interpret the relationships between consecutive decision tree models, and is found to be effective to guide hypothesis generation about causal factors of defects and defect-causing mechanisms. An industrial example shows the power of this approach.
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  • Hiroaki TOHYAMA, Kenichi IDA, Chihiro TERAMATSU
    Type: Article
    2006 Volume 57 Issue 3 Pages 222-230
    Published: August 15, 2006
    Released: November 01, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Fixed-charge transportation problem (FCTP) is one of the generalizations of transportation problems (TPs), which are fundamental problems of logistics. Since it is shown that FCTP is NP-hard, it is thought that there exists no hope in finding a polynomial time algorithm through which an optimal solution is always obtained. In this paper, we propose a genetic algorithm for solving FCTP. By reducing the number of destinations to which products are transported by one supplier, the fixed charge can be saved. Therefore, in our proposed method the priority levels on delivery route are generated based on the property of the instance. A subinstance is selected randomly, and the transportation plan is partially reconstructed by obeying the selected priority level. By reconstructing of the transportation plan, a local search on the parent is realized. To introduce plural priority levels is effective for generating the various children. In our proposed mutation, the good characteristics of the parents can be inherited by the children. Moreover, our mutation displays great ability as the local search. Therefore, in our method, a crossover operation is not used, and children are generated only by our mutation. In the respect of execution time, there exists the advantage of not applying the crossover operation. The effectiveness is shown by numerical experiments where our method is compared with existing methods.
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  • Masakazu OHTSUBO, Kenji KURASHIGE, Yoshimasa KAMEYAMA
    Type: Article
    2006 Volume 57 Issue 3 Pages 231-242
    Published: August 15, 2006
    Released: November 01, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    In this paper, the problem of automatically making timetables for junior high schools is approached. This is one of the combinatorial optimization problems, and is called the "school timetabling problem". In the case of a large school, solving the problem is very difficult because there are many constraints and much space to search for solutions. In a junior high school that has 24 classes, it takes about one week for four or five persons to make a school timetable. Three algorithms using tabu search are applied to the problem. In the first algorithm, the initial solution is created by allocating all subjects, and the solution progresses to a feasible solution using tabu search. In the second algorithm, all subjects are divided into three groups by the strength of the constraints. The first group is strong constraint, second group is intermediate and third group is weak. In the first stage, subjects in the first group are allocated to class using tabu search. The process is repeated to the third stage to make a feasible solution. In the third algorithm, subjects in the third group are divided into three grades and the same process as the second algorithm repeats itself to the fifth stage. The effectiveness of the second algorithm is presented using a numerical experiment for an existing school. Two parameters (number of class to search neighborhood solutions and weight to some estimation value of constraint) have a great influence on the search, and this is explained. In addition, the distribution of feasible solutions is described.
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  • Tsuyoshi KON, Masayuki GOTO, Tadayuki MASUI
    Type: Article
    2006 Volume 57 Issue 3 Pages 243-252
    Published: August 15, 2006
    Released: November 01, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    In this paper, we propose a new method to analyze physical distribution models written using UML (Unified Modeling Language). Recently, the use of automated (information technology, IT) management systems for complex corporation activities and processes has been adopted by many companies. IT is, of course, a powerful tool for physical distribution processes. However, it is impossible to construct an effective system without practical knowledge. Moreover, it is sometimes difficult for system engineers constructing information systems to understand the practical knowledge and essence of activities in actual physical distribution processes. Sometimes workers are entirely ignorant when it comes to the use of information systems. From the background mentioned above, it is necessary to construct a good tool that enables both sides, the system engineers and distribution workers, to communicate and exchange information. UML is an efficient language to use for such communications. However, it is not easy to clarify complex UML models. We therefore introduce a method to analyze the structure of physical distribution described by UML and apply it to a standard logistics model. The proposal is based on multivariate analysis. Using this method, we can extract the structure of complex UML diagrams.
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  • Takashi KAWANAGO
    Type: Article
    2006 Volume 57 Issue 3 Pages 253-259
    Published: August 15, 2006
    Released: November 01, 2017
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    Whether a given point is located inside or outside of a polygon is understood naturally when the diagram is seen by ones own eyes. However, it is difficult to determine the same thing using a computer. This kind of problem has been treated as "the point location problem" in computational geometry or geographical data processing for several decades. In this study, we research advanced cases of this problem, such as the case that the point is given when the diagram consisted of several polygons which had multiple connotations, or the case that the point is given when there were several polygons inside one polygon. Also, as the example of an application, we intend to try to estimate the length of a route, including up-and-down distance, when two points are given on a map that has a road network and contour lines.
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  • Type: Appendix
    2006 Volume 57 Issue 3 Pages 260-
    Published: August 15, 2006
    Released: November 01, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    2006 Volume 57 Issue 3 Pages App11-
    Published: August 15, 2006
    Released: November 01, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (85K)
  • Type: Appendix
    2006 Volume 57 Issue 3 Pages App12-
    Published: August 15, 2006
    Released: November 01, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (85K)
  • Type: Appendix
    2006 Volume 57 Issue 3 Pages App13-
    Published: August 15, 2006
    Released: November 01, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (85K)
  • Type: Appendix
    2006 Volume 57 Issue 3 Pages App14-
    Published: August 15, 2006
    Released: November 01, 2017
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    Download PDF (85K)
  • Type: Appendix
    2006 Volume 57 Issue 3 Pages App15-
    Published: August 15, 2006
    Released: November 01, 2017
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