In secondary school biology in Victoria State, Australia, practical work including laboratory exercises, fieldwork and other research activities is carried out more frequently than in Japanese senior high school biology. The authors examined the contents of the practical work and how often such practical work is carried outin some urban and rural secondary schools in Victoria. The topics of biology practical work were based on the VCE Biology Study Design which was published by the Victorian Board of Studies. Some of the activities continued for some weeks. Sometimes students went out from their school for fieldwork for a few days. The average number of practical work per credit was about 4. This number is consider ably larger than the value (2.3 per credit) which was reported on senior high schools in Osaka Prefecture. Why so often can the practical work be carried out? Themain reason is that as well as the scores of ordinary paper tests, the evaluationof each practical work is taken into consideration at the entrance examination ofuniversities and other tertiary education institutes in Victoria State.
Circadian rhythm is one of the essential characteristics living organis ms. The understanding of the mechanisms underlying in circadian rhythm is animportant subject of modern biology. In this study we tried to establis hsuitable educational materials and experimental systems for which student sstudy circadian rhythm in high schools. The house fly, Musca domestica, has many advantages for educational such as easiness of cultivation, clear genetic markers, short life cycle, and so on.
In this study we establsdhed an automatic recording apparatus to measure the time of eclosion and analyzed the circadian rhythm of eclosion in the large population of house fly. The rhythm of eclosion was found to depend upon separate biological clocks in the pupal and larval stages. A comparison of the wild type and triple mutant (white eyes, brown body and pointed wings) showed that the mutant has a short periodicity of eclosion. Cross breediug analysis suggested that a single gene controls the short periodicity of the eclesion rhythm in the mutant.