The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of combined aerobic and resistance training on abdominal fat. Our participants in the study consisted of thirty obese women. They were separated into three groups: a control group (n=10), an aerobic training group (n=10) and a combined training group (n=10). The aerobic training group was composed of 60–70% HRmax (intensity), 60 minutes a day (duration) for 6 days a week (frequency). The combined training group was separated into resistance training (3 days a week, Mon, Wed, Fri) and the aerobic training (3 days a week, Tue, Thu, Sat). The levels for abdominal fat volume were measured by determining the subcutaneous fat volume (SFV), visceral fat volume (VFV), and VFV/SFV by CT (computed tomography). The VO2max was significantly (p<0.05) increased in both groups. The subcutaneous fat and visceral fat levels were decreased in the combined training group more than in the aerobics training group. Also, the lean body mass (LBM) was significantly increased only in the combined training group. In addition, the total cholesterol, triglyceride and LDL-C were significantly (p<.05) decreased and the HDL-C was significantly (p<.05) increased in both groups. In conclusion, our results observed that combined training decreased abdominal subcutaneous fat and visceral fat more than aerobic training only.
It has been hypothesized that the signals of near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) would reflect muscle O2 uptake (mVO2). Although it is not definite that NIRS signals accurately reflect mVO2, there is every possibility that NIRS signals at least reflect regional O2 uptake (rVO2). The phase II kinetics of pulmonary oxygen uptake (pVO2) is regarded as reflecting mVO2 at the onset of exercise. To examine whether the rVO2 on-kinetics measured by NIRS reflects the mVO2 on-kinetics at the onset of exercise, we compared the rVO2 as measured by NIRS with the phase II kinetics of pVO2 at the onset of exercise. Twelve healthy male subjects cycled a Monark ergometer at three different intensities: below the ventilatory threshold (VT) level (below-VT), on the VT level (on-VT), and above the VT level (above-VT), for 6 minutes on three separate occasions. The rVO2 was calculated from the concentration of oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin, as measured by NIRS every 3 seconds. The pVO2 was determined by the breath-by-breath method. A significant relationship between the amount of increases of pVO2 and rVO2 from rest to the end of exercise among all levels of exercise intensity was found (r=0.935, P<0.001). The time constants of rVO2 (rVO2-Tc: below-VT: 6.514±2.159 s, on-VT: 7.760±2.035 s, above-VT: 9.532±2.342 s) were significantly faster than the time constants of pVO2 (pVO2-Tc: below-VT: 23.8±4.4 s, on-VT: 25.9±5.1 s, above-VT: 26.3±5.7 s) (P<0.001). There was no significant relationship between rVO2-Tc and pVO2-Tc for each intensity (P>0.05). We conclude that the rVO2 on-kinetics measured by NIRS does not necessarily reflect the mVO2 kinetics at the onset of exercise.
The purpose of this study was to observe the change in double product with increases in the intensity of bicycle exercise. Eleven young male adults participated in this study. The subjects performed graded bicycling exercise increasing 20 watts every 2 min from 0 watts until the heart rate (HR) reached 170 beats·min−1. During exercise systolic blood pressure (SBP) and HR were continuously measured. Initially SBP gradually increased with the increase in workload, but when the intensity of exercise became even higher, the rate of increase slowed. On the other hand, the increase in HR was very small during the initial 5 min of exercise and when the intensity of exercise increased, the rate of increase of HR became higher. The polygonal regression analyses on the relation of double product to elapsed time revealed clear break-points. On average, the break-point of double product was 6.6 min (56 watts). These results clearly showed that the break-point of double product with an increase in workload appeared even though the workload was relatively low.
The purpose of the present paper is to describe and evaluate the polynomial models for predicting the muscular work capacity of the upper limb during sustained holding tasks. This research was concerned with the relationship between indicators of performance, i.e., specific posture or specific level of maximum voluntary contraction (MVC), and then modeling the functional data based on experimental results to estimate factors that may have an effect on task performance. To this end, we designed an experiment using 10 subjects in which each subject performed sustained isometric shoulder and elbow flexion endurance exercise under 27 conditions [3 shoulder angles (SA)×3 elbow angles (EA)×3 levels of %MVC]. Throughout all experiments, subjective perception of effort was assessed using the Borg scale, every 60, 30, and 10 s during the 20%, 40%, and 60% MVC tests, respectively. Proposal models were represented by three approaches: model A: estimation of endurance time (ET), with input variables such as SA, EA, and %MVC; model B: estimation of recommendation time (RT, the time during which the operator was able to maintain a position under the desired condition), with input variables such as SA, EA, %MVC, and required rate on the Borg scale; and model C: estimation of limit strength or %MVC, with input variables such as SA, EA, request limit time for work (LT), and required rate on the Borg scale. Statistical analysis indicated that the three proposal estimation models based on polynomial regression functions showed high significance (p<0.0001). The proposal models suggested and recommended the possibility of finding the best positions entailing the reduction and minimization of total muscular strain from manual material handling tasks in different work situations, with the consequent increase in work efficiency.
This study aimed to comprehensively investigate the comprehensive relationships between depression and the characteristics of lifestyle and quality of life (QOL) of healthy, community dwelling elderly, and compare them according to gender and age groups. 1302 subjects (657 males and 645 females) were used for analysis. The investigators in this study were researchers working at universities in each prefecture. Data collection was conducted in a general delivery survey and interview setting or an education class setting. The geriatric depression scale (GDS) consisting of 15 items with a dichotomous scale was used to assess depression symptoms in the elderly. In addition, 16 items selected from the four factors of economic situation, physical health, social activity, and personal status were used to assess lifestyle. Furthermore, this study investigated life satisfaction, morale, and physical function with the LSI scale, PGC morale scale and the ADL scale of the Ministry of Education, Science and Culture, respectively. According to our results, depression characteristics of the elderly differ between gender and age groups. Depression increases in the old-old elderly rather than in the young-old elderly and is highest in old-old females. The factors significantly related to depression in community dwelling elderly were the number of friends and morale. In particular, an increase in the number of friends was related to a decrease in depression. Depression in the old-old elderly was more significantly related to many lifestyle items compared with the young-old elderly, and especially in the old-old elderly, the extent of social activities related to a decrease in depression.