Seiza is one of the most commonly used sitting postures in various enrichment lessons of Japanese origin. It is reported that Seiza with large knee flexion produces harmful effects on the cartilage of knee joints and hemodynamics of the lower legs. This study aimed at examining the influence of Seiza on tissue oxygenation kinetics of the lower limbs, plantar somatic and cutaneous sensation, and the center of foot pressure (COP) sway using 10 young adults. COP sway was measured for 1 min just after sitting on a chair for 10 min (pre-test), after 30-min Seiza (post-test 1), and 5 min after Seiza (post-test 2). To evaluate the COP sway, we used 4 body sway factors; unit time sway factor (F1), front-back sway factor (F2), left-right sway factor (F3) and high frequency band power spectrum factor (F4). Physiological parameters (i.e., tissue oxygenation kinetics in the lower legs and sensation on the sole) were measured during 30-min Seiza (continuously on tissue oxygenation, and at 1 min intervals on sensation), and for 1 min just before each COP test (pre-test, post-test 1 and 2). Oxygenated hemoglobin/myoglobin (Hb/Mb) concentration decreased markedly and deoxygenated Hb/Mb concentration increased markedly, resulting in reaching a plateau state at around 7 min. Tissue Hb/Mb index changed little during Seiza. Proprioceptive perception thresholds increased rapidly about 17 min after Starting Seiza. Means of 3 COP sway factors of F1, F2 and F4 were significantly higher in post-test 1 than in pre-test and post-test 2. In conclusion, a marked decrease in tissue oxygen concentration of the lower legs within 4–5 min, and an increase of proprioceptive perception thresholds in the sole at about 17 min are induced by Seiza. Although wiggle and quick body sway in the antero-posterior axis increases markedly in an upright posture just after maintaining Seiza for 30 min, sway recovers after sitting on a chair for 5 min.
It is demonstrated, that the bioenergetic model combined with the mathematical constraints determined by the experimental knowledge of the aerobic metabolism and the Lohmann reaction dictates the exact lactate (La)-time relationship during exercise. The theory predicts that La is necessarily produced (above the resting baseline), even during extremely low work loads, where the metabolism was usually considered in the past to be “pure” aerobic. The La rate of production increases linearly as a function of the work load. The anaerobic threshold is strictly determined by the saturation of the La clearance mechanisms of the body different from the “La shuttle” and not by the involvement of a sudden increased La production at the cellular level. These results imply that the half time of the PCr breakdown kinetics at the onset of a constant load exercise can be expressed as a function of the onset speed of the aerobic and of the anaerobic metabolism, even in the case of a very low mechanical power. The PCr half-time does not depend on the workload and represents a physiological invariant. The bioenergetic model was created during a long historical period, when it was believed that the La production was not present at all for very low exercise levels but, actually, the bioenergetic model predicts exactly the opposite result!
In order to examine whether the spectral compositions of light source may affect sleep quality, sleep architecture under different color temperatures of light sources was evaluated. Seven healthy males were exposed to the light sources of different color temperatures (3000 K, 5000 K and 6700 K) for 6.5 h before sleep. The horizontal illuminance level was kept at 1000 lux. Subjects slept on a bed in near darkness (<10 lux) after extinguishing the light, and polysomnograms recorded the sleep parameters. In the early phase of the sleep period, the amount of stage-4 sleep (S4-sleep) was significantly attenuated under the higher color temperature of 6700 K compared with the lower color temperature of 3000 K. Present findings suggest that light sources with higher color temperatures may affect sleep quality in a view that S4-sleep period is important for sleep quality.