A study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of hot water and ultrasound treatments on Salmonella Enteritidis artificially-inoculated to alfalfa, mung bean and radish seeds. Treatment of alfalfa seeds in sterile distilled water for 5 min at 60°C with ultrasound, and mung bean seeds for 10min at 58°C, 5min at 60°C or 10min at 60°C with ultrasound resulted in reductions of approximately 5.0 log10 cfu / g of Salmonella Enteritidis without substantially decreasing the percent age of germination of seeds. However, these treatments did not eliminate the pathogen completely, since the pathogen was detected during enrichment of the treated seeds. A maximum of 2.0 log10 cfu/g reduction of Salmonella in radish seeds was achieved by treatment with sterile distilled water (for 5 min at 60°C) along with ultrasound. Therefore, complete sterilization of radish seeds may not be possible by these treatments without compromising the quality of radish sprouts. The result of this study suggested that hot water along with ultrasound treatment may be usefulin controlling pathogenic microorganisms in alfalfa and mung bean seeds.
In Miyazaki Prefecture, healthy carriers of Salmonella Corvallis have increased since 1993, and several sporadic diarrhea cases caused by the serovar have also been reported annually between 1998 and 2001. To clarify the source of S. Corvallis infection in humans, 621 feces samples of poultry (40 layers and 581 young chickens), 278 feces samples of cattle, 278 feces samples of swine, 75 sewage samples from 9 poultry processing plants, 33 sewage samples from 3 meat processing plants for cattle and swine, 666 chicken meat samples (370 layers and 296 young chickens) from retail stores and 58 water samples from two rivers were examined for the prevalence of S. Corvallis. S. Corvallis was detected in five (12.5%) of 40 layers, while the serovar was not detected in young chickens, cattle or swine. In sewage samples, S. Corvallis was detected in five (6.7%) of 75 samples from 9 poultry processing plants, while the serovar was not detected in the 33 samples from 3 meat processing plants. In chicken meat, S. Corvallis was detected in 63 (17.0%) of 370 layer meat samples, and in only one (0.3%) of 296 young chicken meat samples. S. Corvallis was not detected from river water samples. The results suggest that meats and the products from layer chickens may be a significant source of S. Corvallis infection in humans.
Test samples of water presented for the potability test were examined in XGM medium, and using the 112 samples that indicated positive for the coliform bacteria group, the results were compared with those obtained with LB medium. Furthermore, the strains of the coliform bacteria group isolated from XGM medium were subjected to identification tests to determine the bacterial type, and the characteristics of the strains isolated were also examined in the LB medium. With respect to the status of detection of organisms of the coliform bacteria group from potable water in each fiscal year, significant differences were noted depending on the test method employed. When the test results for the 112 samples that indicated positive for the coliform bacteria group in XGM medium were compared with those obtained in LB medium, the agreement rate was only 65.2%. When strains of the coliform bacteria group isolated in the XGM medium were subjected to identification tests to determine the bacterial type, the following results were obtained: Enterobacter represented 29.6%, Citrobacter 25.9%, Escherichia 13.2%, Aeromonas 11.6%, Klebsiella 7.9%, and Serratia 5.3%. Out of the 189 isolated strains of the coliform bacteria group isolated from the XGM medium, 114 strains showed positive result in LB medium, and the agreement rate was 60.3%.
Hazard analysis is the most important part to establish HACCP system. Hazard analysis which we proposed is to analyze all prerequisite programs that involve all procedures through the whole process. That should be performed to exclude all hazards from raw materials but also all products, according to the Code of general principles of hygienic practice of Codex Alimentarius Commission. By this method, all Standard Sanitation Operation Programs will be established without any oversight.