This study identifies issues with and countermeasures for the hiring of new graduates in small and medium-sized enterprise (SMEs) while considering the differences in such hiring behavior among large firms. Differences between large firms and SMEs were confirmed to understand the characteristics of hiring behaviors in SMEs, the subject of the research, and the research focus was subsequently narrowed. Issues with SMEs were (1) population formation due to the low brand power for hiring; (2) shortages of human resources for hiring and know-how; and (3) trade-offs between early informal job offers through RJP initiatives and early turnover rates. The study then examined how SMEs that focus on these selected issues, and those that are successful in hiring, respond to these issues. The results of the analysis were as follows.
First, regarding population formation, SMEs used different methods from large firms by strategically coordinating the timing of hiring new graduates and using unique promotion methods and channels such as Facebook, other social media, and dedicated websites.
Second, in response to a lack of human resources, SMEs used outside professionals if there was no hiring know-how in the company. In addition, executives and employees outside of human resources aggressively participated in hiring. However, there were risks in hiring behavior where there were no partnerships with executives or those responsible for human resources.
Third, for RJP, many employees, including executives, participated in hiring rather than having the human resources group lead the process. This increased opportunities for different types of communication with students. With SMEs in particular, there is a risk of informal offers being turned down when they are simply given information on the work environment, whereas sympathetically sharing information, such as workplace experience via other hirees (in actual internships) or even the traditional company briefing, produced results.
Based on these cases, successful measures for SMEs are those that are unique to each company rather than the imitation of hiring methods used by large firms. However, these measures are not shared among SMEs. If effective ways for hiring new graduates can be shared outside individual companies and with society as a whole, then they can be useful in reducing mismatches in the new graduate labor market.
This study analyzes the mechanisms and conditions of functioning for strategic talent management. Strategic talent management is a theoretical concept based on strategic human resource management. It focuses on key positions that contribute to the competitive advantage of a company and on developing a talent pool of high potential and high performing incumbents.
The study investigates 11 foreign-owned companies and one Japanese company and its primary findings are as follows.
(1) The key components of the mechanisms and conditions of functioning for strategic talent management are "definition of the key positions," "talent review," "participation of executive team," and "visualization with talent chart (block chart) ."
(2) The involvement and participation of the executive team for talent development is essential.
(3) The fundamental rules of Japanese style human resource management are different from that of strategic talent management. Therefore, a Japanese company should choose the most appropriate method to implement either strategic talent management or Japanese style human resource management.
The environment surrounding ICT engineers' labor market has changed in the latter half of 1990s. The sophistication of ICT is getting more promoted and the number of highly educated ICT engineers is increasing. In previous studies, they point out that firm size and schooling directly affect the extent of internalization of ICT engineers, and indirectly have effects on their wage and occupational attitudes. However, because these arguments are based on survey data collected before around 2000, they do not catch up with the current trend of ICT engineers' labor market. In this study, we analyze ICT engineers' turnover rate from their first jobs after graduation, and examine whether the hypotheses that firm size and schooling determine ICT engineers' career development are still valid in the 2000s.From the results of analysis, we found following facts; (1) The hypothesis that firm size determines the extent of internalization of ICT engineers is still valid in the 2000s. (2) The hypothesis that schooling determines the extent of internalization of ICT engineers does not seem to be valid on those who became ICT engineers after 2000. (3) Schooling is an important determinant of sizes of firms which ICT engineers join first after graduation. After they join firms, however, there is no significant difference in the extent of internalization between education levels except those who finished graduate schools. (4) In every education level, the smaller the size of the firm where ICT engineers work is, the higher the turnover rate is. (5) Only in college graduates, those who became ICT engineers after 2000 tend to leave their first jobs more than those before 1999.