A human model allowing the non-invasive study of bone marrow haemodynamics has been developed. A decrease in postischaemic tissue reperfusion capability (postischaemic hyperaemia) as a function of age (range 25–72 years) was observed both in the human tibia and tibialis anterior muscle. In the tibia bone marrow the reperfusion capability started to decrease after 50 years and was lower than for muscle for all the age range. Mean basal muscle O2 saturation (80.8% at 25 years) decreases as a function of age (−0.35%±0.13% per year) whereas it remains constant for bone marrow (84.8±2.8%). A Monte Carlo simulation has been performed to evaluate the accuracy of the derived O2 saturation measurements and has shown that this parameter is robust even in the presence of substantial noise. It has also been demonstrated that it is necessary to use a multi wavelength NIR spectrometer and a second derivative based fitting algorithm to obtain reliable measurements from the bone marrow, and that the tissue scattering changes occurring during the protocol do not allow the use of the standard near infrared spectroscopy algorithms. The human tibia bone marrow model presented here and the related measurement technique should enable access to new areas of physiological research.
This study examined the physiological benefits of 24-style Taijiquan (24TJQ) exercises by comparing heart rate (HR), respiratory rate (RR), exercise intensity, electroencephalograph, surface electromyography and surface thermograph, as well as the results of physical fitness test in 20 middle-aged women (10 skilled participants and 10 novices). The data from the skilled participants showed greater values in sit-ups (p<0.01), side step (p<0.01) and stand trunk flexion (p<0.05), moreover, the statistic data demonstrated not only greater HR (p<0.05) or lower RR during exercise, but also higher beta%-power during the experiment, higher alpha%-power in the eye-closed period and central alpha dominant after exercise. These results suggest that 24TJQ is effective to promote physiological benefits in middle-aged women. It attracts strong interest and is helpful to induce psychological relaxation and mental concentration.
The simulated dive experiments were conducted at the high altitude of 4,500 meters and 5,000 meters, for the requirement of diving operation in the lakes at the altitude of 4,442 meters for the construction of large-scale hydroelectric power station. The high & low pressure chamber-complex was used, and 15 professional divers participated in the experiment. The divers were stayed at the altitude of 4,500 and 5,000 meters for 7–9 days. Totally 85 persons-times of dives to the depths of 30–50 meters were operated; they stayed under the water for 30–90 minutes while processing physical activities. During the experiment, we studied the pressurization procedure, decompression table, and physiological functions of the divers. The results indicate that, although the relative pressure differences between the surface and underwater was larger at high altitude than at sea level, the appropriate prolongation of the compression time was able to prevent the difficulty in pressure regulation for the divers to avoid the injury of middle ear. Four tables of the decompression A, B, C and D was calculated with Haldane's theory, and the speed of decompression increased in the order from A to D. The safest procedure was C, and there was no decompression sickness and bubbles in body of the divers. The methods of decompression included underwater stage decompression, surface decompression, oxygen-breathing decompression, and repetitive diving decompression. The surface decompression was the most suitable method for the high altitude, as it could greatly decrease the time in the cold water for the divers. The power spectrum analysis of EEG (electroencephalogram) indicated that, when the divers were exposed to the altitude of 5,000 meters, the δ activity in EEG increased, α and β activity decreased. And the δ activity decreased, the α and β activity increased while diving during a dry condition. According to the diving and decompression procedure studied under simulated conditions, 272 person-times of diving training and underwater operations were processed in a high altitude hydroelectric power station at the altitude of 4,442 meters, including photographing, video-recording, measuring, and drilling. There were no signs and symptoms of decompression sickness and bubbles.
The present study compared the regression equations of bioelectrical impedance on body size among various groups to investigate potential differences due to ethnicity. Data consisted of 30 Japanese and 28 Caucasoid subjects, and other groups of Aborigines, Danes, Melanesians and Polynesians from literature. The relationship between impedance and body weight fot the groups showed the ethnic difference. In the regression equations for Japanese and Caucasoid, a statistically significant difference was observed between both groups. The regression equation for Japanese was lower in the elevation. This seemed to be attributable to differences in the volume of fat-free mass for the same body build, configuration of the body, and fat-free mass density.
It has been reported that nutritional stress, such as short-term fasting and long-term energy restriction, has a suppressive effect on allergic dermatitis in experimental animals. Furthermore, clinical study has demonstrated a positive association between weight loss by low-energy diet and improvement in patients with atopic dermatitis. In this report, a 23-year-old female with atopic dermatitis received a treatment of repeated short-term fasting. 24-hour fasting was conducted once a week for a period of 20 weeks. On the fasting day, the amount of energy intake was 200 kcal. No medication was administered during the trial period. Clinical symptoms were evaluated using the Scoring Atopic Dermatitis index, and IgE, lactase dehydrogenase-5, and number of eosinophils were measured. At the end of the trial, body weight was reduced and clinical symptoms improved, whereas no improvements in laboratory findings were shown. For sufficient evidence of the effects of fasting, additional controlled study is needed.