The present review discusses two types of biological rhythms, namely, circadian rhythms and circannual rhythms. Humans possess a circadian rhythm of approximately 24 hours, which is regulated by neural and hormonal processes. The synchronisation of this rhythm with the solar day and night is maintained through entrainment mainly by light. Dark environments completely lacking windows may have a negative effect on well-being and work capacity. During shift work the biological clock tends to maintain its normal `diurnal' rhythm, which may lead to extreme tiredness and increased risk of accidents. Negative effects such as these may be partially alleviated by means of bright light during the night. During air travel across several time zones there is little time for the biological clock to adjust, but the resulting `jet lag' may possibly be overcome by means of appropriately timed exposure to bright light. In countries situated far from the equator, the biological clock may become seriously disrupted during the short days of the dark season. Characterised by fatigue, sadness and sleep problems, these seasonal affective disorders may be cured or alleviated by means of regular periods outdoors, better lighting indoors, or, in the most serious cases, light therapy.
This is to cross-over study to assess the effectiveness of fresh young coconut water (CW), and carbohydrate-electrolyte beverage (CEB) compared with plain water (PW) for whole body rehydration and blood volume (BV) restoration during a 2 h rehydration period following exercise-induced dehydration. Eight healthy male volunteers (mean age and VO2max of 22.4 ± 3.3 years and 45.8 ± 1.5 ml min kg-1 respectively) exercised at 60% of VO2max in the heat (31.1 ± 0.03 °C, 51.4 ± 0.1% rh) until 2.78 ± 0.06% (1.6 ± 0.1 kg) of their body weight (BW) was lost. After exercise, the subjects sat for 2 h in a thermoneutral environment (22.5 ± 0.1°C; 67.0 ± 1.0% rh) and drank a volume of PW, CW and CEB on different occasions representing 120% of the fluid loss. A blood and urine sample, and the body weight of each subject was taken before and after exercise and at 30 min intervals throughout a rehydration period. Each subject remained fasted throughout rehydration. Each fluid was consumed in three portions in separate trials representing 50% (781 ± 47 ml), 40% (625 ± 33 ml) and 30% (469 ± 28 ml) of the 120% fluid loss at 0, 30 and 60 min of the 2 h rehydration period, respectively. The drinks given were randomised. In all the trials the subjects were somewhat hypohydrated (range 0.08-0.18 kg BW below euhydrated BW; p>0.05) after a 2 h rehydration period since additional water and BW were lost as a result of urine formation, respiration, sweat and metabolism. The percent of body weight loss that was regained (used as index of percent rehydration) during CW, PW, and CEB trials was 75 ± 5%, 73 ± 5% and 80 ± 4% respectively, but was not statistically different between trials. The rehydration index, which provided an indication of how much of what was actually ingested was used for body weight restoration, was again not different statistically between trials (1.56 ± 0.14, 1.36 ± 0.13 and 1.71 ± 0.21 for CW, CEB and PW respectively). Although BV restoration was better with CW, it was not statistically different from CEB and PW. Cumulative urine output was similar in all trials. There were no difference at any time in serum Na+ and Cl-, serum osmolality, and net fluid balance between the three trials. Urine osmolality decreased after 1 h during the rehydration period and it was lowest in the PW trial. Plasma glucose concentrations were significantly higher compared with PW ingestion when CW and CEB were ingested during the rehydration period. CW was significantly sweeter, caused less nausea, fullness and no stomach upset and was also easier to consume in a larger amount compared with CEB and PW ingestion. In conclusion, ingestion of fresh young coconut water, a natural refreshing beverage, could be used for whole body rehydration after exercise.
Circulating concentrations of adipocytokines, such as leptin, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), vary with exercise training, menopause, or regional variations in adipose tissues. In the present study, the relationships between body fat distributions and some adipocytokines were compared in premenopausal (N=9) and postmenopausal women (N=9), before and after exercise training. The training for 10 weeks (that is, 3 days/week) consisted of aqua exercise plus resistance exercise. The training reduced percent fat, body mass index, total fat mass (TFM), subcutaneous fat mass (SFM), and plasma levels of leptin and PAI-1 in both women. Mean value of plasma TNF-α tended to increase after training in both women. Plasma leptin levels were lower in postmenopausal than in premenopausal women, independently of training. In premenopausal women, plasma leptin levels correlated well with either TFM or SFM before and after training. Regression analysis of decreases in plasma leptin with a reduced amount of SFM revealed that decreases in plasma leptin depended to a greater extent on a loss of SFM. In postmenopausal women, no significant correlation was found between leptin levels and any of the fat depots. Plasma TNF-α levels correlated well with visceral fat mass (VFM) in premenopausal but not in postmenopausal women. Changes in TNF-α levels after training correlated well with reduced amount of VFM in premenopausal but not in postmenopausal women. Plasma PAI-1 levels were not different between groups. Moreover, no significant correlation was found between PAI-1 levels and any of the fat depots in both women. Thus, in premenopausal but not in postmenopausal women, changes in plasma concentrations of leptin and TNF-α correlate well with specific alterations in relative amount of SFM and VFM after training, respectively. However, no significant relationship between PAI-1 and any of the fat depots was found independently of either menopause or training.
To prevent "life style-related diseases", it is necessary to evaluate not only the factors directly related to sleep but also the relationship between sleep and other life style-related factors (such as smoking, alcohol drinking, food habits, and exercise routines). There have been no extensive studies conducted on these relationships. A survey was conducted on 2,000 employees of a large plant over a 6-year period to provide data that would allow one to analyze correlation between hours of sleep and other life style factors, such as smoking, alcohol drinking, dietary habit, and exercise. It focused on a serial evaluation, with special reference to the correlation between sleep and smoking and drinking habits, exercise, and food habits. In relation to smoking or an alcohol drinking habit, no significant correlation was found between those who did not get enough sleep and those who got adequate sleep. For the dietary habits, the group with insufficient hours of sleep was related to a less than satisfactory frequency of meal taking, irregularity of eating, snacking habits, excessive seasoning of food, and consumption of insufficient quantities of vegetables. Conversely, it was recognized that those who have satisfactory food habits are more likely to enjoy an appropriate amount of sleep. Those who fail to get sufficient sleep engage in food habits that are more likely to cause life style-related diseases.
The objective of this study was to assess the cardiorespiratory capacity of Thai male and female blue-collar workers in different age and occupational categories. The maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) of 70 men and 56 women was assessed using a submaximal bicycle-ergometer test supplemented with ventilatory gas analyses. The age of the subjects varied from 16 to 55 years. They worked in construction, manual materials handling and metal jobs. For the male subjects the VO2 max ranged from 1.43 to 3.50 l/min and from 21.3 to 66.3 ml/min/kg. The corresponding values for the female subjects were 0.97-2.97 l/min and 16.2-42.4 ml/min/kg. According to the European fitness classifications the mean age related VO2max of the male and female subjects can be considered moderate or poor. When compared to the European data heart rate of the subjects was 25-30% higher at submaximal levels of oxygen uptake, confirming earlier results. The low cardiorespiratory capacity of many Thai workers may be a limiting or even risk factor in physically demanding jobs.