This study is intended to investigate the educational practice style and the concept of "integration" with the issue of the subject curriculum and the integrated curriculum from 1935 to 1944. The object of this study is the Elementary School Attached to the Tokyo Higher Normal School. The school took the initiative in the primary education those days. The methods of this study are as follows: 1) At first, I discriminate between the national school preparation time (1935-1940) and the national school practice time (1941-1944) because of their school system. 2) Next, I examine the teaching plans that show the educational contents of the class including each divided school time. The conclusions of this study are as follows: 1) Teachers of the Elementary School Attached to the Tokyo Higher Normal School originated the 'Integrated Education' in the school first grade activities in the national school preparation time. In the national school practice time, they refined the teaching practices of the 'Integrated Education'. In the lower grades, all educational contents were integrated into the school curriculum. 2) In the third and fourth grades in the practice time, teachers conducted the classes based on the cross-curriculum. In the curriculum, they regarded the relationship with subjects as most important. In this case the educational methods were integrated. 3) In the upper grades in the practice time, teachers conducted the classes in accordance with each subject's originality. In this case educational goal was integrated. This study is the historical study of the curriculum form theory. This study suggests some ideas for the present curriculum development, especially the reorganization of subjects and integration, and the introduction of the 'cross, integrated study'.
Heizi OIKAWA (1875-1939) was one of the most distinguished researchers in Japanese curriculum study. The aim of this paper is to analyse his educational theory and practices guided by him in the elementary school attached to Akashi Women's Normal School, especially focusing on the educational evaluation. Although he didn't use the word 'educational evaluation', his theory and practices in the 1930s to some extent reflected change from educational measurement to educational evaluation. First, he incorporated the view of criterion-referenced evaluation. He asserted that criterion of educational results should be derived from clearly defined educational objectives, and that tests should not be used to inspire competition among children. Secondly, he maintained the importance of teacher's initiative in the creation of educational objectives. In his view, the results of pupils' measurement should be used to improve teaching methods and reconstruct curriculum adaptable children's needs and abilities. Thirdly, he attached importance to the objectivity of the criterion. At the same time, he tried to evaluate children's activities and attitudes qualitatively. Here lied some crucial problems. Tests for the evaluation of the activities and attitudes turned out to be far from objective, but often superficial. This indicated theoretical and practical difficulty he faced in his pursuit of the educational evaluation.
The purpose of this paper is to clarify the position of "Wohnstube" and "Methode" of moral elementary education and the relationship between them in the structure of Stanz's educational practice. Klafki, W. has indicated the problem as follows, when he had publisched a book about "Stanzer Brief". One problem is to solve political character which Stanz's educational practice has. Another is to examine for "Reflexion" as third stage of moral elementary education in Stanz's educational practice. However, it is difficult to say whether these problem have been solved. Now, a means to solve these problem is to examine the thought, method and political character of moral educational practice, which is easily restraned by times, in historical context. This examination is able to open "classic" proposition which Stanz's educational practice contains, because it is different from conventional studies which dealt with Pestalozzi as ideal. With the critical mind mentioned above, I will examine Stanz's educational practice in this paper, taking notice of "Wohnstube" and "Methode" of moral elementary education in "Stanzer Brief". And through this examination, I will solve a characteristic of Pestalozzi's thought on educational method to make children intuit in his practice, and moreover, to make them prospect for their future, Pestalozzi relating "Wohnstube" and "Methode" of moral elementary education.
Up to this time "School Knowledge" has been confused "Educational Knowledge" as a concept of curriculum study defined by New Educational Sociology with "Knowledge transmitted at School" as a concept of educational methods. But the chief aim of this article is to define "School Knowledge" as "Knowledge transmitted at School" (a concept of educational methods) distinctly, and to examine its point at issue and how to reform it. From a standpoint of educational methods, "Knowledge transmitted at School" is defined as follows. Namely it is contents of school subject which a teacher transmits pupils through uniformed instruction by means of language, that is oral method, writing on the blackboard and a textbook. It is mode of knowledge which is inseparably related to uniformed instruction. However "Knowledge transmitted at School" is on the decline as modern public education becomes more mature. In this situation it is indispensable to reform it radically. As the point at which one's gaze is directed in order to reform it, our view of knowledge and learning must be converted. Especially it is an urgent necessity for us to convert our view of knowledge which uniformed instruction sets forth as a premise. For on the one hand "Knowledge transmitted at School" has admitted an objective knowledge and its legitimation, on the other hand it has excluded pupils' personal, tacit skill (=tacit knowing or personal knowledge). Accordingly the task of this article is to see this skill (tacit knowing) in a new light, and to research it with Tacit Knowing & Skill Theory (especially, a Hierarchical Structure of Skill) of Polanyi, M. clue to go on. Still more on this article, we research this skill through preparing a meal as content of learning concretely, depending on this Theory.
Some people believe that critical thinking can be taught as an automatic product of content coverage or as a battery of technical skills. It is a lack of view of an affective domain and comprehensive critical thinking skills. Richard Paul discusses integrated thinking skills and remodelled lesson plans. This paper focuses on an analysis of Paul's critical thinking theory from the following two perspectives: 1) The concept of critical thinking 2) The principle and pedagogy of teaching critical thinking. According to Paul, there are three groups of mental structures essential to the critical thinker: 1) micro skills, 2) macro abilities, and 3) traits of mind. He emphasizes the importance of recognizing a difference between two distinct conceptions of critical thinking skills: that is "weak sense" and "strong sense". In a weak sense, critical thinking is understood as a set of micro skills. In a strong sense, micro skills, macro abilities, and traits of mind are integrated together. It is multilogical as opposed to monological in the weak sense. Current methods often encourage critical thinking merely in a weak sense. For long term goals, strong sense critical thinking is advocated. Paul develops students micro skills and macro abilities in the context of intellectual standards and values. In the classroom, he recommends a dialogical thinking as the best method of teaching. Students are led to think about multilogical issues. They need to discover opposing points of view and to understand their prejudices or misconceptions. Socratic questions are also emphasized. The teacher sometimes pursues clarity of expression, looks for evidence and reasons, and considers alternative points of view. These approaches teach the affective and moral dimension of critical thinking. Yet his method is sometimes teacher-centristic. A discussion should be held between students. And it is necessary for students to reason, using their points of view and beliefs.
The purpose of this paper is to study the principle of children's recognition, understanding focused on G. H. Mead's Interactionism. This study will be the starting point for clarifying the dynamism of teaching in "teacher-student" educational relationship. The theory of G. H. Mead in this paper is one in the early 20th century. Through studying Mead's theory, I may examine the scientific knowledge in the interaction between "experience" and "science", and draw suggestion about the principle of children's "understanding". Anyone knows that Mead was one of the American Pragmatists around the turn of the century and had great influence later on the Symbolic Interacionism. As yet one have researched on Mead's theory in the field of philosophy or sociology. In the pedagogical field, only Mead's self-formative theory is quoted a little. It's important to study early works for searching possibility of Mead's educational theory, because the self theory may be based on the early educational works of Mead. Then,in order to grasp the principle of children's understanding, this paper brings focus into, firstly, the criticism to the separation of "science" and "experience", secondly, the generation of meaning in the interacion of "science" and "experience", and of student and teacher. This aims to grasp the educational fundamental perspective and draw the suggestion for the principle of understanding.
It seems that most of the philosophical discussions of body very often regard it above all as the speaking subject in its Saussurian sense. In fact, the theory on body and language developed by Maurice Merleau-Ponty is known as the phenomenology of speech. However, his arguments have more than a little problem in analyzing the issue of others, in that he puts too much emphasis on the subjectivity of body and, by so doing, presupposes some subjective consciousness in body. It can be said that this kind of phenomenological frame of reference has influenced through Toshiharu Takeuchi on the teaching theory of Toshiko Toriyama, who attaches much importance to the body and voice that each subject produces from his/her own perspective. But on the other hand, she reveals what might be called the moment of body-writing, or writing by body itself; that is, (1) the body precedes the consciousness, and there is nothing like the "inner self" which is present to him/her self; (2) the subject recognizes the difference between his/her own voices through the others' responses to them, and so the voice arises not from the inside but from the outside of the self; (3) the difference of bodily movements cannot be positioned without any trace (in its Derridian sense) of some precedent movements. In my view, just as it should be considered that the body precedes the consciousness and the meaning can only exist in the trace of bodily movements, so it is necessary to think that curriculum and educational objectives do not precede the act of teaching, as some ideal meanings, but can only be constructed after the recognitiori of differences between bodily movements.
Recent discussions in the scholarly literature of teacher education have led to studies on the development of 'critical reflection on teaching' as a goal in pre-service programs. But attention in those researches has been focused on what student teachers should reflect and how they can be trained to do it. In this paper I explored what and how they actually reflect before they are trained, and then I proposed one of the ways to develop it by focusing on their perspective. In other words, I've tried to throw a new light on their ontological character from the inside. First, I examined their critics on teaching. Their critics had a distinctive character; unstableness of their perspective. Observing the same scene, many student teachers condemned some children without asking the reason of their conduct, while others charged the teacher without deliberating her intentions. Though they had never become teachers, they have already been teachers. Second, I approached to 'being a student teacher' through inquiring the origin of their critic character. They are neither children nor teachers. On the other hand, they are learning as student being taught like 'children', and also as prospective 'teachers' being requested to think professionally. In fact, they are living as inter-mediator between children and teachers though they don't realize it. Third, I inquired how to develop the quality of their reflection focusing on student's perspective. I proposed one concept; to make student teachers realize that they were living as teachers as well as children/students <here and now> in teacher education programs. Then I argued its effectiveness. Finally, I described concretely their reflections in one of my classes.
The purpose of this paper is to make the effectiveness and improvements of the appreciation method of pupils' learning with their Portfolios clear. The Portfolio means a flat case for keeping loose papers, document, drawings, etc., which are pupils' productions in school hours. It doesn't show only the results of their learning, but also the teachers' appreciation of pupils' learning and the thinking process through the conversation between teachers and pupils, or among pupils. The teachers can change their existing approaches to evaluation and their own view of evaluation with it, because it brings about many changes in the relations between teachers and pupils. One of the most important ones is that teachers abandon their own superiorities to their pupils and reflect their own past teaching, lest they should impose their politics on their pupils in the evaluation of their learning. The examination of the conversation for the method depends on some correlative characteristics, the controlling, teaching, supporting, acceptive, waiting, etc. In according with them with pupils' productions the team-teachers reflect their own past teaching processes, especially the contents of their conversation in school hours. The definition of the ordinary correlative characteristics need to be developped the more exhaustively. If it succeeds, the team-teachers will grasp their pupils' individual possibilities and they will be able to call the actions the appreciation, not the evaluation.
Most of educational issues such as school refusal and bullying in modern society are deeply concerned with self-alienation of children. The number of children who can't accept themselves are increasing. As the result, some children are frightened of others and some are agressive to others. Children withdraw from the world into themselves. I consider the Ten Oxherding Pictures as phenomenology of self and explicate the process of self-formation. The Ten Oxherding Pictures is a story which draws the growth of self. Each of ten pictures expresses a facet of self and as the whole it shows the basic thought of Zen. The result of explication is that self is not the substance but the process itself which contains two moments, negation and unity. Self merged nature and others through negating itself. We have to encounter what are resistant to us in order to be ourselves and nature and others give us such resistance.
The aim of this paper is to make it clear how one curriculum area: rural studies was translated from secondary modern schools to comprehensive schools in England and Wales in the second half of 1960s. The nature of the school subjects and curriculum is composed of argument and conflict between different subgroups among subject teachers or between different subject communities. Through these arguments and conflicts, the school subjects and curriculum have been changed. And, in these arguments and conflicts, we can discern three major traditions: academic tradition, pedagogic tradition and utilitarian tradition. The 1965 circular sought to eliminate separatism in secondary education, and recommended local education authorities the comprehensive school. Certainly, this circular eliminated separatism in the form of different school types and buildings, but comprehensive schools were far from expecting of elimination of separate curricula. And grammar school education was carried over to comprehensive schools. So, these comprehensive schools was mainly connected with academic tradition. In comprehensive schools, rural studies moved from utilitarian and practical origin to academic subject: environmental studies. This paper presents how teachers of rural studies strived toward academic recognition for their subject.
There are many cases that it is born by the comparison with the heterogeneous thing in the idea which becomes under the creative power. It has the consciousness that one is different from other people, and it is possible that it has original thought, the unique idea by the comparison. Some objects are contrasted with the comparison, and it is to begin to find difference and a resemblance between those. And, it is to divide some objects due to the difference and the resemblance in accordance with the standard of the classification and specifying and the viewpoint. Comparison is necessary these two methods as a premise if these two methods aren't concerned and it tries to do classification. Comparative classified thinking is placed on the kernel, and it is being thought about that child's discovery target recognition is composed again as for "Seikatsu-ka" (the Subject for Social Life and Living Environment) class as well. The technique of "Zoning" is adopted, and child's thinking is called. It is classified freely with "Zoning" and the child's standard, and it is to define it with the child's word. Thinking is deepened as for the child's thinking formation while the fact system which a child has by the related recognition which it is conscious of, the process of the meaning understanding, and a value system act on the mutuality. "Zoning" as "Seikatsu-ka" (the Subject for Social Life and Living Environment) class composition principle that it aims at the formation of comparative classified thinking is presented by this research. "Seikatsu-ka" (the Subject for Social Life and Living Environment) class must become the class which makes child's wisdom function.
The process of mathematical problem solving can be seen as a continuation of construction and reconstruction of a mathematical model, since we must check up whether the mathematical model reflects the mathematical aspects of a real world problem correctly and whether the outcome resulting from the operation of the mathematical model is suitable for the real world problem. Observing some lessons given via problem solving, we can conclude that inquiries about the value, validity and an extent of applicability of the mathematical model including the critical point of view to the model give rise to zigzag path between the real world problem and the mathematical world. Making the inquiries to the model constitutes one of the domains of mathematical activity-the meta domain of mathematical activity-and the domain is characterized as the following: (1) the meta domain depends rather on the series of problems than on a student as a problem solver and it consists of factors that affect the process of problem solving, (2) the teacher needs to develop questions based on the problems that activate the meta domain of students, (3) the meta domain of each student can be enriched through the internalization of the inquiries made by the teacher and other students.
In the present study, the investigation to find out the factors affecting children's morale on science learning activities was carried out. The results obtained from the investigation are as follows; 1) Learners were able to feel their accomplishments and contributions for learning activities by the teacher's supports optimized to their aptitudes. 2) Learners obtained the morale on learning by getting the feeling of accomplishments and contributions for learning activities. 3) Learners got the achievement by the morale. 4) ATI (Aptitude-Treatment Interaction) was found out at the level of the practical class activities. From these results, the relations among the optimizing learning activity, the obtaining the morale, and the getting the achievement were statistically confirmed.