The relationship of cigarette smoking with blood pressure and serum lipids and lipoproteins was studied in the 3934 middle-aged women aged 40 to 59 years. After adjusting age, body mass index (BMI), alcohol intake and physical activity scores, the mean systolic and diastolic blood pressures (SBP and DBP, respectively) did not indicate dose-dependent relationships. The largest significant mean differences in SBP (4.6 mmHg), DBP (3.9 mmHg), high density lipoprotein choresterol (HDL-C) (9.6 mg/dL), ratio of total cholesterol to HDL-C (TC/HDL-C) (0.8), triglycerides (TG) (22.9 mg/dL) and the logarithmic transformation of TG (Log TG) (0.26) were found between the non-smokers and smokers. When age, BMI, alcohol intake and physical activity scores were included in the forward stepwise multiple regression analyses, there were negative relationships found for cigarette smoking and SBP, DBP and HDL-C and positive relationships for cigarette smoking and TC/HDL-C, TG, Log TG and low density lipoprotein choresterol. Although the results are somewhat variable, the present study shows cigarette smoking is negatively associated with SBP and DBP and unfavorably associated with serum lipids and lipoproteins in middle-aged women.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of the hedonic properties of odors and the attention of subjects on components of the olfactory event-related potentials (OERP). The subjects were seven healthy male students. Two odors (orange and eugenol) of different hedonic properties were presented to the subjects via a constant-flow olfactometer during an oddball paradigm under ignore and attend conditions, and the OERP were then established. The latencies of the OERP were not affected by the qualitatively different odors, whereas the amplitude of late positive component (P3) during the presentation of orange was significantly larger than that during the presentation of eugenol. On the other hand, the allocation of a subject's attention led to a decrease in the latency and to an increase in the amplitude of P3. Moreover, the amplitude of P3 increased significantly when the pleasant odor (orange) in the rare stimulus was presented under the attend condition. These results suggested that hedonic property, distribution of attention, and the interaction between these factors may influence the OERP components.
This study evaluated the clothing colors in the elderly. We took photos using the elderly as models, displayed them on a computer screen , and produced 75 colors of the clothing in the elderly using computer graphics. The 75 colors were evaluated by Japanese and Korean elderly women. We compared the ideal colors for and the colors actually worn by elderly people in Japan and Korea. Japanese and Korean elderly women differed concerning their ideal clothing color and their most often worn color. The images concerning clothing colors also differed between the two groups, suggesting differences in their views related to clothing. Japanese elderly women tended to view clothing as a means of expressing their individuality, while Korean elderly women tended to view clothing as a means of expressing their character.
The purpose of this study was to clarify the influence of posture change on relative body fat in the bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) method. The subjects were 30 Japanese healthy young adult males (age: 19.8 ± 1.4 years, height: 172.3 ± 5.8 cm, weight: 67.1 ± 8.2 kg). We used devices with different body segment inductions, between the hand and foot (H-F BIA) and between hands (H-H BIA), and set four measurement conditions differing in posture (supine or sitting), during rest and measurement. The reliabilities of %BF in the H-H and H-F BIA methods were very high (r=0.995, 0.966), and the relationship in %BF between the UW method and each BIA method was mid-range (r=0.767, 0.709). Although there were no differences in %BF among different measurement postures in the H-F BIA method, %BF in the H-H BIA method increased significantly when the posture was changed just before measurement. This indicated that it is necessary to pay attention to the posture change just before measurement in the H-H BIA method.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the hypothesis that EEG values match other comprehensive activities of daily living (ADL) evaluations between stroke survivors and normal controls. Various functions related to ADL were examined by means of ADL assessments (Measurement of Competence in the Elderly Living at Home, Barthel Index, Stroke Impairment Assessment Set, time needed to walk 10 metres) and biosocial synchronization (the questionnaire on biosocial rhythms of daily living). EEG was undertaken using a computer-assisted portable EEG recorder. The power spectra were computed using a fast Fourier transformation analysis (FFT). The absolute and relative powers (percent of the total EEG power) of 5 frequency bands (delta, theta, alpha 1, alpha 2 and beta) and the peak frequency were analyzed. In comparing stroke survivors and the independent elderly, the latter had higher scores than the former in assessments of various functions related to ADL. The absolute and relative power of the delta band were lower in normal controls, and the relative power of the alpha (2) band and the peak frequency were higher than those of stroke survivors. Among the correlations between EEG and ADL assessments, the absolute and relative power of the alpha (2) band correlated significantly with ADL assessments of stroke survivors with right hemiplegia. The peak frequency was significantly increased in cases with high ADL scores. In conclusion, significant correlations were identified between the quantitative EEG data of stroke survivors in the chronic stage, living in the community, and ADL-related functions. Computer-assisted portable EEG recording is a potentially useful screening tool for objectively evaluating the functional levels of stroke survivors in field work.