We interviewed six former Japanese government scholarship recipients who obtained jobs in Japan upon graduation to seek the relationship between Academic Japanese (hereinafter "AJ") acquired through tertiary education and Japanese used for their workplace activities. The findings established that AJ was useful in business environment, while highlighting some differences including business-specific skills. Logical thinking capability to identify/solve problems was deemed most relevant; academic training including thesis writing and specialized field studies were useful to develop said capability. Presentation skills for effective/pertinent communication were required for both educational/workplace activities.
In this study, analysis of the interview surveys given to advanced Japanese learners shows how the use of models to make compositions is counterproductive. A summary of these results: one learner put too much confidence in the models that teachers had distributed. Therefore, the learner was torn between his natural form of self-expression and the form of expression used in the models. Then, one learner who wrote in a different style from the models that were given decided on his own whether or not to use the models on the basis of past experiences with other writing classes.
This study aims at universally accessible Japanese language education for visually impaired learners. We conducted the following basic surveys for building an information network: a survey of overseas offices of Japan Foundation and Japanese language teachers of Japan Overseas Cooperation Volunteers to find visually impaired learners and a survey of Japanese language teachers actually engaged in education for visually impaired learners inside/outside Japan. The results indicate demands for expert supports and information on special arrangements in JLPT. Based on the results, we present practical issues in Japanese language education for visually impaired learners and the contents of a trial website created as an information platform.
This paper identifies cognitive differences in learning motivation between students and teachers. Teachers generally evaluate students' motivation based on the attitudes and behavior toward tasks in the classroom, including their reactions to activities, course submission rates, and examination results. "Learning Motivation" is composed of complex psychological states such as "volition" and "need." Therefore, teachers find it difficult to distinguish it in terms of the attitudes and behavior displayed. The research method included an interview survey administered to an unspontaneous student and his teachers. Results revealed the existence of a perception gap in learning motivation between the student and teachers.
With the establishment of new campus and shifting to it, I developed a project work based on the new campus for the international students in their Japanese Language course. The aim is to make viable suggestions as to how to make the city (where the new campus is located) a better place. I would present the course outline as well as how the students have perceived the city and the topics and their interpretation about them. I would also like to check whether the effort made by the students working along the topics such as "because of me; just because of the city" has led to presenting a practical and concrete proposal.
I interviewed volunteer 'Japanese as a second language' teachers in Ehime prefecture and observed their lessons to find out how the dialect is treated in their classes. As a result, this study revealed that the teachers thought it is not good to teach using dialects in their lessons. They also want to follow standard accent and intonation. However, it was found that the number of learners who want to study the dialect is higher than their expectation. Therefore, I will propose the development of a website, which is constructed mutually by learners and teachers.
Reading comprehension requires reading speed and quantity in order to have practical meaning. However, there is rarely time to spare in class for extensive reading, let alone covering appreciative reading. Appreciative reading encourages the acquisition of various ways of reading, making reading meaningful. Therefore, a novel reading section adopting an appreciative reading approach has been included in the reading comprehension course. This research reports on the reading appreciation practice of a class using a novel at advanced level, and examines notes and points for evaluation and improvement from the survey results.
Teaching practicum at the end of Japanese language teacher education program provides various learning experiences. The participants gain not only knowledge of teaching techniques but also intercultural competence. In order to find out how they feel about the changes of their intercultural competence after the practicum, a questionnaire was conducted followed by an interview. The questionnaire was constructed based on the chart of "The factor to succeed in a different culture" (Yamagishi et al. 1992). It was confirmed that the participants recognized changes in their intercultural competence, such as self-monitoring ability, intercultural sensitivity, and awareness of the other culture.
In the 1990s, fervent debates on whether to promote the Kansai dialect in Japanese education did not reach a conclusion. However, the students' consciousness of the dialect may provide some information to resolve this problem. In this study, we conducted a questionnaire survey on the consciousness of elementary level and pre-advanced level foreign students regarding their short-term stay in Kansai. According to the results, regardless of their Japanese proficiency level, the students liked the Kansai region, had a strong learning motivation, and desired to study the Kansai dialect at universities and through natural learning.
This study has developed an editing system for writing Japanese language texts with limited vocabulary that is more accessible to non-native speakers of Japanese language. The system, Kabuto editor, will automatically identify the word and phrase level by color-cording words based on a predefined word list. The word list file can be compiled by each user as an xls-file of Microsoft Excel, so that they can personally identify word and phrase levels based on their own criterion.
We introduced poster presentation as an assignment for a Japanese Studies class in a Japanese language course held at a university in China. The aim of this was to encourage students to communicate and to increase interactions between students and instructor. We analyze what the students learnt and the realizations they had based on their reflections of the experience. As a result, the aim of the poster presentation session was achieved; also students were found to pay closer attention to their audience and gained a sense of accomplishment through it.
The care worker trainees under current Economic Partnership Agreements must pass the State Examination for Certified Care Workers to continue working in Japan. Examinees are expected to have the knowledge of the diverse verbs and their usage to pass the examination. However, previous research that focused on the vocabulary in the examination mainly treated nouns and the investigations of the verbs are not sufficient. Hence, this study examines the tendency and frequency of the verbs used in the examination over the last six years to provide examinees with essential data for effective vocabulary learning.
At Ehime University we have been using Japanese language volunteers for a kanji class held in one classroom with students from low-intermediate level and above. However, there were not enough volunteers to match the various levels and pace of each student, so students were divided into groups or pairs. Students were taught to see their peers as resources which aide their learning. At the end of the class, as part of the trial, students selected their best sentences using the kanji they had learned. We will focus on these sentences and interviews with the students in examining this method.
Language teachers often struggle to ensure that language learners have meaningful opportunities to use the target language outside of the classroom. Technological developments have opened new possibilities for this. The authors took advantage of the increasing prevalence of social media platforms and conducted a project using a series of assignments that included video and written exchanges between EFT and JFL learners at universities in Japan and the U.S. using Facebook. In this paper, we will provide an overview of the project, share pedagogical implications of the results, and suggest additional ways to implement a language exchange project using SNS.
Japanese learners in a middle-upper grade reading class did collaboration activities that focused on understanding more deeply the characters' feelings and intentions that were not exhibited in sentences. This was conducted through individual and collaboration reading in explanatory activities between two groups. The results of the analysis identified two group characteristics. One group had active turn-taking, while the other talked in a more monologue-like style. However, it found that both groups deepened their interpretations through the conversation from the memos they took and what they said in the explanatory activity, and the written composition after the activity.
The purpose of this paper is to aid teachers who struggle to select topics for debate. Although many books and studies have been published concerning methods of teaching debate, few address methods of topic selection. Nevertheless, this topic is an important factor in determining the success or failure of teaching debate, and therefore must be considered. The researchers interviewed multiple teachers and asked them to describe their methods of topic selection; based on their responses, suggestions are provided to assist teachers in selecting debate topics.
This study is about how people give negative responses to yes-no questions. From the corpus "Female Speech(workplace version)", 21 examples using words like "いいえ(No)" and 20 examples not using words like "いいえ(No)" were extracted. Negative responses are divided into two groups. One is the group of negative responses that do not add new information to the foregoing speech, and the other is the group of those that do add new information. This result suggests that teachers should not persist in teaching sentence patterns in textbooks, but pay attention to daily conversation, and teach Japanese beyond textbooks.
Language classes in schools are organized by age or grade level, rather than by language ability, so one classroom can have a range of abilities. The present study seeks to use this variation as an advantage. A unit of lessons was designed in which students compared an original Japanese text with an English translation. The use of a translation in English, the common language in the classroom, allowed the students to engage with the texts actively and resulted in an improvement in the students' awareness of Japanese culture and certain characteristics of the Japanese language.
The level of conventionality has already been reported in previous studies. However, literature does not have any reports on whether the types of speech acts affect the comprehension of indirect speech acts or not. Moreover, a question about how the level of conventionality and types of speech acts affect the indirect speech acts comprehension is also unanswered in the literature even though they are closely correlated to each other. This motivated the current study which explores these questions using a pragmatic comprehension questionnaire. A multi-way ANOVA result supports the significant effect of the level of conventionality and types of speech acts.
The purpose of this research is to get some hint on teaching Japanese language from the results of the analysis, which has compared the message structure and expressions in case of writing a request email between Korean Japanese learners and native Japanese. The data consisted of two kinds of emails: to a teacher they have never seen and to a good friend respectively. As a result, I figured out that there are clear differences in the message structure and expressions between the two groups in both cases.
This paper reports on curricula and teaching materials useful for foreign students with advanced Japanese skills who are about to enter Japanese universities. In most courses taken by Japanese learners before completing their preparatory education for entry into Japanese universities advanced- and superior-level curricula are offered to those who completed programs to pass level N1 of the JLPT. I explored what teaching materials are useful for advanced classes where skillsets vary greatly and motivation is hard to maintain among students already accepted by a university. I thus experimented with listening and reading comprehension and writing instruction using real-life teaching materials along with commercially available teaching materials. Use of on-demand television programs made it possible to cover current affairs and Japan-specific information and shorten class preparation times.
Debating contributes to language teaching and many reports on its use in education have been published. Many teachers find critiquing debates difficult and such critical discussion is considered insufficient for appropriate education. Criticism should be the final stage of the debate and encourage the learners to reflect on the activity and improve their skills. Consequentially, it should not be limited to abstract methodology and educational criticism should be considered based upon criticism that was actually given. Therefore, in this paper, critical discourses of teachers with different experiences of debates are observed and the kinds of criticism they give are clarified.
This paper suggests an effective teaching method named "Cho-Wa" for intermediate-advanced level students. The goal of this method is that the students can use their knowledge properly in their speaking. In this exercise, the students are required to: 1) write down some key words while hearing a story, 2) recompose the story immediately after hearing it, and 3) monitor their own sentence in the speaking and correct it if needed. This exercise can be tailored to a student's learning level by changing the length, speed, and/or the number of characters in the story.
This is a practical study on a writing class dealing with comment sheets for advanced Japanese learners. Comment sheets are papers that university students have to write their comments and other feedback on and submit at the end of a lecture. The analysis of comment sheets and interview data revealed that learners worried about the contents of and expressions used in comment sheets, but could learn to incorporate appropriate contents and expressions through the class. Moreover, they began writing in the comment sheets while thinking about the learning contents in other classes.
This paper examines the consciousness of learners from Chinese backgrounds regarding how to read Kango words of Chinese origin, based on observing video recording data of 12 groups of 29 lower/upper intermediate level learners tasked with classifying Kango by its reading. Though the words used in the task were only read as "h" or "p" (e.g., 無敗(mu-hai), 連敗(ren-pai)), all groups, regardless of level, classified some cards as "b". Moreover, they could not easily provide answers; they constantly moved the cards between "h", "p", and "b", changing their answers in response to the other cards' movements.
This paper details to report to enhance active and autonomous leaning skills for advanced level Japanese learners. Instructors guided students through the making of their own Kamishibai. Students were encouraged to reconstruct the stories. An analysis of the students' Kamishibai and subsequent essays on their impressions confirmed that this teaching intervention encouraged a shift in students' approaches to reading from passive to more active. Through the process of visualization of the stories, students started developing their own unique ways of evaluating and interpreting them. It can be concluded that these types of interventions can improve students' active reading skills.
We will analyze the structure of peer feedback and how the learners addressed it in a pre-advanced oral presentation course. The learners set evaluation criteria for the presentations through cooperative learning. They made presentations about their criteria then did self-evaluations and peer feedback. We focused on two learners to analyze the structure and components of the feedback in detail. One learner took into consideration the feedback and altered her presentation, while the other learner did not exhibit such a dramatic change. As a result, it is suggested that they differed in regards to their participation in the feedback.
A previous study suggests that native Chinese speakers may experience pronunciation difficulty in learning Japanese when the utterances include successive high or low moras. This kind of pronunciation difficulty has been examined in long compound words; however, no attempt has been made to ascertain whether it occurs in phrases. To verify this hypothesis, the current study performed an experiment using sixty phrases including six different disposition types of word accent patterns. The results indicated that native Chinese speakers do experience pronunciation difficulty in phrases with successive high moras. However, difficulties in phrases with successive low moras are influenced by the accent pattern of the first word.
The "Keizai no Nihongo" website was published in 2010 and is still in active operation, with regular version updates. Once launched, this kind of website-based learning aid is expected to have its contents enhanced based on investigation of users' needs, and to change its form in line with the latest trends. But this is not so easy in practice. To maintain a continuous effort while minimizing costs, learning aids and projects need to be designed with an eye on future developments. In this presentation, we will examine the design ideas needed for broad development and deployment of learning aids.
Increasing vocabulary autonomously is essential for intermediate learners. The project is presented for learning Kanji words autonomously in intermediate Kanji courses by using Learning Log, an online system for making word lists. Learners registered with pictures the words that they came across in their daily lives into the system and shared them in the classroom. Later in the course, learners were grouped and created a story using a word-map from the registered words. This presentation will report on the perception of the overall activities based on questionnaire responses and the problems associated with using mobile devices in course activities.
This paper discusses the possibility of using morpheme N-gram for automatic paraphrasing. When a compound noun, sahen-noun + suffix sha, is paraphrased into an adnominal clause, sahen-verb + hito, the verb has to be conjugated appropriately according to the aspect and the tense that the context requires. With a view to developing an automatic paraphrasing method, morpheme N-gram was utilized to specify the most frequently conjugated form of sahen-verbs in sahen-verb + hito, between suru, shiteiru and shita. This study examined if the specified form can also be applied to paraphrasing the equivalent sahen-noun + suffix sha.
Some research suggests that it is important for Japanese learners not only to gain linguistic knowledge and repeat exercises, but also to "notice" mistakes in their utterances by themselves. In order to raise the learners' consciousness of noticing, we used iPads in our intermediate-speaking classes in a Japanese university. Learners recorded their role-plays with iPads; and they reflected after the class by watching their recorded videos, making a self-corrected script and reviewing their own conversation with a feedback sheet. This presentation will report on how learners perceived the activities using iPads and the analysis on learners' notices through reflection.
A typical foreign language conversation class focuses on the forms and functions of the target language; activities that impel a more assertive use of the language to "say what you want to say," and to "convey your own feelings" take second place. This report analyses the kinds of speech produced once the notion of "assertiveness" was introduced into role plays and into tasks focused on "solutions to problems." Students then "felt that they wanted to speak" and did speak to express themselves. Improvement in assertive communication ability led to improvement in target language proficiency.
One responsibility of second language teachers is to provide corrective feedback to learners. This paper focuses on feedback through prompts leading to self-corrections. There are three types of prompts, namely, "repetition," "clarifying request," and "elicitation." This study employs three conversation tasks administered to 14 Korean students at intermediate and advanced levels to identify the differences between each prompt, and the awareness and reactions of learners. Prompts were provided as feedback for errors in conversation tasks, and the reactions of the students were analyzed.
In the Japanese course that the authors are engaged in, one activity which is often on the syllabus is peer response, where students discuss their composition with classmates. Previous studies focus on learner's performances in, and perceptions of peer response activities. However, this research attempted to shed light on the teachers' side of the story. We interviewed three teachers who have different views and approaches towards peer response. We concluded that the teacher's views and approaches differ and hence, we need to create opportunities for teachers to share their views and approaches to help design better peer response activities for students.
Most research into Japanese language learner motivation has been classified into intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. Intrinsic motivation is mainly concerned with a continuing desire to facilitate learning; therefore, most previous research tended to focus on the relationship between the factors of extrinsic and intrinsic motivation. Because enjoyment and interest in learning are crucial to intrinsic motivation, these factors are important in promoting the desire to continue learning. However, previous research has not described these intrinsic motivation factors in detail. Hence, this study considers the possibility of reclassifying intrinsically motivated Mexican Japanese language learners.
Many textbooks about essay writing include instructions on how to write a letter. However, recently, there are few opportunities to write letters, and communication tools become prevalent. The same tendency exists among the learners in higher education in Indonesia. This paper describes the task of writing invitation cards and these are invitations to the Japanese Culture Festival for native Japanese person living in the region. The reader was taken into consideration in the writing process. The above invitations resulted in response from the Japanese visiting the culture festival. This response contributed to the reinforcement of motivation for learning.
In Japanese, in the case of transitive verbs that have intransitive equivalents it can be said that intransitive verbs are interchangeable with the potential form of the equivalent transitive verb, such as "Kokuban no ji ga kienai/kesenai". However, for native speakers, who pay greater attention to the conditions of things rather than actions, there exists a tendency to use the intransitive form of the verb over the potential form of the transitive. In the course of this study, the confusions of native Thai-speaking Japanese learners over whether to focus on people or things as they choose either intransitive or transitive verbs have become clear. In this study, paying special attention to differing learning environments as a factor, the awareness subjects have towards transitive/intransitive verbs in Japanese and the knowledge they have garnered from their teachers will be investigated.
This paper reports the activities of an oral expression class that uses two types of e-Learning tools. The university I belong to implemented a CALL system for language information classrooms. Moreover, in 2013, the university introduced a cloud-type learning support system called "manaba," developed by Asahi Net, Inc. In my oral expression class, I have attempted a "blended learning" approach that combines these two e-Learning tools with face-to-face classroom instruction (including peer learning) to develop learner autonomy. I report how such blended learning enhances education and how learners promote their awareness through an analysis of learner study and evaluation.
This study examines the difficulties advanced Chinese learners of Japanese have with the usage of "ohayo(gozaimasu)" and "konnichiwa" meaning good morning and hello respectively. Twenty Chinese university students who reside in Japan were interviewed about the difficulties they have with these expressions. In addition ten Japanese university professors who have taught Japanese to Chinese students were asked about the problems Chinese learners have with distinguishing these greetings according to time. Results showed that the criteria for differentiating these expressions is not simply restricted to time of day but is also influenced by the first time you met someone who has just started work or study irrespective of the time.
Japanese language education, along with the closely related field of Japanese language development, in conjunction with the Society for Teaching Japanese as a Foreign Language, Japanese society, and the Linguistic Society are substantial recently, too. However, can't we adopt a new standpoint, using techniques from other fields (e.g. sociology, a child, an infant language, medicine, and psychology)? In this study, I apply these principles to Japanese language education while introducing the contents of other fields, the techniques in the societies of other fields, and furthermore, I thought about what to do so that Japanese language education becomes the substantial thing once more.