The present study aimed to evaluate the utility of the activities of daily living (ADL) index for partially dependent elderly people (ADL-PDI) when applied longitudinally to an institutionalized partially dependent (PD) group, and to determine the characteristics of the longitudinal change in ADL ability of the PD group. The subjects were ten Japanese PD living at welfare institutions for the aged such as accredited nursing homes and health facilities (mean age was 82.2 ± 2.32 years in total; 84.3 ± 4.18 years for five males; 80.3 ± 2.33 years for five females). The questionnaire consisted of the ADL-PDI, the Barthel index (BI), physical independence, dementia independence, anamnesis, body impairments, use of assisting devices, the institutionalized period, and type of medical rehabilitation and medical treatment, and was administered to the subjects twice during their institutionalized period. All testers were staff working at the subjects' institution, such as occupational therapists, physiotherapists and nurses. The result of the longitudinal ADL assessment was that ADL-PDI may evaluate the longitudinal change in ADL ability on a unidimensional scale. The utility of the standard for discriminating the functional level of the elderly using the ADL-PDI score, which was indicated in our previous study (Sato et al., 2001), was supported by longitudinal data. Furthermore, the BI was superior to the ADL-PDI in evaluating the disabled elderly with lower functional levels. However, the ADL-PDI was better than the BI in evaluating the disabled elderly with a higher functional level and was considered to have wider applications in evaluating the ADL ability of the elderly.
The purpose of this research is to examine the heart rate responses and the perceived exertion in college students during scootering, and to examine if scootering possibly makes heart rate increase up to the level that can contribute to maintaining or developing cardiorespiratory fitness. Five male students (20-23 yrs) participated in this research, mainly assigned to scooter on an official 400m-tartan track. Each session of scootering was six minutes. Each subject did three sessions of scootering at different speeds, slow, ordinary, and very fast. During the scootering, heart rate was measured using a Polar Vantage XL. Immediately after each session, the subjects were questioned about their perceived exertion. To evaluate heart rate during scootering on the track, maximal heart rate was measured in advance with graded maximal tests. In each speed in the track trial, the mean heart rates and the standard deviations were 106 ± 5.9, 129 ± 4.2, and 179 ± 13.7 beats/min respectively. They correspond to 54.0 ± 4.2%, 65.8 ± 4.2%, and 91.2 ± 5.5% of the maximal heart rate respectively. The mean and standard deviation of perceived exertion based on Borg's scale in each scootering session were 7.2 ± 0.45, 10.2 ± 1.10, and 16.6 ± 2.79 respectively. Conclusively, at ordinary speed, the heart rates of the college students on a tartan track were situated around the level of the lower boundary which the American College of Sports Medicine recommended to develop and maintain cardiorespiratory fitness for apparently healthy people. If people have places to ride a scooter briskly, their heart rate could rise above the minimum level.
The purposes of this study were to examine the characteristics of the relationship between ADL ability and daily life satisfaction and the pattern change with aging in independent Japanese elderly, and to compare these tendencies between males and females. The characteristics of ADL ability and daily life satisfaction of 482 subjects (213 males, 269 females) were investigated in a self-response survey. Seventy-four ADL items, considered from previous studies, were selected from nine ADL domains of 1) movement, 2) going up and down stairs, 3) changing and holding posture, 4) bathing, 5) toileting, 6) dressing, 7) grooming, 8) eating, and 9) manual activities, and nine items of daily life satisfaction were selected from physical, psychological and sociological factors. Both ADL ability and life satisfaction of independent elderly tended to decline with aging. From correlation analysis, since life satisfaction of the elderly was higher with high ADL ability level, it was considered that ADL ability level is one of the important factors in providing for life satisfaction of independent elderly. The subjective symptoms of inconvenience in the lower extremity and lumbar region increased from the 70s in both genders, and the use of assisting devices for movement remarkably increased in the 80s in both genders. The use of assisting devices closely related to the activity area in daily life and influenced the characteristics of life satisfaction and its age-related change in the relationship between ADL ability and life satisfaction. The relationship between ADL ability and satisfaction with physical function was similar in both genders, while the relationship between ADL ability and satisfaction with sociological and psychological factors was different between males and females. Since the relationship between ADL ability and life satisfaction of independent elderly is influenced by a combination of personal, cultural, and environmental factors, additional study must investigate in detail the influence of these factors.
Nutrient intake of 29 male (M Group) and 16 female (F Group) highly competitive collegiate karate players were compared. The results were also compared with the daily energy expenditure (DEE), Japanese recommended dietary allowances (RDAs) or adequate dietary intakes (ADIs). Dietary information was collected using a 3-weekday diet record. Although the M Group showed significantly higher mean %RDAs or %ADIs in iron, vitamin B1, phosphorus, magnesium, and sodium than the F Group, many of the mean %RDAs or %ADIs were below RDAs or ADIs in both groups. The subjects who skipped meals tended to show lower mean %DEE, Japanese %RDAs or %ADIs in minerals and vitamins than the subjects who did not skip in both M and F Groups. The consumption of green and other vegetables and milk and dairy products in both M and F Groups were low. It is concluded that the male and female highly competitive karate players studied in the present study may be at risk of sub-optimal nutrient intake, which increases the potential for nutrient deficiency. The subjects were advised not to skip meals, and to consume a balanced high-carbohydrate, moderate-protein, low-fat diet with increasing green and other vegetables and milk and dairy products to increase mineral, vitamin and dietary fiber intakes.