Journal of PHYSIOLOGICAL ANTHROPOLOGY and Applied Human Science
Online ISSN : 1347-5355
Print ISSN : 1345-3475
ISSN-L : 1345-3475
Volume 24 , Issue 4
Showing 1-47 articles out of 47 articles from the selected issue
ORIGINALS
  • Abdul Rashid Aziz, Kong Chuan Teh
    2005 Volume 24 Issue 4 Pages 253-257
    Published: 2005
    Released: August 01, 2005
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The aim of this study was to compare the physiological responses and energy cost between two ascending patterns, the single-step (SS) and the double-step (DS), in climbing a public staircase. In the SS pattern, a person climbs one step at a time whilst in the double-step (DS) pattern, the individual traverses two steps in a single stride. Advocates of each stepping pattern claimed that their type of ascent is physically more taxing and expends more calories. Thirty subjects (10 males and 20 females) climbed a typical 11-storey flat (each step height of 0.15 m, a total of 180 steps and a vertical displacement of 27.0 m). The subjects climbed using either the SS pattern at a tempo of 100 steps·min−1 or the DS pattern at 50 steps·min−1. The prescribed stepping frequencies ensured that an equal amount of total work was performed between the SS and DS patterns. The climbing patterns were performed in random order. Physiological measures during the last 30 s of the climbs were used in the comparative analysis. The results showed that ventilation, oxygen uptake and heart rate values were significantly higher (all p<0.01) in the SS as compared to the DS pattern. However, the caloric expenditure during the SS pattern was calculated to be only marginally higher than the DS pattern. In conclusion, ascending with the SS pattern led to significantly higher physiological responses compared to the DS pattern. The higher calorie expended with the SS compared to the DS pattern was deemed to be of little practical significance.
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  • Takeshi Kera, Hitoshi Maruyama
    2005 Volume 24 Issue 4 Pages 259-265
    Published: 2005
    Released: August 01, 2005
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of posture on the expiratory activity of the abdominal muscles. Fifteen young adult men participated in the study. Activities of the external oblique abdominis, internal oblique abdominis, and rectus abdominis muscles were measured electromyographically in various postures. We used a pressure threshold in order to activate the abdominal muscles as these muscles are silent at rest. A spirometer was used to measure the lung volume in various postures. Subjects were placed in the supine, standing, sitting, and sitting-with-elbow-on-the-knee (SEK) positions. Electromyographic activity and mouth pressure were measured during spontaneous breathing and maximal voluntary ventilation under the respiratory load. We observed that the lung volume changed with posture; however, the breathing pattern under respiratory load did not change. During maximal voluntary ventilation, internal oblique abdominis muscle expiratory activity was lower in the SEK position than in any other position, external oblique abdominis muscle inspiratory activity was lower in the supine position than in any other position, and internal oblique abdominis muscle activity was higher in the standing position than in any other position. During spontaneous breathing, external oblique abdominis muscle activity was higher during expiration and inspiration in the SEK position than in any other position. The internal oblique abdominis muscle activity was higher during both inspiration and expiration in the standing position than in any other position. The rectus abdominis muscle activity did not change with changes in posture during both inspiration and expiration. Increase in the external oblique abdominis activity in the SEK position was due to anatomical muscle arrangement that was consistent with the direction of lower rib movement. On the other hand, increase in the internal oblique abdominis activity in the standing position was due to stretching of the abdominal wall by the viscera. We concluded that differences in activity were due to differences in the anatomy of the abdominal muscles and the influence of gravity.
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  • Mohamed Saat, Yutaka Tochihara, Nobuko Hashiguchi, Roland Gamini Siris ...
    2005 Volume 24 Issue 4 Pages 267-275
    Published: 2005
    Released: August 01, 2005
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The effect of low-intensity exercise in the heat on thermoregulation and certain biochemical changes in temperate and tropical subjects under poorly and well-hydrated states was examined. Two VO2max matched groups of subjects consisting of 8 Japanese (JS) and 8 Malaysians (MS) participated in this study under two conditions: poorly-hydrated (no water was given) and well-hydrated (3 mL·Kg−1 body weight of water was provided at onset of exercise, and the 15th, 35th and 55th min of exercise). The experimental room in both countries was adjusted to a constant level (Ta: 31.6±0.03°C, rh: 72.3±0.13%). Subjects spent an initial 10 min rest, 60 min of cycling at 40% VO2max and then 40 min recovery in the experimental room. Rectal temperatures (Tre) skin temperatures (Tsk), heart rate (HR), heat-activated sweat glands density (HASG), local sweat rate (Msw-back) and percent dehydration were recorded during the test. Blood samples were analysed for plasma glucose and lactate levels.
    The extent of dehydration was significantly higher in the combined groups of JS (1.43±0.08%) compared to MS (1.15±0.05%). During exercise Msw-back was significantly higher in JS compared to MS in the well-hydrated condition. The HASG was significantly more in JS compared to MS at rest and recovery. Tre was higher in MS during the test. Tsk was significantly higher starting at the 5th min of exercise until the end of the recovery period in MS compared to JS.
    In conclusion, tropical natives have lower Msw-back associated with higher Tsk and Tre during the rest, exercise and recovery periods. However, temperate natives have higher Msw-back and lower Tsk and Tre during experiments in a hot environment. This phenomenon occurs in both poorly-hydrated and well-hydrated states with low intensity exercise. The differences in Msw-back, Tsk and Tre are probably due to a setting of the core temperature at a higher level and enhancement of dry heat loss, which occurred during passive heat exposure.
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  • Morio Arimoto, Akira Kijima, Shigeru Muramatsu
    2005 Volume 24 Issue 4 Pages 277-283
    Published: 2005
    Released: August 01, 2005
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The purpose of this study is to examine the cardiovascular and metabolic responses between dynamic and static exercise when a leg press exercise is performed. Seven participants (20–21 yrs) were recruited for the experiment. Four modes of dynamic or static leg press exercise were assigned in two combined conditions: a unilateral or a bilateral condition and two exercise intensities with 20% and 40% of maximal voluntary contraction (20% MVC, 40% MVC). The duration of the dynamic exercise and the static exercise at 20% MVC was six minutes, and the static exercise at 40% MVC was three minutes. In the dynamic exercise, ventilation (VE), O2 uptake (VO2), heart rate (HR), and systolic and diastolic blood pressures (SBP, DBP) reached the steady-state after 3 min exercise, while in the static leg press, these responses continued to increase at the end of exercise. The alteration in VO2 mostly depended on both exercise intensity and the one- or two-leg condition during the dynamic leg press, whereas no significant difference in VO2 during the static leg press was found in the four modes. The alterations in rate-pressure product (RPP) depended solely on exercise intensity and leg condition. These findings suggest that the static leg press causes a greater rise in HR, SBP, and DBP. In addition, RPP appears particularly sensitive to experimental modes.
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RAPID COMMUNICATIONS
  • Tatyana I. Alexeeva
    2005 Volume 24 Issue 4 Pages 285-287
    Published: 2005
    Released: August 01, 2005
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The results of anthropoecological investigations in Central Asia are described. From 1976 to 1991 about 6,000 individuals of both sexes were examined. 2,500 of them were children from 7 to 17 years. The program included the study of body build, metabolic rates, genetic markers and demographic structures. Different groups of Tuvins, Khakass, Mountain and Abakan Shortsys, Altai-kijis, Telengits, Teleuts, Kazakhs, and several groups of Mongols and Khotons were studied. It was shown that some patterns of body build and physiological traits of native populations of Central Asia partly reflect the influence of the geographical environment. The differences observed between various populations of the region may be explained by ecological reasons and not only by ethnic differentiation.
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  • Masahiko Sato
    2005 Volume 24 Issue 4 Pages 289-295
    Published: 2005
    Released: August 01, 2005
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    From an international viewpoint, the physiological anthropology had always developed in a mosaic-like structure until the end of the nineteen-sixties. Some of the pieces of the mosaic then started to create significant elements of the theoretical concepts of this science. Generally speaking, research in physiological anthropology consists of the process of individual biology and the process of population biology. Through using these processes, physiological anthropologists have come to realize the importance of individual thinking and the inadequacy of essentialistic concept such as the ideal man, and now infer that all populations are polytypic. Physiological anthropologists have refined the conceptual framework of their science and composed a set of keywords characterizing it. These are technological adaptability, environmental adaptability, functional potentiality, whole body coordination, and physiological polytypism. These keywords are mutually interdependent and do not form any orthogonal relations.
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  • Yoshifumi Miyazaki, Yuko Tsunetsugu
    2005 Volume 24 Issue 4 Pages 297-300
    Published: 2005
    Released: August 01, 2005
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The purpose of this paper is to propose a tentative concept of physiological polymorphism and experimental approaches to it. We think that the concept of physiological polymorphism is to categorize the diversified phenomena into various types with statistical methods and to explain the differences among the categorized types from the viewpoint of their physiological mechanisms. Furthermore, it is necessary to take into consideration the fact that physiological polymorphism is observed as a phenotype, and the phenotype results from a genotype modified by culture and environment. As an experimental approach, we studied the effects of gustatory stimulation by chocolate on the activities of the prefrontal area and found that the activities were increased in some cases and decreased in other cases. Therefore, to begin with, when we divided them into an “increasing group” and a “decreasing group,” we found that the increasing group had many subjects of Type B and High anxiety, and the decreasing group had many subjects of Type A and Normal anxiety. By the chi-square test for independence, it was found that the ratio of “increase” and “decrease” was related to the trait anxiety and type A personality, respectively. Next, we divided the activities of the prefrontal area into Type A and Type B, as well as a high anxiety group and a low anxiety group. As a result, the Type B and high anxiety groups showed significantly increased activities, while the Type A and normal anxiety groups showed no changes in their activities. Consequently, this data enabled us to explain the difference in activities of the prefrontal area from the viewpoint of personality characteristics. To conclude, we were able to categorize diversified changes in the prefrontal area into certain types when a gustatory stimulus was applied, and to explain them by using personality characteristics (State Trait Anxiety Inventory, Type A behavioral pattern) that are commonly known for their reflection of genotypes.
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  • Lioudmila K. Goudkova
    2005 Volume 24 Issue 4 Pages 301-306
    Published: 2005
    Released: August 01, 2005
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    A close evolutionary relationship of physiology and ecology of organisms determines the dynamic dependence of the population physiological status in man on ecological factors. For the explanation of the stability and variability of population physiological status the concept of physiological homeostasis was applied. The investigation of physiological status in several populations of Middle Asia, Kazakhstan, North-East Asia and Khakassia has shown that reversible changes in the environment may temporarily destabilize the equilibrium in the “population-environment” system and prolonged stresses may cause a state of disadaptation. For estimation of population physiological homeostasis dependent on the environment, generalized dispersion, correlation and factor analyses are very informative. They not only mark the violation of population homeostasis, but also indicate changes in the environment.
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  • Akira Yasukouchi
    2005 Volume 24 Issue 4 Pages 307-312
    Published: 2005
    Released: August 01, 2005
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Attention has been focused on human adaptability to human-adopted artificially modern and comfortable environments which may not always match the adaptability by the physiological state of humans. This discrepancy was found to induce a slight tension in the human body on evaluation with a physio-anthropological approach. Although a standard methodological approach has yet to be established, the present study attempted to evaluate human adaptability to artificial light environment, based on evaluations from three major possible perspectives: a) central nervous system, b) autonomic nervous system and c) biological rhythm. In order to detect the slight tension, human volunteers were exposed to an artificial light environment, and the appropriate physiological parameters were then examined from photic signal pathways in a brain. The findings revealed that a higher color temperature of fluorescent lamps induced a slight tension, although many other factors remained to be elucidated.
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  • Elena Z. Godina, Irena A. Khomyakova, Arsen L. Purundjan, Ludmila V. Z ...
    2005 Volume 24 Issue 4 Pages 313-319
    Published: 2005
    Released: August 01, 2005
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    2,106 girls and 2,169 boys from 7 to 17 were investigated in 2002–2004 in three urban settlements of the Saratov region (Povolzhje area): the town of Khvalynsk, population 15,000, with a low level of industrialization; the city of Balakovo, population 220,000, highly industrialized and with a nuclear power station; and the city of Saratov, population around 1,000,000 a regional capital, and also highly industrialized. The whole area, particularly the location of Khvalynsk, is also characterized by iodine deficiency (iodine concentration is 0.78 mkg/kg v. normal values of 5–7 mkg/kg).
    The program included about 30 anthropometric measurements, evaluation of developmental stages of secondary sexual characteristics, and information on menarcheal age by the status quo method. Information on parental occupation and education, as well as number of children per family was collected by questionnaire. For the analysis all the data were standardized, and further comparisons were made irrespective of age groups. The significance of differences was assessed by one-way ANOVA. For height, weight and chest circumference there are significant differences among the three populations (p<0.001), with Khvalynsk children being the smallest in body height and weight. However, in chest circumference they are close to or even bigger (girls) than Balakovo children. The children from Khvalynsk are characterized by the lowest values for subcutaneous fat layer, both on the trunk and extremities. For the age of menarche, Khvalynsk girls have the highest values: 13 years 5 months (13.42). In Balakovo and Saratov, the corresponding figures are identical: 13 years 2 months (13.17). Secular changes in Khvalynsk and Saratov children are discussed as compared to the literature.
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  • Tetsuo Katsuura, Xinqin Jin, Yasushi Baba, Yoshihiro Shimomura, Koichi ...
    2005 Volume 24 Issue 4 Pages 321-325
    Published: 2005
    Released: August 01, 2005
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    This article presents our recent studies on the effects of color temperature on the taste sense and the influence of color temperature on bright light exposure during night rest period. Ten male Japanese and ten male Chinese were exposed to four illumination conditions (200, 1500 lx×3000, 7500 K). Their taste threshold of four common tastes and amount of saliva were measured. It was found in both Japanese and Chinese subjects that sensitivities to sweet and bitter taste were decreased under the lower illuminance condition. Under the lower color temperature condition, sensitivity to bitter taste in Japanese and sweet taste in Chinese were decreased. Secretion of saliva increased under the lower illuminance condition in both Japanese and Chinese. Only in Chinese subjects, secretion of saliva increased under the lower color temperature condition. In a separate experiment, six male Japanese students were subjected to bright light exposure during a night rest period. They performed a mental task from 23:00 h till 02:00 h, and took a rest from 00:00 h to 01:00 h. During the rest period they were exposed to bright light (3000 lx) of three different color temperatures: 3000 K, 5000 K, and 7000 K. After exposure to bright light of 3000 K but not at other color temperatures, the EEG α1 band ratio and the β band ratio at 02:00 h were higher and lower, respectively, than that at 01:00 h. These findings indicated that lower color temperature bright light exposure during a night rest break led to a reduction of subjects' arousal level during the subsequent work. Herein, we discuss these results from the viewpoint of physiological anthropology.
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  • Valentina Zaitseva, Valentine Son'kin
    2005 Volume 24 Issue 4 Pages 327-331
    Published: 2005
    Released: August 01, 2005
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Most conventional human health and function evaluation methods are based on a traditional notion that all the population characteristics follow the Gaussian distribution law with the parameters M and s forming the basis of the norm conception. But some known facts contradict this idea that requires checking the statistical homogeneity of population characteristics. Analysis of statistical distribution and central tendencies for simple measured indices in population and somatotypes samples proved an idea of natural population distinctions by a broad set of morpho-functional features (by means of 23-D matrix cluster analysis for different indices) and provided the scientific grounds to use a constitutional approach in human sciences and physical education as well. Gaussian distribution law was found within somatotype groups permitting the use of its parameters for norm evaluation. In practice for somatotype determination the relative girth body dimensions (normalized by body height) were proved to be preferable.
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  • Marina L. Butovskaya, Elizaveta Y. Boyko, Nelly B. Selverova, Irina V. ...
    2005 Volume 24 Issue 4 Pages 333-337
    Published: 2005
    Released: August 01, 2005
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Developing effective behavioral and psychological mechanisms for coping with social stress was very important in human evolution because humans evolved as social beings. The aggressive and post-aggressive behavior of 30 boys aged 7–11 years was observed during free play in summer camp with the standard “post-conflict—matched control” method (de Waal and Yoshihara, 1983). The focals were the victims of the conflict. Saliva samples for examination of cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate levels were taken from each boy in 5 cases: 10 minutes after a conflict with and without reconciliation, matched-control samples next day and morning samples for the basal level. Every boy filled in a sociometry form, Buss-Durkee Hostility Inventory, Eysenk Personality test and the Revised Children's form for the Manifest Anxiety Scale. The stress-reduction role of peacemaking was supported on the physiological level. The level of stress-related hormones was higher when no reunion occurred.
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  • Keita Ishibashi, Takafumi Maeda, Shigekazu Higuchi, Akira Yasukouchi
    2005 Volume 24 Issue 4 Pages 339-343
    Published: 2005
    Released: August 01, 2005
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Variations in cardiovascular responses to orthostatic stress were investigated in terms of physiological polymorphism. Variations of physiological measurements are subdivided into individual differences and measurement errors. However, individual differences are often considered to be an error in statistical analysis due to its limitations in experimental design. In order to discuss about the relative contribution of individual difference in cardiovascular responses to postural changes, percent contribution (PC) was estimated using the Taguchi method. Six healthy male adults (age range: 21–27) were subjected to orthostatic stress by inducing a postural inclination of 60° head-up-tilting to the horizontal, and the responses were measured thrice in each subject on different days. The respective changes of heart rate (HR) and stroke volume (SV) in the period from the resting supine to the head-up-tilt position were significantly increased (p<0.01) and decreased (p<0.01) without affecting the mean blood pressure (MBP). The PC of individual difference in HR showed a significantly higher ratio of individual difference during the head-up-tilt (71.4–76.2%) compared with supine rest (0.0–50.4%). While the main variations of HR during supine rest were not the individual differences between the subjects, the day-to-day differences within the subject were significant. The PC of individual differences in MBP and SV constantly displayed a significant difference between the subjects. These results suggest that the strategy for maintaining stable cardiovascular regulation may be different even in normal subjects. In the perspective of physiological parameters, PC monitoring may serve as an empirical approach to evaluate physiological polymorphism.
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  • Nailija Khajievna Spitsyna, Victor Alexeevich Spitsyn, Vasilii Eugenie ...
    2005 Volume 24 Issue 4 Pages 345-349
    Published: 2005
    Released: August 01, 2005
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    A complex anthropological survey based on population-genetic methods and a study of a wide spectrum of genetic systems (43 alleles from 17 independent loci) was undertaken among 450 Buryat women of post-reproductive age. The results obtained showed the influence of particular genetic markers and their complex on the formation of peculiarities in the reproduction structure of the Buryat population.
    A sharp increase in phenotype GC 2-2 frequency and the corresponding GC*2 allele of the group-specific component (GC) was established for women groups with burdened obstetric records. These groups are characterized also by a considerable decrease in the observed geterozygosity (Ho) as compared to its expected value (He). Samples including women with multiple pregnancies in the recorded obstetric anamnesis are characterized by a significant increase in the frequency of the rare alleles TF*C3 of the transferrin system and those of PI*Z belonging to the proteinase inhibitor system (a1-antitrypsin) as compared to the control group.
    The results obtained widened current knowledge about the influence of genetic and environmental components on reproduction processes in human populations.
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  • Natalya I. Haldeyeva, Alexander A. Zubov
    2005 Volume 24 Issue 4 Pages 351-355
    Published: 2005
    Released: August 01, 2005
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The source of activity of every individual or group is to a great extent determined by the necessity of interaction with other individuals or groups (Afanasiev, 1990), i.e. with the diversity of anthropological surroundings. This manifests itself in the participation of individuals in the organization of their ecosystems, including the ethnocultural and physical conditions of life (Sukharev, 1998). Therefore it is possible to single out certain ecological aspects of perception of anthropological specificity of the surrounding population by an individual (group), leaning upon the definition of anthropoecology as a discipline, studying the laws of interaction between human communities and the system of natural, social and other factors, (Anthropological dictionary, 2004) as well as the coevolution of humans with their environment, in the process of adaptation (Lisseyev, 2001). At the same time it is usually emphasized that the ecological approach is best of all realized on the base of the principle of reciprocity of development of an individual and the surrounding reality, on the perception of the objects of this reality (including other people) with due regard to the reasons for the preference and corresponding values orientation. This represents the subject of ecological psychology (Sergeyenko, 2002; Pavlenko, 2002). In this context the relations between the individual and the environment (autoecology) as well as between the individual and a group (sinecology) are considered (Lisseyev, 2001).
    The study of the aesthetic perception of anthropological types by individuals belonging to different ethnoterritorial and age groups is the subject matter of a special branch of physical anthropology—anthropoaesthetics, which studies the peculiarities of the aesthetic preference of human facial features in modern populations, analyzing the dependence of human perception on the anthropological environment (Haldeyeva, 2004).
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  • Koichi Iwanaga, Xin Xin Liu, Yoshihiro Shimomura, Tetsuo Katsuura
    2005 Volume 24 Issue 4 Pages 357-361
    Published: 2005
    Released: August 01, 2005
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Interest of human adaptability to city life is one of the most principal topics of physiological anthropology. Especially, cultural adaptation and flowing stresses by itself is the most important viewpoint of human adaptability in the recent modern life. In this paper, the authors reviewed the keywords of physiological anthropology, especially with the focus on techno-adaptability, and presented our experimental trials to study physiological polymorphism of cardio-vascular reactivity to mental stresses. We scoped the psychological stresses by means of mental tasks as an experimental model of techno-stress. Techno-stress was defined as not only from inadequate interface of man-machine system, but also from increased social complexity owing to highly advanced technological social system. In the experimental trial, we observed different types of cardio-vascular responses to several mental tasks. Blood pressure rose significantly during the tasks. However, contribution of change in cardiac output and total peripheral resistance on it was not the same between subgroups of the subjects.
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  • Olga L. Kurbatova, Elena Yu. Pobedonostseva, Vitalina A. Privalova
    2005 Volume 24 Issue 4 Pages 363-365
    Published: 2005
    Released: August 01, 2005
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Spatial and temporal variation of selection intensities has been analyzed using published data on Crow's indices in 278 human populations, representing various anthropological types, religions, cultures and a wide spectrum of environmental conditions. Statistical analysis has shown that populations with different types of economy have different adaptive strategies. In tribal populations both components of selection—differential fertility and differential mortality—have equal contributions, vary according to ecological factors and show no decline with time. Urban populations of the industrially developed countries show dramatic selection relaxation; the second component becomes negligible due to a sharp decrease in childhood mortality; fertility and its variance are reducing due to cultural factors (family planning).
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  • Mikhail P. Shestakov
    2005 Volume 24 Issue 4 Pages 367-370
    Published: 2005
    Released: August 01, 2005
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The use of artificial neural networks for simulation of the control of an anthropomorphic mechanism when its mass-inertia characteristics are changing is considered in this paper. It is shown in theory that the change in mass-inertia characteristics of the model does not have a linear relationship with the output parameter but a spurt-like change in the pattern of the output function after a certain threshold. The data of the model experiment served as a basis for a full-scale test with discus throwers who had different height-weight parameters during a year of study. Specific traits in the technique of standing discus throwing are shown, and their dependence on the changes of anthropometric characteristics of sportsmen.
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  • Kaoru Inoue
    2005 Volume 24 Issue 4 Pages 371-374
    Published: 2005
    Released: August 01, 2005
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    To examine the effect of protective movements during sideways falls from standing height (i.e., from the standing position), a two-step study was performed. In the first step, 80 young male and female volunteers freely fell onto a sport-mat. All falls were recorded on videotape, and replayed to analyze movements in response to the falls. Several protective movements were observed; forward flexion and lateral flexion were observed with a particularly high frequency. In the second step, impact velocities of the head and hip were measured by a three-dimensional motion analyzer regarding three types of falls: stiff falls, forward flexion falls and lateral flexion falls. Both types of flexion reduced impact velocities of the head, but not those of the hip. The reduction of the impact velocity on the head correlated with the lowering of the height of the head from the floor.
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  • Oleg Balanovsky, Elvira Pocheshkhova, Andrey Pshenichnov, Daria Solovi ...
    2005 Volume 24 Issue 4 Pages 375-382
    Published: 2005
    Released: August 01, 2005
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    It has been proposed that the Δ32 mutation in the chemokine receptor gene, inducing resistance to HIV-1 and, probably, to other virus infections, has undergone selection in historical times. The frequency of this mutant allele has changed rapidly both in time (during the last two millennia) and in space (across Eurasia). We compiled a global database on Δ32 allele frequencies in 300 populations. Nearly 10 percent of them are our data on 35 East European populations analyzed here for the first time. A detailed map of Δ32 frequency distribution was constructed and statistically analysed. We found a linearly decreasing trend with a maximum in areas surrounding the Baltic and White seas. Significant correlations with ground surface temperature were revealed. However, compared with our previous results, these correlations diminished, indicating that the influence of climate on Δ32 distribution was, if anything at all, indirect. The proposed scenario includes: i) arise and initial spread of the mutation among Uralic-speaking populations; ii) a frequency increase in northeastern Europe as a result of selection and/or genetic drift; iii) secondary spread (with selection continued) due to gene flow and the migrations of northern Europeans across the globe.
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  • Hajime Harada, Kiyotaka Morozumi, Hiroshi Nashihara, Eiko Hatakeyama
    2005 Volume 24 Issue 4 Pages 383-388
    Published: 2005
    Released: August 01, 2005
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    This paper investigates the applicability of cerebral blood flow in evaluating the technological adaptability for operating industrial products. The procedure of the experiment was explained to the subjects and informed consent was obtained from them. Twenty male and twenty female subjects (19–22 yrs) operated the destination setting task of a car navigation system. Subjects were divided into two sub groups to operate tasks of model A and model B of a car navigation system. Operation time of tasks and cerebral blood flow of frontal region were measured during tasks. Non-invasive measuring of regional cerebral blood flow was estimated by measuring deoxygenated hemoglobin, oxygenated hemoglobin, and total haemoglobin using the time resolved spectroscopy (TRS). Females were faster than males in operating the task of setting the destination searched by street address. Total haemoglobin of male subjects was significantly higher than that of females during resting and tasks. Changes of cerebral blood flow were observed during operating a car navigation system. In this paper we discussed the possibility of physiological evaluation for technological adaptability by means of the performance and brain hemodynamics measurement.
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  • Nadezda V. Lupacheva
    2005 Volume 24 Issue 4 Pages 389-396
    Published: 2005
    Released: August 01, 2005
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    To describe the variation of shape and size of dental arcs the method of principal components was applied. 27 measurements of every dental cast made from 50 young adult males with good occlusion were made, and the following parameters were calculated: 7 widths, 5 left chords, 5 right chords, 5 sagittal lengths (calculated as orthogonal to corresponding width) and 5 angles. Different sets of features were analyzed for both arcs together and for each arc separately. Three independent analyses by the method of principal components show a good description of the main trend of dental arc shape and size variation and a difference between the growth and variation of frontal and distal parts of the arcs. They also describe the variations of occlusion. The trends of dental arc variation ascertained help us to understand the nature of malocclusions and the causes of their preservation in evolution.
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  • Marina A. Negasheva, T. A. Mishkova
    2005 Volume 24 Issue 4 Pages 397-402
    Published: 2005
    Released: August 01, 2005
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    On the basis of comprehensive anthropometrical observation of 1st and 2nd year students from different faculties of Moscow State University (MSU) carried out in 2002–2003, functional characteristics of the cardiovascular system (systolic and diastolic blood pressure, heart rate) were investigated in 205 young men and 327 young women along with traditional morphological parameters. In comparisons of contemporary young men and women with their peers, whose characteristics were obtained in the course of investigations carried out over the period 1920–1990, secular trends towards an increase of body length and a worsening of strength indices were detected. Evaluation and comparative analysis of adaptation capabilities of students were carried out based on screening and assessment of adaptation potential using the Bayevsky method (1987). It was shown that the parameters of physical development and the level of adaptation of an organism to environmental conditions can be used as additional markers for determination of the health status of contemporary students for early prevention of some diseases, improvement of their physical status and increase of adaptation potentials.
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  • Anna Tretyak, Elena Godina, Ludmila Zadorozhnaya
    2005 Volume 24 Issue 4 Pages 403-406
    Published: 2005
    Released: August 01, 2005
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    Secular changes in the body dimensions of newborns from three different geographical localities are compared. Anthropometrical data of infants born in 1987 and in 2002 as a result of singleton full-term non-pathological postpartum were collected from medical records of children's out-patient clinics in three geographical localities: two big cities—Moscow and Saratov—and the town of Khvalynsk (Saratov region). The total number of newborns used in the analysis was 1,174. Body length and weight at birth from 1987 to 2002 increased in Moscow and Saratov, while in Khvalynsk there was a significant decrease of body length for boys. There is also a trend towards decrease of body weight in Khvalynsk boys and girls. It may be assumed that the changes in body sizes of newborns may be connected with socio-economic changes.
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  • Aleksey Popovsky, Roman Kireev, Irena Khomyakova
    2005 Volume 24 Issue 4 Pages 407-411
    Published: 2005
    Released: August 01, 2005
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    An auxological study of 538 adolescent males (from 12 to 17) from different settlements of the Saratov region with various degrees of industrialization and iodine deficiency was carried out. All subjects have undergone an ultra-sound screening of thyroid volume to reveal the frequency of endemic goiter in each group. The results obtained during investigation showed the existence of deviations in the physical development of boys with goiter in skinfold thickness, body circumferences (chest, shoulder, and forearm), biacromial and biiliocristal diameters, transversal and sagittal chest diameters, body height and weight, BMI, leg length, and corpus length, all of which are greater in healthy adolescents (SD=1.0, p=0.000). In 46 subjects with endemic goiter, characteristics of metabolic status were investigated by the method of registration of endogenous intoxication (Malakhova, 1995). In comparison to the control group, a 1.2 times lower LAMM level in erythrocytes (p<0.05) and 1.1 in urine (p<0.05), and an increase by 2.3 in the LAMM level in blood plasma (p<0.01) were detected. The relative percentage of catabolic substances exceeded the control values by 3.2 (p<0.001). The OP level in erythrocytes is reduced by 2.2 (p<0.01), in urine (p<0.01) by 8.4. The OP level is higher in plasma by 3.0 (p<0.01). The adolescents with endemic goiter have a reallocation of protein matter between erythrocytes, plasma and urine. The spectrogram of erythrocytes shows lowering metabolites on membrane frames, which testifies to the destruction of the structurally functional properties of erythrocytes, and a lowering of absorption properties in glycocalix erythrocytes.
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  • Alexandra P. Buzhilova
    2005 Volume 24 Issue 4 Pages 413-418
    Published: 2005
    Released: August 01, 2005
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Human bones from the Sunghir Late Palaeolithic settlement of the Northern-East part of the Eastern European Plane were observed by a gross study of possible skeletal lesions. The complex of pathological conditions we studied could mirror the features of the ancient environment. The climatic conditions of the Upper Palaeolithic, especially in its final stages, were severe. Thus environmental change and the fall of temperature is reflected in the distribution of pathological indicators. The comparative analysis of early and late Upper Palaeolithic populations demonstrates the increasing frequency of some stress markers. The analysis of physiological stress markers convincingly demonstrates that the Sunghir people had an active lifestyle without experiencing considerable negative stress. Living in the cold conditions and a humid climate, the Sunghir people had adequate reactions relative to their life conditions. Different types of physical activity were noted for both children and adult man. It could be that this is the result of the influence of gender diversity in labour.
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  • Shigekazu Higuchi, Yutaka Motohashi, Takafumi Maeda, Keita Ishibashi
    2005 Volume 24 Issue 4 Pages 419-423
    Published: 2005
    Released: August 01, 2005
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between individual difference in melatonin suppression by exposure to light and habitual bedtime. Seventeen healthy male students (mean age: 22.6±2.4 yr) volunteered to participate in the study. The subjects were exposed to light (1000 lx) for 2 hours from 2 hours before the time of peak salivary melatonin concentration. Two hours after exposure to the light, melatonin suppression had occurred in fifteen subjects. No significant correlation was found between the rate of melatonin suppression and habitual bedtime in the fifteen subjects in whom melatonin suppression occurred. However, the habitual bedtime of the two subjects in whom melatonin suppression did not occur was earlier than that of the other subjects. These results suggest that there are some people with very low sensitivity to light and that this may affect habitual bedtime.
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  • Maria B. Mednikova
    2005 Volume 24 Issue 4 Pages 425-431
    Published: 2005
    Released: August 01, 2005
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Sunghir is one of the most important Upper Palaeolithic sites in the world because of its most Northern location, the extraordinary richness of the artifacts, and the state of human bone preservation. The skeletal finds give evidence for the study both of adult and subadult body builds in the group. For the reconstruction of patterns of postcranial morphology, total measurements of bones and X-ray observations have been used. We have determined the basic structural traits typical for Sunghirians: small corticalisation of adult postcranial skeletons; large volume of the bone marrow cavity relative to the general size; quick tempo of attainment in early ontogenesis of large adult size combined with late synostoses ensuring prolonged linear growth; macroskelia combined with extreme andromorphy in the shoulder belt structure; capacious chest. The above traits can be interpreted in terms of adaptation to such formative factors as low temperature stress, deficit of atmospheric oxygen, high protein nutrition, and mechanical loads.
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  • Maria V. Dobrovolskaya
    2005 Volume 24 Issue 4 Pages 433-438
    Published: 2005
    Released: August 01, 2005
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    Undoubtedly modern mankind is an omnivorous species. Nevertheless, types of diet changed at the time of anthropogenesis. The Upper Palaeolithic period is the crucial time because of the appearance of anatomically modern humans in Europe. The main goal in this period investigation is to find the Neanderthal man—Upper Palaeolithic man diet distinction. A sharp early Holocene rise in humidity and temperature and melting of the permafrost resulted in the complete destruction of traditional migration routes, campsite losses, and the flora and fauna of inland territories changing. All these factors affected nutrition patterns, too. The comparison of the different Mesolithic and Neolithic groups' diet patterns allow us to discuss problems of the influence of cultural and ecological factors. The bone tissue chemical concentrations (Ca, Zn, Sr, Cu) from Upper Palaeolithic, Mesolithic and Neolithic burials are considered to reconstruct individual and group patterns of nutrition. The results of the atomic absorption method were used.
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  • Takafumi Maeda, Akiko Sugawara, Tetsuhito Fukushima, Shigekazu Higuchi ...
    2005 Volume 24 Issue 4 Pages 439-443
    Published: 2005
    Released: August 01, 2005
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    In the present study, we attempted to clarify the effects of lifestyle and body compositions on basal metabolism and to clarify the effects of physical training on thermoregulatory responses to cold. Basal metabolism, body compositions, and questionnaires regarding lifestyle were evaluated in 37 students. From multiple linear regression analysis, sex, muscle weight, fat intake, and diurnal temperature were selected as significant explanatory variables. In a second experiment, rectal and the skin temperature at 7 different points as well as the oxygen uptake of eight males were measured at 10°C for 90 min before and after training. The decline in rectal temperature that was observed before training was not observed after training. In addition, rectal temperature was significantly higher at post-training than at pre-training. These results suggest that some lifestyle factors affect cold tolerance; in particular, daily activity might improve our ability to control heat radiation and basal heat production.
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  • Larisa A. Scheplyagina, Tatyana Y. Moisseyeva
    2005 Volume 24 Issue 4 Pages 445-450
    Published: 2005
    Released: August 01, 2005
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    A cross-sectional study of BMD and physical development values in children of various age-specific groups was carried out. In all, the study included 357 children (194 boys and 163 girls) aged from 5 to 16 years. The study did not include children with inherited or acquired diseases of the musculoskeletal system, chronic diseases of the liver or kidneys, diabetes, thyrotoxicosis or malabsorption syndrome or professional athletes. BMD values were estimated by dual X-ray absorbtiometry (DXA) of the lumbar part of the spine (L2–L4) using a “DPX-MD+” device equipped with a “child” software program. Out of all the examined children, 58.9% had harmonic physical development, and 13.1% had a decreased body height and body mass. It was revealed that BMC and BMD values in the lumbar part of the spine intensively increased with age. BMC closely correlates with body height (r=0.8; p<0.000) and body mass (r=0.7; p<0.000). BMD also correlates with anthropometric parameters. The lowest BMC and BMD values and Z-score as well can be found in children with a low body height and body mass (<10th percentile).
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  • Larissa V. Bets
    2005 Volume 24 Issue 4 Pages 451-457
    Published: 2005
    Released: August 01, 2005
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    In a sample of 53 groups of adult males the regularity of spatial variability of hormonal concentrations (testosterone, estradiol, E/T index) was determined. The range of normal biochemical variations of sex hormones in different ethnic-geographical groups was revealed. The hormonal status of different ethnic groups was compared from the point of view of adaptation. The research results present new information on biological individuality and the factors defining it. The hormonal activity optimum depends on ecological factors and serves as a basis for the ecological monitoring of human health.
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  • Susumu Kudo, Ryuhei Yamaguchi, Mariko Ikeda, Kazuo Tanishita
    2005 Volume 24 Issue 4 Pages 459-461
    Published: 2005
    Released: August 01, 2005
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Endothelial cells (ECs) that line the inner surface of blood vessels are continuously exposed to fluid frictional force (shear stress) induced by blood flow, and shear stress affects the intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i), which initiates cellular responses. Here, we studied the effect of long-term exposure of shear stress on [Ca2+]i responses in cultured ECs by using a confocal laser microscope and calcium indicator. At the initiation of shear stress of 20 dyn/cm2 (0 hr), 27% of the cells exhibited [Ca2+]i responses. This percentage gradually decreased with increasing exposure time, reaching about 4% after 24 hr of exposure. These data indicate that long-term shear-stress exposure affects [Ca2+]i responses in cultured ECs. Furthermore, we studied the effect of magnitude of shear stress on macromolecule uptake. For the low shear-stress, the uptake was enhanced, whereas the uptake was inhibited for higher shear-stress.
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  • Lidia I. Tegako
    2005 Volume 24 Issue 4 Pages 463-464
    Published: 2005
    Released: August 01, 2005
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    Anthropological research on children from Minsk was carried out within the framework of medical ecological monitoring. Besides the wide anthropometrical program, a study of the ecological conditions in the areas where the children examined reside and train was carried out. Comparison of the basic parameters of physical development in various age groups and the analysis of annual increases shows intensification of growth among modern children despite some decrease in the rates of acceleration. Some increase in body length and decrease of body weight as well as the reduction of chest circumference is common. Regional studies, particularly in the radiation control zones, show the dependence of physical development on the ecological situation.
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  • Toshihiro Sera, Kentaro Uesugi, Naoto Yagi
    2005 Volume 24 Issue 4 Pages 465-468
    Published: 2005
    Released: August 01, 2005
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    Localized morphometric deformations of small airways and alveoli during respiration have many biomedical and physiological implications. We developed fast synchrotron radiation CT system to visualize the small airways and alveoli of an intact mouse lung without fixation and dehydration, and analyzed their localized morphometric deformations between functional residual capacity (FRC) and total lung capacity (TLC). In the diameter behavior, the averaged and range values were significantly larger for smaller airways (68.8%, range: 0.36–0.89) than larger airways (45.2%, range: 0.40–0.57). These results indicated that the airway did not deformed in same manner and that these morphological differences characterized the heterogeneous lung function.
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  • Yuko Tsunetsugu, Yoshifumi Miyazaki
    2005 Volume 24 Issue 4 Pages 469-472
    Published: 2005
    Released: August 01, 2005
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    Near-infrared time-resolve spectroscopy (TRS) is an emerging method which enables the absolute hemoglobin concentration in tissue to be evaluated. In the present paper, two experiments measuring the absolute hemoglobin concentrations in the prefrontal region to estimate the local cerebral activity will be demonstrated. The results of the studies were as follows: 1) There were significant differences in the absolute hemoglobin concentrations between the groups with different traits in personalities such as anxiety, or type A behavior pattern. 2) TRS was found to be applicable to field experiments. It was revealed that in a forest environment, the activity in the prefrontal region was calmer than in a city environment. This method will provide useful information on the absolute hemoglobin concentrations and contribute to making physiological polymorphisms clear.
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  • Andrew Kozlov, Galina Vershubsky, Svetlana Borinskaya, Maria Sokolova, ...
    2005 Volume 24 Issue 4 Pages 473-476
    Published: 2005
    Released: August 01, 2005
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    Disorders of dietary sugar assimilation occur more often among native people of the Arctic then in temperate climate inhabitants.
    It is hypothesized that the limited variety of natural exogenous sugars in the Arctic, and their low content in the traditional diets of native northerners in accordance with a “protein-lipid” type of metabolism weakened selection, favoring diversity of disaccharidase enzymes.
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  • Vladimir P. Passekov
    2005 Volume 24 Issue 4 Pages 477-481
    Published: 2005
    Released: August 01, 2005
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    Constitution typology is thought of as a classification that is based on a few fundamental properties of the organism. These properties steadily distinguish individuals and permit the prediction of manifold secondary (external) features of types. At the transition from one constitutional type to another, concordant changes of trait values are determined by the respective changes of general causal factors. Theoretically, external constitution typology should be constructed on the basis of trait concordant “dynamics” under the change of fundamental factors at the individual level. Therefore, it does not depend on statistical relations characterizing population level. Causal factors and their influences on traits are impossible to be correctly and uniquely determined on the basis of population statistics relations. Causal factors do not coincide with the statistical ones of multivariate biometric analysis; equally, trait regression dependencies on statistical factors do not coincide with the causal influences.
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  • Sumiko Anno, Susumu Kudo, Keita Hamasaki, Kazunari Matsumura, Takushi ...
    2005 Volume 24 Issue 4 Pages 483-486
    Published: 2005
    Released: August 01, 2005
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    We present a conceptual framework for applying techniques of SNP genotyping as a molecular biological approach and remote sensing as an ecological approach to elucidation of the contribution of polygene and environmental factors to inter-individual variation in skin pigmentation phenotype. Additionally, we discuss the obstacles that frustrate our efforts to identify how the human genome encodes the complex phenotype and suggest the use of computational methods designed for knowledge discovery within hereditary database.
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  • Vasily E. Deryabin, Valentina M. Krans, Tatiana K. Fedotova
    2005 Volume 24 Issue 4 Pages 487-491
    Published: 2005
    Released: August 01, 2005
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    Mean values of different body dimensions in different age cohorts of children make it possible to learn a lot about their dynamic changes. Their comparative analysis, as is usually practiced, in fact leads to a simple description of changes in measurement units (mm or cm) at the average level of some body dimension during a shorter or longer period of time. To estimate comparative intensity of the growth process of different body dimensions, the authors use the analogue of Mahalanobis distance, the so-called Kullback divergence (1967), which does not demand stability of dispersion or correlation coefficients of dimensions in compared cohorts of children. Most of the dimensions, excluding skinfolds, demonstrate growth dynamics with gradually reducing increments from birth to 7 years. Body length has the highest integrative increment, leg length about 94% of body length, body mass 77%, and trunk and extremities circumferences 56%. Skinfolds have a non-monotonic pattern of accumulated standardized increments with some increase until 1–2 years of age.
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  • Shuichiro Fukushima, Tsutomu Araki, Yoshiyuki Tohno
    2005 Volume 24 Issue 4 Pages 493-496
    Published: 2005
    Released: August 01, 2005
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    Vascular calcification is commonly associated with aging. Quantification of calcium accumulation in vessel walls is important in understanding the mechanisms of vascular calcification. To elucidate age-related change of calcification, site dependence of calcification, and the effect of hemodynamic stress on calcification, we measured calcium contents in various blood vessels with atomic emission spectrometry and simulated blood flow in the vessels by computational fluid dynamics. The content of calcium in the arteries increased progressively with aging while there is no change in the veins. The higher accumulation of calcium occurred in the arteries of the lower limb in comparison to the arteries of the upper limb. In the arterial bifurcation, there was the correlation at hemodynamic stress distribution and calcium content. The results of this study quantitatively support clinical findings of nonuniform calcification, and suggest that hemodynamic stress affects vascular calcification.
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  • Inessa Salivon, Natalya Polina
    2005 Volume 24 Issue 4 Pages 497-502
    Published: 2005
    Released: August 01, 2005
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    A new principle of somatotyping according to the set of the most informative anthropometric indices is offered. For the first time we carried out a comparative analysis of anthropometric indices of physical development, of cardiovascular system functioning and its vegetative regulation for the representatives of different somatotypes. The purpose of the analysis was to define constitutional peculiarities of adaptation reactions in young males and females to the deficiency of vital macro- and microelements in soils and drinkable water of the Southern region of Belarus. Typological specificity of organism reactivity to the unfavorable geochemical situation of the Southern region of Belarus was revealed in young males and females in different degrees of tension in adaptation processes. The suggested approach to somatotyping has allowed us to define more precisely the constitutional properties of organism reactivity in a discomfort environment.
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  • Yulia A. Yampolskaya
    2005 Volume 24 Issue 4 Pages 503-506
    Published: 2005
    Released: August 01, 2005
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    This study is concerned with long-term anthropometric examinations of children and adolescents aged 3–17 years in Moscow (over 10,500 persons, longitudinal and cross-sectional). Population variability of physical development was analyzed by means of regional estimation tables, which were developed on the basis of a regression analysis (scale of the regression of body mass to body length within a range from M−1σR to M+2σR) and used for individual and group diagnostics taking into account age and sex. Such an approach allowed for the determination of the dynamics of the variability of Moscow schoolchildren from decade to decade (inter-population variability) and variations due to social differences (intra-population variability).
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  • Yuki Tsumura, Naoko Hirota, Hiromi Tokura, Yoshiaki Sone, Filip Lesins ...
    2005 Volume 24 Issue 4 Pages 507-509
    Published: 2005
    Released: August 01, 2005
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    We have revealed that light environment affects digestion and absorption of dietary carbohydrates in the gastrointestinal tract. This experimental result supposes that the efficiency of carbohydrate absorption may differ among people who live in different latitudes, such as Japanese and Polish people, at the same calendar season. In order to prove this hypothesis, we have been comparing the efficiency of carbohydrate absorption using the breath hydrogen test in Japan and Poland. Here, we report the comparison of the result obtained in the summer of 2004 as the following; (1) Orocecal transit time (OCTT) for indigestible trisaccharide of Japanese subjects was significantly longer than that in Poland (p=0.043). (2) On the ingestion of minestrone, the amount of unabsorbed carbohydrate of Japanese subjects (which was estimated as trisaccharide equivalent) was significantly larger than that of Polish subjects (p=0.006).
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  • Yuji Takasaki
    2005 Volume 24 Issue 4 Pages 511-515
    Published: 2005
    Released: August 01, 2005
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    An evaluation was made of the serum lipid levels and factors relating to atherogenicity in schoolchildren in Akita, Japan, in order to determine actual conditions and promote awareness of health. The subjects were 2878 boys and 2729 girls aged 9, 12 and 15 years, who lived in cities, towns and villages in the Akita prefecture. Physical and lifestyle data including serum lipids were collected from the subjects in their schools under the direction of the prefectural board of education. Total cholesterol levels were found to be nearly equal to those currently representative for Japanese children, ethnically situated between blacks and whites in the United States of America. Atherogenic indices (AIs) were lower than those in all other countries owing to the elevated high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels observed in this study. According to data obtained from the questionnaires that were part of the study, regularly taking breakfast and exercising in sports clubs seems connected to maintaining lower atherogenicity in childhood.
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  • Alla Strokina
    2005 Volume 24 Issue 4 Pages 517-519
    Published: 2005
    Released: August 01, 2005
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Ergonomic anthropology is a complex synthesis of studies which was formed at the borderline of anthropology, physiology and psychology. The subject of the studies is the psychosomatic status of working men interacting with techniques by means of technical tools. This status has a dual display: first, through somatometric features, known as ergonomic dimensions; second, through the subjective feelings (proprioreceptive) of a working person on the level of comfort or discomfort of the soma. The ergonomic dimensions of the body serve as a basis for calculations of the parameters of working places and reflect posture and movement activity. Three groups of methodological tasks are tested. 1. Adaptation of the anthropometric method and discovery of its specificity for ergonomics tasks. 2. Elaboration of principles and rules of applying ergonomics measurements of the body for constructing techniques. 3. The choice of objective and subjective methods of somatic comfort evaluations.
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