The purpose of this study was to construct QOL models for the elderly that included ikigai as a composition factor and to clarify differences in two kinds of models, one constructed for the elderly with habitual exercise and the other for those without it. The subjects were 1,566 healthy community-dwelling independent people aged 60 years or more (752 males, 814 females). First, the ratio of subjects with ikigai was calculated. The ratios of subjects with different kinds of objects of ikigai were also calculated. Next, structural equation models (SEM) were constructed on the basis of social, physical, and mental QOL and ikigai. Fits of the models were evaluated. To examine whether the presence or absence of habitual exercise caused any difference in the QOL model, subjects were divided into 4 groups according to whether they were male or female and whether they had or did not have an exercise habit. Multi-population group simultaneous analysis was then performed among the four groups. More than 85% of the subjects had objects of ikigai. Ikigai is an important factor for comprehending the QOL of the elderly. It was possible to construct QOL models for the elderly with ikigai as a composition factor. The effect of physical QOL on mental QOL was negligible in females irrespective of whether they had an exercise habit. The effect of social QOL on mental QOL was profound in aged females with an exercise habit. The effect of the living situation on mental QOL was profound in aged females without an exercise habit. The effect of mental QOL on ikigai was more marked in subjects without an exercise habit than in those with an exercise habit.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of cool exposure on lipolytic response during prolonged intermediate-intensity exercise in humans. Eight male subjects participated in this study; they performed 120-min cycle ergometer exercise at 60% of maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) in a climatic chamber at 10°C (C) and 30°C (WH). There were no significant differences in oxygen uptake and respiratory exchange ratio between the two conditions during the prolonged exercise. Significant influences of cool exposure were observed in the changes in both heart rate and rectal temperature (p<0.01). Although cool exposure had no significant effects on plasma triglyceride, free fatty acid, and glycerol levels, changes in adrenaline and noradrenaline levels at C were significantly lower than WH during the prolonged exercise (p<0.01). Changes in the ratio of glycerol to noradrenaline (Gly/Nad), as an index of lipolytic efficiency, were significantly high at C as compared with WH (p<0.01). These results suggest that cool exposure has an influence on lipid metabolism during prolonged intermediate-intensity exercise, from the viewpoint of efficiency in lipolysis.
This study investigates the effects of a short-term aerobic training program in a hot environment on thermoregulation, blood parameters, sweat secretion and composition in tropic-dwellers who have been exposed to passive heat. Sixteen healthy Malaysian-Malay male volunteers underwent heat acclimation (HA) by exercising on a bicycle ergometer at 60% of VO2max for 60 min each day in a hot environment (Ta: 31.1±0.1°C, rh: 70.0±4.4%) for 14 days. All parameters mentioned above were recorded on Day 1 and at the end of HA (Day 16). On these two days, subjects rested for 10 min, then cycled at 60% of VO2max for 60 min and rested again for 20 min (recovery) in an improvised heat chamber. Rectal temperature (Tre), mean skin temperature (Tsk) heart rate (HR), ratings of perceived exertion (RPE), thermal sensation (TS), local sweat rate and percent dehydration were recorded during the test. Sweat concentration was analysed for sodium [Na+]sweat and potassium. Blood samples were analysed for biochemical changes, electrolytes and hematologic indices. Urine samples were collected before and after each test and analysed for electrolytes. After the period of acclimation the percent dehydration during exercise significantly increased from 1.77±0.09% (Day 1) to 2.14±0.07% (Day 16). Resting levels of hemoglobin, hematocrit and red blood cells decreased significantly while [Na+]sweat increased significantly. For Tre and Tsk there were no differences at rest. Tre, HR, RPE, TS, plasma lactate concentration, hemoglobin and hematocrit at the 40th min of exercise were significantly lower after the period of acclimation but mean corpuscular hemoglobin and serum osmolality were significantly higher while no difference was seen in [Na+]sweat and Tsk. It can be concluded that tropic-dwelling subjects, although exposed to prolonged passive heat exposure, were not fully heat acclimatized. To achieve further HA, they should gradually expose themselves to exercise-heat stress in a hot environment.
This study aimed to compare body sway characteristics of the healthy elderly and the disordered elderly. The subjects were 38 healthy elderly and 24 disordered elderly with disequilibrium. The latter consisted of two groups: 12 elderly with vestibular organ or central nervous systems disorder (central nervous disorders), and 12 elderly with disorder in other systems (other disorders). The measurement device can calculate the center of foot pressure (CFP) of vertical loads from the values of three vertical load sensors, which are located at the corners of an isosceles triangle on a level surface. The data sampling frequency was 20 Hz. Four body sway factors with high reliability (unit time sway, front-back sway, left-right sway, and high frequency band power) were used to evaluate body sway. As compared with healthy people, central nervous disorders had larger unit time sway, high frequency band power, and left-right sway factors. Other disorders were larger in unit time sway and high frequency band power factors. Central nervous disorders, as compared with other disorders, had larger unit time sway and left-right sway factors. Disorders produced large and fast sway, and central nervous disorders in particular showed a marked sway in the left-right direction. The existence of disease influenced body sway more than decline in various functions related to posture control with aging, because even with the same elderly, disorders showed a larger body sway.