An investigation of 150 adult Bengalee Hindu male jute mill workers in Belur, a suburb of Kolkata, West Bengal, India, was conducted to study the relationship between central obesity and blood pressure. In accordance with their waist circumference measurement, the subjects were divided into two categories: centrally non-obese (CNO) and centrally obese (CO). The participants were classified as the CO group if they had a WC of 80 cm or more. Results showed that none of the CNO subjects was mild hypertensive (SBP≧140 mmHg and/or DBP≧90 mmHg) while 85 of the CO subjects (82.5%) were mild hypertensives, the difference being statistically significant (chi-square=9.33; p<0.0025). Moreover, the data also revealed that the CO subjects had much (p<0.001) greater mean weight, body mass index (BMI), systolic (SBP), diastolic (DBP) and mean arterial (MAP) blood pressure than the CNO group members. The significant difference in blood pressure was found even after correcting the confounding effects of age and BMI variables. The results of this study showed that, the Bengalee male jute mill workers in the CO group had significantly higher blood pressure irrespective of age and overall adiposity (BMI). Therefore, the presence of central obesity is deemed a risk factor, for hypertension regardless of age and BMI. Thus, a WC cut-off point of 80 cm could be employed for health promotion among Bengalee men so as to prevent and manage hypertension effectively.
This study compared the accuracy of body density (Db) estimation methods using hydrostatic weighing without complete head submersion (HWwithoutHS) of Donnelly et al. (1988) and Donnelly and Sintek (1984) as referenced to Goldman and Buskirk's approach (1961). Donnelly et al.'s method estimates Db from a regression equation using HWwithoutHS, moreover, Donnelly and Sintek's method estimates it from HWwithoutHS and head anthropometric variables. Fifteen Japanese males (173.8±4.5 cm, 63.6±5.4 kg, 21.2±2.8 years) and fifteen females (161.4±5.4 cm, 53.8±4.8 kg, 21.0±1.4 years) participated in this study. All the subjects were measured for head length, width and HWs under the two conditions of with and without head submersion. In order to examine the consistency of estimation values of Db, the correlation coefficients between the estimation values and the reference (Goldman and Buskirk, 1961) were calculated. The standard errors of estimation (SEE) were calculated by regression analysis using a reference value as a dependent variable and estimation values as independent variables. In addition, the systematic errors of two estimation methods were investigated by the Bland-Altman technique (Bland and Altman, 1986). In the estimation, Donnelly and Sintek's equation showed a high relationship with the reference (r=0.960, p<0.01), but had more differences from the reference compared with Donnelly et al.'s equation. Further studies are needed to develop new prediction equations for Japanese considering sex and individual differences in head anthropometry.
This study examined effects of hyperoxia on thermoregulatory responses. Eight healthy male students (23.5±1.8 yrs) were involved in this study. They immersed their legs in a hot water bath (42°C) for 60 minutes in a climate chamber. The conditions of oxygen concentration of a chamber were set at 21% (control), 25% (25%O2), and 30% (30%O2). Ambient temperature and relative humidity was maintained at 25°C and 50% in every condition, respectively. Measurements included rectal temperature (Tre), skin temperature at 7 sites, laser Doppler flowmeter (LDF) on the back and forearm as an index of skin blood flow, heart rate, local sweat rate (Msw) on the back and forearm, and total body weight loss (BWL). Increases of Tre at 25%O2 and 30%O2 tended to be lower during the immersion than in the control. Mean skin temperature (Tsk) of the control increased gradually after the onset of sweating, while the Tsks at 25%O2 and 30%O2 maintained a constant level during sweating. LDFs on the forearm at 25%O2 and 30%O2 showed lower increases compared with the control. No significant differences in Msw on the back and the forearm and BWL were seen among the conditions. These results suggested that hyperoxia could not affect sweating responses but elicit an inhibitory effect on thermoregulatory skin blood flow.
To clarify the interactive effects of alcohol intake and angiotensinogen gene codon 174 (T174M) polymorphisms on blood pressure in Japanese male workers. On the basis of data from health examinations, nutrition survey and T174M genotype analysis conducted for 185 Japanese male workers at 2000, the prevalence of high-normal blood pressure (HNBP) and hypertension were compared between the four subgroups crossed by two T174M genotype categories (‘TT’ type, and ‘TM or MM’ type) and two alcohol intake categories (less than 13.7 g per day, and 13.7 g or more per day). Furthermore, for 95 subjects who had been normotensive at 1998 among them, risk of development into HNBP or hypertension at 2000 were compared across the four subgroups. The findings showed that the HNBP prevalence adjusted for age, body mass index, smoking habits and sodium intake in 2000 was significantly (p=0.03) greater in ‘TM or MM’ type (57.9%) than in ‘TT’ type (24.9%) in subjects with 13.7 g or more of daily alcohol intake, whereas no difference in this parameter was found between the two genotypes in those with less than 13.7 g of daily alcohol intake (18.2% and 18.3%, respectively). The risk for development into HNBP at 2000 was also greatest in ‘TM or MM’ type with 13.7 g or more of daily alcohol intake among the four subgroups, although there were not significant differences between the four subgroups. The prevalence of hypertension or development risk for hypertension did not significantly differ between the four subgroups. Therefore, it can be seen that alcohol drinking might be specifically associated with the HNBP in M allele carriers of angiotensinogen gene T174M polymorphism.
This study evaluated the body composition (underwater weighing) and cardiorespiratory function (VO2max and O2debt max measured by the treadmill exercise test) in 12 members of the women's volleyball team (mean age 17.4 years) and 11 members of the women's basketball team (mean age 17.6 years) that won the championship in the Japan Inter-high School Meeting. We also examined differences in the physical abilities between the members of the top teams of different events. The following results were obtained.
The mean values of the height and body weight were 168.7±5.89 cm and 59.7±5.73 kg in the volleyball players and 166.5±7.87 cm and 58.8±6.85 kg in the basketball players.
The mean %Fat was 18.4±3.29% in the volleyball players and 15.7±5.05% in the basketball players, and was similar to the reported values in elite adult players.
The mean VO2max was 2.78±0.32 L · min−1 (46.5±2.90 ml · kg−1 · min−1) in the volleyball players and 3.32±0.31 L · min−1 (56.7±4.17 ml · kg−1 · min−1) in the basketball players, and was similar to the reported values in elite adult players.
The mean O2debt max was 6.18±1.15 L (103.2±12.40 ml · kg−1) in the volleyball players and 7.92±1.80 L (134.3±23.24 ml · kg−1) in the basketball players. These values were 2.6 times and 3.3 times as high as the average values in high school students in general.
No significant difference was observed in any measured item of the physique, skinfold thickness, or body composition between the volleyball players and basketball players.
The VO2max and O2debt max were 22% and 28% higher in the basketball players than in the volleyball players.
From these results, the female volleyball players and basketball players evaluated in this study had the physical abilities needed to win the championship in the Japan Inter-high School Meets, i.e. a large FFM and excellent aerobic and anaerobic work capacities. Also, basketball appears to require higher aerobic and anaerobic work capacities than volleyball.
The purpose of this study was to examine the influences of long-term walking training and walking and jumping training on bone mineral density (BMD) and bone metabolism. Data from 28 healthy premenopausal women was assessed. The subjects were divided into the walking group (WG; 17 women mean±SE age 35±2 years), and the walking and jumping group (WJG; 11 women mean±SE age 39±1 years). BMD was measured in the lumbar spine and proximal femur using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). As markers of bone metabolism, this study was to measure bone formation markers, bone-alkaline phosphatase (B-ALP: measured by enzyme immunoassay/EIA) and osteocalcin (BGP: by radioimmunoassay/RI) as well as bone resorption markers, parathyroid hormone (PTH: measured by/RI) and type I collagen cross-linked N-telopeptides (NTx: by EIA). Despite the significant decrease in body weight (p<0.05), no corresponding decrease in BMD was observed. Moreover, no significant difference in bone markers BGP, PTH, and NTx was observed. B-ALP was significantly increased (p<0.05) after one year, and the rate of this increase was greater in the WJG than in the WG. It is thus concluded that walking training for one year is beneficial for the promotion of bone formation, and that jumping stimulus maintain BMD effectively.