In today's highly uncertain environment, companies implement measures to respond to constant changes and improve business performance. This study focuses on organizational climate as a key factor for the success of such efforts. An organizational climate questionnaire was developed and surveys were administered (Study 1: a web-based survey given to company employees (N=2,869); and Study 2: an answer sheet survey given to employees of Company X (N=510)). Four factors were extracted from the organizational climate questionnaire by exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis: manifestation of company policy, positive work atmosphere, individual proactive attitude and disorganized workplace (Study 1 and 2). Previous research on organizational climate-to-outcome relationships pointed out that job satisfaction can be related to organizational climate. In this paper, structural equation modeling (SEM) was conducted to examine causal relationships among organizational climate, job satisfaction and performance, each of which was measured using self-assessment. The results showed that a significant correlation was found between manifestation of company policy and performance (Study 1 and 2), indicating that manifestation of company policy plays an important role in improving business performance. The results of SEM also revealed that a significant correlation was found between job satisfaction and performance in Study 1, whereas there was no significant effect of job satisfaction on performance in Study 2. This indicates that factors affecting performance differ depending on organization.
Many sports, such as gymnastics and figure skating, can be classified as scoring competitions or as interpersonal competitions, such as soccer and baseball. Moreover, round robin tournaments and elimination tournaments are used prominently in tournament systems to rank participants in interpersonal competitions. In a round robin tournament, establishing an order for participant play is simple, but each player must be matched against all other players. Consequently, much time is required to complete a round robin tournament. On the other hand, when using an elimination tournament, it is possible to rank the top competitors by playing fewer games, although it is difficult to identify where participants who lose games fit in the final order. To compensate for these disadvantages, cyclic designs and Swiss system tournaments have been proposed recently.
In this study, we propose a new tournament system that utilizes a paired-competition methodology, which is based on the concepts of cyclic designs and Swiss system tournament. Our aim is to eliminate the disadvantages of round robin and elimination tournaments. To this end, we simulate the tournament system proposed, doing so under various conditions. We are able to demonstrate the superiority of this system over conventional tournament systems by comparing the accuracy of the estimated rank order of each tournament system, as well as the number of games required to complete each tournament system.
This paper focuses on the measures taken to improve job satisfaction over several years at production bases in a developing nation, and analyzes how the factors of job satisfaction affect an employees' intention to continue working. An employee's intention to continue working was reviewed in terms of the intention to continue working in the same company, the intention to keep the same type of job, and the enthusiasm for the current job. The factors of job satisfaction were split into 29 categories based on the indices measured. For the purpose of identifying patterns in high-dimensional information on the factors of job satisfaction contained in questionnaire responses, the information was compressed into low-dimensional spaces based on the principal component analysis. Next, a structural model was formed. The model is composed of a path indicating that a few principal components obtained by the principal component analysis affect job satisfaction, and a path indicating that job satisfaction further affects the intention to continue working. By cross-tabulating the response data, a significant difference in the intention to continue working from year to year was observed. As a result of a year-by-year covariance structure analysis of the influence of job satisfaction factors on the intention to continue working, some factors of job satisfaction were confirmed to significantly affect the intention to continue working every year, whereas other factors were observed to exert a variable influence from year to year.