With the goal of achieving an intelligent robot camera system that can take dynamic images automatically through humanlike, natural camera work, we analyzed how images were shot, subjectively evaluated reproduced images, and examined effects of camerawork, using camera control technique as a parameter. It was found that (1) A high evaluation is obtained when human-based data are used for the position adjusting velocity curve of the target; (2) Evaluation scores are relatively high for images taken with feedback-feedforward camera control method for target movement in one direction; (3) Keeping the target within the image area using the control method that imitates human camera handling becomes increasingly difficult when the target changes both direction and velocity and becomes bigger and faster, and (4) The mechanical feedback method can cope with rapid changes in the target’s direction and velocity, constantly keeping the target within the image area, though the viewer finds the image rather mechanical as opposed to humanlike.
The study projected a scenario where the aged handled home furniture in their daily lives. With the furniture designated at 5 different heights for task performance, different aspects of the center of gravity(CG) deflection in the young and the aged were investigated. The following points which should be considered were suggested; (1) The findings indicated that remarkable increases in CG deflection were detected in performing tasks on cabinet as age advanced. The age factor appeared to yield the major effect in all indices measured, whether the drawer was being drawn open or closed. (2) The major effects with age accompanied by significant mutual interactions between age and operation height were established when the drawer was drawn open. (3) In cases where the aged drew open the drawer, the LR deflections with reference to the CG were pronounced. When performing the task especially at greater heights, the deflections in the aged were enlarged, a tendency that was in contrast to the extended LR deflections (cf. at lower heights) in the young, contributing therefore to the increases in CG-DD and CG-DA, accordingly.
The objective of this study was to examine the change in knowledge and use of sport science in 46 elite New Zealand Olympic class dinghy sailors’ one year after the adoption of a sport science support (SSS) programme by Yachting New Zealand. Twenty eight (22 males, six females) sailors responded to a questionnaire which was administered during a training camp in April 1994 and 28 (also 22 males and six females) responded to the same questionnaire at a training camp in April 1995. Ten of the sailors responded in both 1994 and 1995. The questionnaire asked whether or not the sailors used a training race diary and inquired about their knowledge and use of sport science in the areas of nutrition, psychology and physical conditioning. In 1995, additional questions enquired about sailors’ perception of sport science and its affect on their racing performance. In the intervening year, six of the sailors received sport science support (SSS) in nutrition; eleven received SSS in sport psychology; eleven received SSS in physical conditioning. In 1995, the sailors reported a greater amount of fluid taken and drunk on a four-hour sail and a greater proportion of sailors ate a high carbohydrate meal after a race. They also reported feeling less anxiety before a race. Increases were also observed in the sailors’ volume and intensity of physical training and in their chosen type of aerobic training. Most sailors believed that their knowledge and use of sport science had increased and that this had led to improvements in racing performance. It is concluded that elite New Zealand sailors’ reported use of sport science improved in the areas of physical conditioning and nutrition between 1994 and 1995. Improvement in the use of sports psychology was less clear and the eleven sailors who received psychology SSS reported feeling more anxious before a race. There was little evidence to suggest that the sport science programme was responsible for the improvements. This study indicates that sailors are beginning to understand the importance of sport science support, but there is still much room for improvement in their use of sport science.
Brain activation is affected by gradient acoustic noise and various disturbances as well as by other primary tasks. Therefore, we have studied the effects of various disturbances of two different levels of difficulty, that is, weak and strong difficulty levels for primary visual and motor tasks. In the case of visual task with motor and mental disturbances, we found it decreased as motor and mental disturbance difficulty-level increased, compared with the case of without motor and mental disturbances. To the contrary, in the case of motor activity, the total activation of motor cortex with weak and with strong mental disturbance increased as mental disturbance difficulty-levels increased. Therefore, one can conclude that when mental disturbance is added, the visual cortex and motor cortex have an opposite result and when the difficulty-level of the disturbance is increased, the primary tasks are affected more significantly. Although the current observation is preliminary and requires more careful experimental study, it appears that various disturbance effects on brain functions (such as motor and visual cortical responses) produce significant differences in data observations.
For some tasks of underwater operation the need for longer dive duration and more working divers necessitates the use of saturation diving techniques with excursions. Saturation diving with excursion has high working efficiency. A collaborative experiment with Chinese Underwater Technology Institute, American National Office of Research Undersea Program and Hamilton Research Ltd. was conducted at our Institute in Shanghai. The main experiment objectives were to assess the longer, deeper repetitive excursions during nitrogen-oxygen saturation situation, oxygen exposure management, nitrox saturation decompression after excursions and performance aspects. Four Chinese professional experienced divers were saturated at 25 msw for 5 days at the hyperbaric facility, where they did 15 air excursions to depths between 50 and 75 msw, for duration up to 240 min. Decompression from excursions to the storage were mostly no-stops, but 5 required stops for 3 to 116 min. Saturation decopression began with the “precursory” ascent following a brief return to 25 msw. Doppler bubble detection showed some bubbles of Spencer Grade II and occasionally III, following excursions and during saturation decompression, especially after muscle flexing. No symptoms of decompression sickness were reported: one diver was more of fatigued on one occasion than other times. Oxygen exposure reached its peak of 3103 Oxygen Toxicity Units on Day 6. The only subjective symptom of oxygen toxicity was mild and transient numb fingertips. No significant change was seen in vital capacity.
The effects of pressure applied by cuffs to the abdomen, thighs and legs on resting salivary flow rate and digestive function of saliva were investigated in 9 healthy female students, aged 18 to 33 yrs (Experiment I) in a climatic chamber (Ta: 28°C, RH: 50%). Each participant changed from street clothing into loose-fitting experimental garments so as to avoid any skin pressure on the body, and sat calmly in a reclining chair throughout the experimental period (195 min). After 90 min (FREE period), the physiological effects of skin pressure applied by their own clothing disappeared, and skin pressure was applied for the next 60 min to the abdomen (40 mmHg) and thighs (40 mmHg) then to the legs (60 mmHg) by the use of air-inflated cuffs (PRESSURE period). During the next 45 min, the skin pressure was again removed by letting the air of the cuffs out (FREE’ period). The resting salivary flow rate was significantly suppressed while the skin pressure was applied by the cuffs. The digestive time for starch investigated in terms of the iodine starch reaction was longer with the skin pressure than without. The concentration of amylase measured in 20 female participants aged 21 to 23 yrs, decreased with skin pressure applied by the usage of the rubber tape (Experiment II). These results suggest that the pressure applied to the body can influence the digestive response by decreasing the amount of saliva via the autonomic nervous system.