This study is described on children's cultural activities in Yaeyama in the recent times, mainly on the practice of Takuji Iwasaki. In 1897 Takuji Iwasaki was assigned to Ishigakijima as the head of the local meteorological observatory from the Central Meteorological Observatory. Since then, for 40 years, he made efforts to preserve the local nature and folklore, and develop the local education, in addition to the weather observation and he left great achievements. Especially, he was quick to find children's talents. He made efforts to make opportunities to report children's cultures and made efforts to bring up talented persons of the next generation. In this study I mention an aspect of a history of local educational practice in Japan in the recent times by making his practice and their significance clear.
The education based on the recapitulation theory was proposed by Arata Kira-the thirteenth principal of the Beppu South Elementary School. Kira developed the education by studying a German biologist-E. H. Haeckel (1834-1919) who advanced the Principle of Recapitulation. The education based on the recapitulation theory attached importance to the device, question, discovery of pupils by the battle of mutual questions and was based on the child-centered principle which aimed at developing the spontaneous learning attitude of pupils. At Beppu South Elementary School, most of the teachers studied the education based on the recapitulation theory in the researching meeting and practiced its theory in their teaching. Teacher Sangoro Kawano taught arithmetics using the educational methods based on the recapitulation theory and all the other teachers began to use the same methods. The practice of teaching by them was noticed throughout the country and the Beppu South Elementary School was regarded as one of the new educational schools in the Taisyo Era.
To develop the students' thinking faculty is one of the focuses in education of our country. But to develop this faculty, there are a number of things to be examined beforehand. For instance, items of the "Achievement Test" have been classified into 4 classes, that is, items to assess (1) "interest/volition/attitude", (2) "thinking/judgment", (3) "skill/expression", (4) "knowledge/understanding", but the classification is not necessarily agreeable for me. It would be due to the ambiguity of classification standard. And this means that the contents and methods of education of thinking faculty is not definite yet. So in this paper, I tried to examine them. Examining the thinking faculty, I reached the conclusion that this faculty is composed of the experiences (which are knowledges and techniques/skills) on one side, and of the techniques to observe and analyze the situation and transform the experiences on another. Consequently, to develop the thinking faculty, we have to impart lots of knowledge and technique/skill on one side and to foster thinking techniques on the other.
1. As an introduction, the author comments on the present situation of Japan's schools and Japanese class-work studies. He also explains his own qualitative research, and argues the latent relationships between Japanese class-work studies and Western qualitative studies. 2. The purpose of this paper is explained. The aim is to place the Japanese class-work study in the context of Western qualitative studies, with a view to exchanging and sharing research results between both, and the tasks lying ahead, through clarifying common points and differences. 3. Background and methods of qualitative research are listed. 4. The author discusses the necessity to describe the Japanese class-work study in the context of Western qualitative studies. He compares both studies from various aspects. 5. As for the attitude and viewpoint of the research, observations in the field and failure to bring in the hypotheses are what they have in common, and the viewpoints of analysis are where they differ. 6. As for data and materials, both use linguistic records as data, but the contents of data and the existence of coding systems are different. 7. As for the processes of analysis, including subjectivity, independent of a fixed process, existence of the method of data compression, and synthesizing various materials are common ground, whereas examination of cases against the conclusion, integration of quantitative approaches, existence of systematic methods of data analysis are different. 8. As for research theories, being oriented to paradigm-shift is what the view points have in common, while the direction of paradigm-shift, the variety of origins, the relationships with various fields of social sciences, awareness and examinations of critical issues, and the broadness of the paradigm-shift constitute a difference. 9. Concerning the relationship between the researchers and the field, researchers' participation in target groups is common to both, but the existence of ambiguity between participation and non-participation constitutes a difference. 10. After those comparisons, the author discusses the background and possibilities of the above-mentioned common points. He confirms the differences and argues the necessity of translation and transmission beyond the mutual research context. 11. Finally, he defines the tasks necessary to develop this examination.
It has been criticized that the classroom research is based on P-P paradigm. By contrast, the research which is focus on the process of meaning-making is called "qualitative research". In these kind of research, the most important place is given to qualitative analysis of excerpts of actual classroom talk. In this paper, I adopted the methodology called "interpretive participant observational research" and analyzed the actual talk in the classroom. In the school culture, children get to master the roles they are given under a dominant discourse though the mastery and performance are not always connected automatically. They appropriate the dominant discourse as the cultural tool for mediating to participate the classroom practice and re-construct the discourse. The discourse also function as the cultural tool for constructing the power. The power is potentially possessed by both teachers and students. This means, although teachers are normally assigned authority to control the lessons, the social formation could be changed because the classroom lesson is a texture of various voices and it is constructed by the irreducible tension between teachers and each children. In this paper, I discuss that motive and identity is socially constructed according to the contexts or relations. The motives are not in the individual but constructed as the device of making the action understandable which describe actor's life as narrative. Identity is also not substantial notion but constructed by means of narratives as cultural tools according to the sociocultural contexts. Both motive and identity in the classroom practice constructed from multi-voiced narratives of all the participants of the practice. But some voices of the participant are tend to be ignored under the power relations in the practice. As so, it could be the way to make classroom practice better to take care of that kind of voices.
The purpose of this paper is to examine "Verfremdung" (defamiliarization or alienation in English) as one of "Dramaturgie" which has to use in the classroom teaching. Didaktics has learned many successful techniques and thoughts from theater theory. It has made contribution toward practices of classroom teaching. But there will be found crises in which chilidren are involved in the teacher's construction of lesson. By reason of this, we need another view of theater theory which gives the students and teachers a critical behavior. Since the ancient Greece, there have been implied two effects in the theater theory. One is empathy, another is "Verfremdung". Therefore, I will examine this problem following next three points: First, to review the theater theories in didaktics. Second, to throw light on how "Verfremdung" has been discussed in the teaching theory. Finally, to suggest how to teach in the classroom from the view point of "Verfremdung"
The purpose of this paper is to make it clear how the concept of "educational relations" was re-interpreted theoretically by H. Giesecke in his little learned work "The End of Education." The discussions on the postmodern in pedagogy that became particularly active in the German pedagogical world from the mid-1980s on, generated an even more radical criticism of pedagogy. References to the technological deficiencies of pedagogical science as well as antipedagogical movements developed in this context. In such a situation, in 1985 Giesecke wrote the above-mentioned work. According to Giesecke, mass media, particularly television eroded the dividing line between childhood and adulthood. The reason is that television provides everyone, simultaneously, with the same information in a form that is undifferentiated in its accessibility. And the electric media found it impossible to withhold any secrets. Without secrets, of course, there can be no such thing as childhood. For the background of the disappearance of childhood, Giesecke propounded the theory of the end of education and changed theoretically the way of comprehending the concept of educational relations. In short, he regarded an adult not as a representative but as an official. And then he made much of the socializing function of same age groups rather than the personal and responsible relations of an adult to a child. Added to these, he regarded a child as a miniature adult. But as U. Herrmann acutely pointed out, his view is quite unsatisfactory.
The purpose of this study is to consider the significance of the instructional concept in Klafki's plan "epochaltypische Schliisselprobleme". His plan has attracted further attention as the theme of "Facherubergreifender Unterricht" that has been developed as an attempt of the curriculum reform in Germany. His plan gives "Facherubergreifender Unterricht" a theoretical framework and practical direction and shows a new plan of school curriculum. In this paper, I analyze Klafki's Plan "Schlusselprobleme" as a new plan of school curriculum. Then I show the instructional concept and learning principle in his plan and refer to the concrete examples of instructions. And I analyze characteristics, possibilities, and practical problems of this plan and suggest some idea to curriculum reform in Japan.
The aim of this paper is to identify didactical principles of the "Case Analysis Method", which has been implemented since the 1970' s in political science classes (civics) in Germany. The feature of the "Case Analysis method" is to provide understanding of the real political process for secondary students through analysis of situation and political process of the Case. The decision-making of students is the focal point of this method. As a procedure of this research, at first the characteristics of the method are illustrated by comparing with the "Institutional Learning method". The "Institutional Learning method" can be explained as a method to learn polity systematically, generally and abstractly, on the other hand of the "Case Analysis method". Secondly the author analyzed these methods from three concepts of politics in order to clarify the goal of civics. Then thirdly, a lecture plan "Reform of the article 218 of criminal law" is described as an example of "Case Analysis method". Then the following three aspects are constructed and considered to analyze the principles of "Case Analysis method": (1) clarifying of criteria of selection of the Case, (2) drawing criteria of teaching materials and (3) formation of decision-making by students as goal of learning. The conclusions of this consideration are as follows. First the Case should be to improve the subjective commitment of students, to involve objective treatment of political process and to contain open-ended style to form students' own opinion. Secondly for the criteria of teaching materials, primary sources should be used in the classroom and avoid use of secondary sources. Thirdly "Case Analysis Method" offers two levels for decision-making by students, one is experience of political decision-making process and the other is to make one's own opinion through comparison with the political decision about the Case.
One of the aims of didactical study is to construct a general theory for creating the educational contents and methods which enable all children to learn fundamental parts (laws and concepts) of sciences, technics and arts with pleasure. From this viewpoint, the study on mathematics education is aimed at the creation of the educational contents and methods which enable all children to learn mathematics with pleasure. In this paper, we propose a plan for introduction of fractions through the measurement of quantity to elementary school children. And we examine the process and the result of the experimental lessons based on the plan. The fundamental viewpoints of our plan are as follows: (1) When we measure a continuous quantity, we sometimes get fragments. We introduce fractions as one way of expressing the fragments. (2) To express the fragments, we adopt the principle of Euclid's algorithm as a fundamental method. (3) We evaluate the role that the ratio aspect of fractions plays in the teaching and later unify it with the division aspect of fractions. The experimental lessons are carried out in a third grade class in Tagajou-higashi elementary school by Mr. Takayuki Sato in December 1997.
The educational objectives of the technology education should be based upon the technological sciences and the world of work. In this paper, we discussed the teaching materials for the basics of work, and we compared it with the teaching materials for basics of the technological sciences that we discussed in other paper. And we found that both of them based on the same principle of development about teaching materials, and suggested two points for the teaching materials of the technology education. The first point is that the origin of its teaching materials should be searched from the real world of technology. The second point is that the procedure for developing the teaching materials should be based upon the fandamentals as follows, (1) Finding out the materials which both children and a teacher are interested in, (2) Sampling the types of the real world of technology, analyzing it by the educational objectives which we want to teach, (3) Reconstructing them as a models reflected the real world of technology. (4) Examining how effective they are able to reconstruct the children's spontaneous concepts.
This study examined thinking process in music learning from the aspects of both creative thinking (E. Boardman, 1989) and critical thinking. How metacognition affects both types of thinking in music learning is the object of this study. These two types of thinking processes both creative and critical, prove to be clues in fostering students' interest and maintaining positive attitude toward the study of music. The following three implications were discovered. (1) Consciousness of the learning process should be emphasized in music learning activities. (2) Both creative thinking and critical thinking are indispensible to music learning processes. While critical thinking emcompasses the rational understanding of music, creative thinking reconstructs that musical understanding along with the elements of music, to create original interpretations and new thinking patterns. In music learning, these two processes supplement each other. (3) In ordrer to encourage thinking in students, we must introduce the concept of metacognition. Thinking processes become conscious, moreover, it promotes students' creative interpretations and expressions. By considering and incooporating the above three implications, students' thinking will positively be activated. Below please find more detailed examinations concerning questioning and guidance for inducing different thinking processes.
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