Aiming to develop public attention to the hindrance of national and international efforts on industrial health and safety, this paper explores some important issues, such as the reasons for the lack of motivation to implement necessary measures in developing countries. Examples are likewise given to show why working people are significantly exposed to a number of occupational problems that are reflected in a deterioration of their health, safety and well being. In lieu thereof, an introduction of health and safety is not itself a solution, if certain changes are not rationalised according to the local need. While health and safety intervention is concerned, then local need is of prime importance. If individual situation is not clearly outlined, then preventive and control measures can be treated as a de facto measure. Hence immediate attention, collaboration and co-operation is needed from all the concerned parties such as local government authorities, semi-government or private organisations and international communities for proper implementation of work regulations as well as industrial acts and rules in various workplaces in each of the developing countries.
In the present study, the ADL index for the partially dependent older people (Demura et al., 1999) was applied to 218 bedridden (BED), 466 partially dependent (PD) and 245 independent living (IL) people in older groups. The purposes of this study were to clarify the meaning of the evaluation of this index and to examine how ADL items are useful in determining each older group. It is suggested that a perfect score with our ADL index means independent living level, and a score of zero means bedridden level. The results of discriminant analysis indicated that four items with low-difficulty, such as "eating," "going to the toilet," "tossing about in bed" and "writing," are useful in determining if the PD is becoming bedridden. While five items with high-difficulty, such as "putting on slacks," "putting on trousers," "standing up from a sitting posture," "going up stairs" and "washing the whole body," are useful in determining if the PD is becoming independent living. Furthermore, it is inferred that the possibility of falling into a bedridden situation increases when the total score is 5 or less, while the functional level is close to independent living when the total score is 13 or more. These findings make clear the meaning of the evaluation of our ADL index. Furthermore, the functional level of older population may be screened using evaluation of total and item scores of this ADL index.
We examined the effect of increased skin pressure from tight clothing on small bowel transit time by means of the breath hydrogen test, using milk that contained lactulose as an additional indigestible disaccharide, which is used as a test meal after overnight fasting. In this experiment, we measured the small bowel transit time from 9 healthy and non-constipated female subjects with two different skin pressures that were applied by loose-fitting experimental garment or an additional tight-fitting girdle on two consecutive days. The skin pressure of the latter condition was 8-9 mmHg higher than that of the former one on the participants' waist, abdomen and hip region. The experimental order of the two skin pressure conditions was counterbalanced. As a result, the small bowel transit time obtained with and without girdle did not differ significantly (165.0 ± 26.0 minutes for less skin pressure condition and 173.3 ± 26.8 minutes for more skin pressure condition, n=9, p=0.43). This result indicated that the skin pressure from clothing has no effect on the passage rate of food through the small intestine.
Concentrations of five acute phase proteins: C-reactive protein (CRP), α1-antichymotrypsin (ACT), transfferin (Tf), α2-macroglobulin (α2-M) and haptoglobin (Hp) as well as glycosylation profiles of α1-antichymotrypsin (ACT) were studied in sera samples with 7 healthy volunteers under the influence of two different light intensities during the daytime dim (100 lx) and bright (3000 lx) light. Concentration of transfferin (negative proteins) under the influence of bright light during the daytime decreased significantly. Other proteins have the tendency to increase (positive proteins) under the influence of daytime bright light. The microheterogeneity of ACT did not change under the influence of different light intensities. Melatonin and rectal temperature were also measured simultaneously. Rectal temperature decreased to be lower during the first half of the night and urinary melatonin secretion rate increased to be higher during the night when the subjects spent time under the bright light during the day. Thus, it is concluded that the diurnal bright light exposure may activate some parameters of acute phase proteins, increase nocturnal melatonin secretion and accelerate a fall of rectal temperature during first half period of night sleep.
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships among exercise behavior, the ability to live independently as assessed by functional activities of daily living (ADL), and psychological health as measured by the Philadelphia Geriatric Center morale scale, using data from 202 elderly residents aged 70 and living in their own home. The main results obtained from the analysis were as follows. 1. Exercise behavior had a significant effect on functional ADL. In particular, subjects who had been exercising regularly for 6 months or longer had higher functional ADL than subjects who did not exercise. 2. For psychological health, the functional ADL level was statistically significant, whereas exercise behavior was not. 3. Multiple regression analysis showed a positive and significant association between psychological health and functional ADL, but not between psychological health and exercise behavior, gender or family type. The results of this study demonstrated that elderly people's efforts to maintain and enhance their psychological health play important roles in their ability to live independently, and that regular exercise is necessary to an elderly person's ability to live independently.
Nurses frequently care for sleepless elderly patients on bed rest in a hospital environment. Our previous study with young adults showed that bright light exposure during the daytime affected the induction of nocturnal deep sleep. The purpose of this study is aimed at finding whether similar research could be observed with hospitalized elderly patients. Seven patients (mean age 67; range 57-77 yrs, males 3: females 4) served as participants and their informed written consent was obtained. A fluorescent lamp fixed in the bed frame near the head of the patient was turned on at 10:00 h and off at 15:00 h each day for 1 week (BL). Moreover, each patient was required to stay near this light during this period. The patients lived in a room facing north, where the ambient light intensities ranged from 50 to 300 lx during the daytime. Their activities were continuously measured using an Actiwatch (model-AWL, Mini-Mitter, USA). Salivary samples were collected at midnight for the measurement of melatonin. The findings were compared between 2 days before BL exposure (baseline) and the last 2 days during BL exposure, respectively. The bright light exposure during the daytime prolonged "Time in Bed" (p<0.05), increased "Immobile Minutes" (p<0.05), and delayed "Get up Time"(p<0.01). The average melatonin secretion at midnight in four patients increased from 7.5 ± 2.6 pg/ml to 13.3 ± 9.2 pg/ml. These findings suggest that diurnal bright light exposure for hospitalized elderly patients lying in bed under dark condition during the daytime may favor clinically the induction of nocturnal deep sleep. Attention should be given to the illumination conditions for elderly patients in hospitals to improve their impaired sleep.
Many patients with atopic dermatitis are dissatisfied with conventional treatments based on topical steroids and have experienced some traditional remedies and alternative therapies. However, most of such therapies have not been evaluated scientifically and clinically by specialists. This study was designed to assess whether a certain vegetarian diet might be effective for atopic dermatitis and if so, to identify the mechanisms of this remedy through analyses of immunological parameters. An open-trial study was carried out in twenty patients with atopic dermatitis. An improvement of dermatitis was evaluated by SCORAD index and serological and immunological parameters were monitored. After a two-month treatment, the severity of dermatitis was strikingly inhibited, as assessed by SCORAD index and serological parameters including LDH5 activity and a number of peripheral eosinophils. A sharp reduction in eosinophils and neutrophils was observed prior to improvement in the skin inflammation. In addition, PGE2 production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells was reduced by this treatment. In contrast, serum IgE levels did not change during the same period. Although this study is an open-trial one, it suggests that this treatment may be useful for the treatment of adult patients with severe atopic dermatitis.
In part 1 of this epidemiological study, a survey was conducted for all senior citizens aged 70 and over who resided in a mountainous village in the mid-section of Hyogo Prefecture. It focused on the relationship among the number of existing teeth, life environment, health status, and activities of daily living; and the correlation between oral status and QOL was analyzed. The daily activities of individuals were compared between those having one or more teeth and others who were totally edentulous. Subsequently, it was found that for both males and females, the odds ratio was significantly high for the dentulous individuals, in comparison with edentulous individuals, to exhibit a behavior indicative of a better QOL (such as "opportunity for conversation with family members or others)", "regular physical activities", and "attend meetings or group outings"). The result of this survey indicates that the presence of teeth is very closely related to one's daily activities. It was concluded that preventing tooth loss is vital for maintaining the masticatory function; so to prevent tooth loss, periodontal disease must be averted.
Oral health in early- and mid-adulthood is essential for the improvement of one's QOL, this study was investigated to include an epidemiological analysis of the relationship between tooth loss and life style, such as smoking, regular exercise, and the food habits of approximately 2,000 employees. Compared with the group with mild or no periodontal disease (CPI of 0, 1, or 2), the frequency of tooth loss in the group with advanced periodontal disease (CPI of 4) was 2.00 times (odds ratio, 2.00; 95% confidence limit, 1.37 to 2.93). The probability of tooth loss showed statistical significance in relation to smoking, alcohol drinking, and frequency of meals. Compared with non-smokers, the probability that current smokers will lose teeth is 1.53 times greater (odds ratio, 1.53; 95% confidence limit, 1.20 to 1.96). It was concluded that periodontal disease and smoking must be averted for preventing tooth loss.