Journal of Construction Management, JSCE
Online ISSN : 1884-8311
ISSN-L : 1884-8311
Volume 14
Showing 1-35 articles out of 35 articles from the selected issue
  • Focus on the Tokyo Metropolitan Area in Japan
    Katsuhide Yoshikawa
    2007 Volume 14 Pages 1-11
    Published: November 08, 2007
    Released: June 04, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The urban environment has deteriorated in the 20th century due to growing urbanization and the intensive concentration and increase of the population in cities. Clearing this negative legacy will be the task of future generations. As part of the research into river basin and urban regeneration scenarios that coexist with nature, this paper focuses on the Tokyo metropolitan area, where changes to the water infrastructure in the city as a result of the disappearance of the network of rivers and waterways following the urbanization of the river basin and the construction of roads in the vicinity of rivers affords a long-term perspective.
    Moreover, the paper points to the urban regeneration of riversides in Japan and overseas, the demolition of elevated roads and the move to build roads underground, and presents a wide range of progressive examples of collaboration between river regeneration and urban development. Based on this, designs and proposals are made for future urban regeneration models (regeneration scenarios) that take rivers as the starting point. In addition, the enquiry considers river walks, which are tools for reviving river space in the city, and are vital from a social perspective, and the urban regeneration near rivers in the metropolitan area. Finally, the enquiry considers specific rivers and urban areas including the Nihonbashi River
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  • Shinya INAZUMI, Masatomo YOKITA, Makoto KIMURA, Masashi KAMON, Yoshika ...
    2007 Volume 14 Pages 13-22
    Published: November 08, 2007
    Released: June 04, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    SPSP cutoff walls constructed by installing steel pipe sheet piles (SPSPs) at coastal landfill sites are important element of containment facilities preventing the leachate leakage from reclaimed waste to the open sea area. The adhesion with the peripheral ground must be retained in the installation of the SPSPs with joint sections for demonstrating the function which the SPSPs make to be the containment facility. In this study, the generation of turbulence region in peripheral ground around the installation of SPSP cutoff walls is noticed. A seepage and advection/dispersion analysis evaluates the effect of the turbulence region, effect of installation method which suppresses the generation of the turbulence region and soil improvement by the sand compaction pile (SCP) method on environmental preservation function of whole coastal landfill sites with SPSP cutoff walls. As example of result in this study, hydraulic conductivity which turbulence region formed in lower deposition clay layer retained showed that the leakage quantity in the specific route of the toxic substance leakage is greatly affected. The installation method with soil improvement around installing the SPSPs using soil cement was effective in leakage control of the toxic substance.
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  • Hironao TAKAHASHI
    2007 Volume 14 Pages 23-33
    Published: November 08, 2007
    Released: June 04, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    It is essential to keep functions of existing infrastructure over their required levels, which may contribute sustainable social and economic development in Japan. For this purpose, it is important to plan an appropriate maintenance strategy based on the preventive maintenance scenario rather that the collective maintenance one.
    However, the significance of the social discount rate has not been made clear when estimating the life cycle cost for necessary interventions in the preventive maintenance scenario. There still remain controversial issues on either the discount rate should be taken into account or not.
    This paper firstly examines the concepts of the social discount rate in various fields. Then, the differences were made clear when the social discount rate is taken into account or not. Finally, a calculation model was formulated to propose the most suitable timing for repair work when the social discount rate is taken into account.
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  • Tetsuo EBIHARA, Hiroyasu OHTSU
    2007 Volume 14 Pages 35-44
    Published: November 08, 2007
    Released: June 04, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Governments around the world are decreasing their investment in public infrastructure assets and investors in the private sector are earning new or existing assets. They can decrease portfolio risk by investing infrastructure assets because essential infrastructure assets such as roads are crucial to a modern society and have high replacement costs.
    Of course it is necessary to confirm whether assets value exceeds investment or not. Asset valuation for general public work project is well understood, however, less is known about how to manage the value within the context of public-private partnerships or other delivery methods.
    This paper focuses on the differences between the valuation for public project and for private sector first. And secondly, it shows specific example about the valuation for toll road concession, ‘Highway 407’. Asset valuation can be explained by ‘Valuation’ which measures the value of Companies. That is to say, it uses discounted cash flows method that determines the current value of ‘Highway 407’ using future cash flows adjusted for time value. In this paper, future cash flows are evaluated by population forecast and time value is estimated by cost of capital. Finally, it examines validity about the valuation way more closely.
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  • Nobusuke HASEGAWA, Hiroyasu OHTSU, Kazuo SAKAI
    2007 Volume 14 Pages 45-54
    Published: November 08, 2007
    Released: June 04, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    In mountain tunnel construction project, the increase of construction expenses is the construction stage which occurs by unbridgeable gulf between ground evaluation in investigation and design stage and actual ground situation becomes a problem. As the one reason why such unbridgeable gulf occurs, the uncertainty of the investigation is considered. Therefore, it is important to evaluate not only ground evaluation as expectation value but also the uncertainty of ground evaluation, if the increase in the construction cost by unbridgeable gulf is caught as a risk.
    In this study, for the purpose of objectively evaluating the uncertainty of the ground evaluation, the uncertainty evaluation was tried by carrying out optimistic evaluation and pessimistic evaluation based on the seismic prospecting result.
    Actual ground situation seems to fall during optimistic evaluation and pessimistic evaluation, as long as the preliminary survey is not improper, if the uncertainty is appropriately evaluated. The technique which evaluates the uncertainty of ground evaluation based on the seismic prospecting result has not been established. Then, in making that actual ground situation fell during optimistic evaluation and pessimistic evaluation to be one judgment index, uncertainty evaluation technique of the ground evaluation was examined. In this paper, uncertainty evaluation of the ground evaluation was tried using 2 techniques of ground evaluation by a classification table and ground evaluation using the bore core evaluation point. As the result, we were obtained that actual ground situation falls during optimistic evaluation and pessimistic evaluation by ground evaluation technique using the bore core evaluation point.
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  • Toshiaki AOKI, Shinya ARATO, Masanori SHIONO
    2007 Volume 14 Pages 55-64
    Published: November 08, 2007
    Released: June 04, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Sometimes opinion of surrounding others might be strongly related to one's attitude formation in consensus building process of public development. Particularly, since it seems that there are a lot of regions where a strong community still remains, this tendency becomes often in the provinces part. In general, although it is reported that fair process is important in the negotiation, analysis included the influence of others' opinion has not been done enough. Then, this study analyzes mechanism of the attitude formation of the citizens under the case where the information offered by an administrative person arise the group pressure and disadvantage. When having conducted a psychological experiment, that used the scenario for the student of Tohoku Institute of Technology, the following findings were obtained. That is, 1) group pressure can rise and evaluation on fairness of process will improve at the same time, when administrative person informs opinion of surrounding others. 2) When the group pressure acted in the form of the abovementioned, the person who received pressure got the tendency to form their own attitude mainly based on the self-interest protection. At this time, it was suggested that fairness process was not an important attitude formation factor. 3) It was confirmed again that the attitude was formed based on fairness of process and the self-interest, when the group pressure like the above-mentioned did not act.
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  • Kazuya FUJIU, Chizato MIYAUCHI
    2007 Volume 14 Pages 65-72
    Published: November 08, 2007
    Released: June 04, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The number of useful life years is fundamental and essential in asset management analysis but that of sewers has not been calculated statistically by using sufficient field data because most of sewers in Japan were constructed after 1960s and therefore old ones are not so many.
    In this paper, a probability distribution for sewer life is presented using Weibull distribution. Future rehabilitation needs is predicted using the probability distribution.
    First, the probability distribution is calculated using the life data in FY 2005. The data was obtained by a questionnaire survey for the entire sewers in Japan. The results show that actual average sewer life varies from 83 to 93 years by the applying way to all Japan data.
    Next, using the Weibull distribution of 93 years, the national rehabilitation needs is estimated to peak at 4, 653 km in 2093. The rehabilitation peak is found out to be much gentler than the initial investment peak. After the peak time, the needs continue at nearly 4, 000 km per year constantly.
    As readers can trace the calculating process in this paper, it is minutely explained and all Japan data are attached as an appendix.
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  • Yoshitaka Nakagawa
    2007 Volume 14 Pages 73-85
    Published: November 08, 2007
    Released: June 04, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The purpose of this paper is to study how to reduce construction injuries in Japan from the view point of partnering. First the author showed UK had better record compared to Japan by comparison of construction fatal injuries. In order to find out the cause, the author investigated the history of the regulations and measures for safety & health and regenerating construction movement in UK. From the study, the author picked up the risk assessment, certification scheme of capability for safety & health of workers in construction industry and the duty of construction designing engineers for safety & health. Then the author compared two countries about these thee points. From the study, the author showed there were great difference about partnering by supply-chain management and penalty due to breach the regulation. Finally the author suggests measures in order to reduce the construction injuries.
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  • Kengo OBAMA, Kiyoyuki KAITO, Kiyoshi KOBAYASHI, Toshiaki KATOH, Noriko ...
    2007 Volume 14 Pages 87-98
    Published: November 08, 2007
    Released: June 04, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    This paper focuses on road patrol service which is carried out to remove and repair the road hazards risks, and addresses the methodology to make a. decision on the rational road patrol policy based on the trade-off relationship between its service level and budget constraint. Specifically, the road hazards generation process is formulated by Poisson Gamma, model in which the population parameter, that is arrival rate, is stochastically distributed, to express the heterogeneity of arrival rate of various road hazards risks. Employing this Poisson Gamma. generation model, the Management indicator of road hazard risks can be modeled. Furthermore, under the budget constraint, the rational road patrol policy that can mitigate the road hazard risks is proposed and applied for an empirical study.
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  • Kouichi SUGISAKI, Kiyoyuki KAITO
    2007 Volume 14 Pages 99-112
    Published: November 08, 2007
    Released: June 04, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    In asset management of infrastructures, it is necessary to design effective repair strategy and to not only minimize the life cycle cost of such countermeasures but also maximize their effectiveness. This study proposes a method to determine specific repair priority using cost-effectiveness as an index and also considering repair results in the past. The validity of the proposed method is investigated through an empirical study for 30 steel railway bridges. A feature of this method is that actual visual inspection for steel railway bridges were carried out, to take into account the results in the evaluations of current damage and the possible damage forecast by deterioration estimates. The repair priority was determined by comparing the cost-effectiveness of all the cases. In addition, as a result of placing some limits on budgets, it is verified that the quantification of the effectiveness of repair, and its evaluation based upon costeffectiveness, makes a decision on the priority of maintenance strategy and to level off total costs.
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  • Keiichi YASUDA, Mitsuru JIDO, Kiyoshi KOBAYASHI
    2007 Volume 14 Pages 113-124
    Published: November 08, 2007
    Released: June 04, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    It is important that we decide a maintenance scenario of a bridge. It is often that it is determined an LCC minimization model to adopt a calculated maintenance scenario. When we calculate LCC, we cannot ignore the influence that a parameter gives a result. For a parameter, it is a deterioration prediction model to calculate from a state transition probability, a life cyclc, discount rate. In this study, we show about a life cycle period and discount rate. An object is for an expensive steel reinforced concrete slab of repair frequency in steel superstructure of a national road. We calculate the influence that a difference of a life cycle and discount rate to set give LCC as a test every maintenance scenario. In addition, support to decide the maintenance scenario that LCC becomes minimization by performing the budget simulation that considered budget limitation shows that it is possible.
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  • Yasuhito SAKAI, Haruhiko UETSUKA, Kiyoshi KOBAYASHI
    2007 Volume 14 Pages 125-134
    Published: November 08, 2007
    Released: June 04, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Hanshin Expressway is an urban expressway network accommodating more than 900, 000 vehicles per day. To sustain efficient and comfortable road traffic environment, Hanshin Expressway is performing various highway Rehabilitation and Maintenance (R&M) activities. The well-organized highway R&M activities (ex.; regular inspection, roadway cleaning, etc.) is fundamental for keeping traffic safety and provide road users with psychological satisfaction, but poor R&M may cause serious traffic accidents or defects. Due to the lacks of the sufficient budget for highway R&M, the highway administration bodies are always requested to reduce the expenditures for R&M activities.
    In this paper the logic model for R&M (named HELM; Hanshin Expressway Logic Model), which was developed by the Hanshin Expressway Corporation, is presented to administrate the whole system of R&M activities in an efficient way. The model will turn out to be the indispensable platform for the introduction of the R&M contracts with the outside sectors in a near future. Some evaluation indicators for policy models comprising HELM, which are expected to be monitored and evaluated throughout the implementation of the PDCA cycles, are also illustrated in the paper. This paper shows the methodology to formulate the criteria based on risk (probability×consequence) measurement for the risk management of the potholes, sands and pebbles, upon the pavement. The criteria presented in this paper can be estimated based upon the past record on highway patrol. And the paper presents the risk management diagrams for the highway patrol, by which the administrative bodies can efficiently design the optimal patrol frequency given the predetermined risk levels. The paper is concluded by summarizing the ongoing research agenda to improve the HELM throughout the PDCA cycles of the real R&M activities.
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  • Nobuyoshi Yabuki, Toshifumi Oyama
    2007 Volume 14 Pages 135-142
    Published: November 08, 2007
    Released: June 04, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    As light weight temporary facilities are used many times and are deteriorating over a long time, it is desired to identify the actually used period for each member and to abandon the members if they are used overtime. However, this has never been executed before since it takes too much time and cost. The authors performed experiments for applying ultra high frequency (UHF) band radio frequency identification (RFID) tags to management of light weight temporary facilities before and found it feasible but observed the necessity of protecting soft UHFT RFID tags used for the experiments. Now that new 2.45GHz band RFID tags that are covered with metal and that are resistant to shocks have been developed, the authors executed experiments on the usability of the new metal RFID tags and on the application of them to light weight temporary facilities. The results showed that the new metal RFID tags can be used if they are attached to metal members by inserting 2mm thick non metal object between the metal surface and the RFID tag. Furthermore, the authors developed a prototype of a database system for managing the usage of light weight temporary facilities by using the metal RFID tags. The database system deployed a relational data model having five tables representing data of facility members and leasing track records. This system was tested for reading multiple RFID tags attached facility members and demonstrated its feasibility and practicality.
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  • Matiko SAMSON, Tomoya SHIBAYAMA
    2007 Volume 14 Pages 143-153
    Published: November 08, 2007
    Released: June 04, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    This paper presents an approach for optimization of segment-linked maintenance and rehabilitation plan for a pavement network by using shuffled complex evolution. It extends the works of Nunuo and Agyei (2000) by improving the exploration-exploitation balance of the algorithm and by using a realistic pavement deterioration model to solve the problem of multiple maintenance and rehabilitation activities. An example to maximize the serviceability of the road network under a fixed budget and minimum serviceability level policy is also presented. The result of the optimization process using a part of Kanagawa prefecture road network showed very good results with reasonable computational times.
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  • Hitoshi NINOMIYA
    2007 Volume 14 Pages 155-165
    Published: November 08, 2007
    Released: June 04, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The purpose of this study is to consider a new management system for facilitating Consensus-building in infrastructure developments by application of negotiation skills. Recently, some confrontations or disputes become social concern, which become increasingly more interested in citizen participation and public involvement. However, the system of facilitating Consensus-building is not enough established. In this study, negotiation styles, strategies and tactics were applied to the road construction project, it was found that it repeatedly has positional bargaining between administration and residents, which was caused serious confrontations. To overcome the problems, principled negotiation facilitated by third party was shown as a new management system.
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  • Koichi Takeda, Nobuyuki Ozeki, Osamu Konagaya
    2007 Volume 14 Pages 167-178
    Published: November 08, 2007
    Released: June 04, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    In enforcement of public works project, the government decided to reduce the general cost that include an external cost such as influence reduction to environment in addition to a construction cost, and the government performs a continuous action. However evaluating a reduction of many external costs is very difficult. Because there are extremely few money conversion value of external cost.
    Therefore, in this study we analyze an existing measurement example to evaluate an external cost as a cost reduction, and develop a simple and easy measurement technique for making a new conversion value of external cost.
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  • Tetsuji OZAKI, Toshiki SIMOIKE, Taku MIMURA, Shizuo SATORI, Yasunori S ...
    2007 Volume 14 Pages 179-190
    Published: November 08, 2007
    Released: June 04, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    An contaminated sites restoration carried out as an anti-soil/groundwater contamination measure is developed nationwide.However, this restoration is new in our country, and much failure produces it by a business to carry out I follow laws and ordinances such as an anti-soil pollution measure method or the regulations or even if I follow it. These failures may lead to a big loss, and it is it with the problem that it is important that I clarify the cause and prevent failure.
    We collected the examples that we failed in contaminated sites restoration and we arranged these and considered it. We tried to become content concrete as possible by collection of examples, but there is the mentioned example that we generalized in a part. I divided a restoration into investigation, a plan, each stage of measures by rearranging. I examined the cause for consideration and touched it about the preventive measures partly.
    This report has result of study contents in a contaminated sites restoration management subcommittee of The Construction Management Committee at Japan Society of Civil Engineers as reference.
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  • Tatsunori MAKIZUMI, Tetsumasa TANAKA
    2007 Volume 14 Pages 191-198
    Published: November 08, 2007
    Released: June 04, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    In this paper, a new bid index different from the successful bid rate, which evaluates adequacy of the bid price in a bidding process of selecting contractor to do an infrastructure construction, is proposed.
    In this bid index, a predetermined bid value is correspond to 100% and a limit price necessary to survey is 0%, so that the bid price almost lower than the cost is expressed by the negative value. Using this index, all results of the competitive bidding process taken in ministry of land, infrastructure and Transport after September of 2005, are analysed.
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  • Norihisa MIYAMOTO, Hiromichi MATSUSHITA, Midori ENOMOTO
    2007 Volume 14 Pages 199-206
    Published: November 08, 2007
    Released: June 04, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Our ideal asset management is one that is comprehensible to the citizens yet cost-effective. The aim of this study was to introduce a new viewpoint through a new evaluation system that will aid with asset management by the government, with bridges as significant road facilities being the subject matter.
    The bridges that were the subjects of this study were chosen from the urban, residential, and rural areas of an ordinancedesignated city, Fukuoka City. In calculating their asset values, emphasis was made on the idea that a bridge has various assets. Evaluations were not restricted to the material values of the bridges themselves, but to other assets, such as the fact that they mitigate traffic congestion and thereby providing valuable service to the citizens and improving the environment. Furthermore, bridge asset values were expressed in monetary value to be more comprehensible for the citizens.
    The asset values of the bridges calculated in this study were found to be higher in urban areas, where there were more citizens and road users who are affected by traffic volume and the environmental impacts of it.
    However, in rural areas, the asset values of essential bridges located on roads used in emergencies were nevertheless found to be lower. Hence, this study gives some suggestions on the possible ways of utilizing these asset values, while reflecting upon the roles the bridges play in disasters, and the opinions of the local residents.
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  • Hiroyuki Ito
    2007 Volume 14 Pages 207-214
    Published: November 08, 2007
    Released: June 04, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Because the functions, the strength, the safety in use and the cost for construction and maintenance of public works is subject to the design of those, ensuring quality of design is very important to ensure the quality of public works. Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport instructed to apply the design VE, which obtained many good results in various fields, as the efficient method for reduction of the cost, securing the necessary functions of public works, and National Institute for Infrastructure Management has made efforts to provide technical information such as a guideline for design VE in public works. But design VE has not been spread enough in work offices. In this paper, the essential reasons for design VE not to be popular are examined from the view points of the characteristics of abilities and organizations of the owners, and the policies for utilization of design VE in order to ensure design quality, composed of specifying the items the owner should examine subjectively, promotion of participation of private engineers and establishment of database on which different owners can mutually use the results of design VE, are proposed.
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  • Hiroyuki Ito
    2007 Volume 14 Pages 215-226
    Published: November 08, 2007
    Released: June 04, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    In our country, comprehensive evaluation method, as procurement method of public works, is being spread, replacing price competition. In recent years, the details of comprehensive evaluation methods are changing quickly and the purpose and the function expected to those is varying from the origin. So, the function and the purpose of the comprehensive evaluation method became difficult to understand. On the other hand, the present comprehensive evaluation method is still under trail, therefore some misunderstandings are found in the implemented cases and the important problems to be solved exist, in order that the comprehensive evaluation method will be actually established. In this paper, the history of the comprehensive evaluation method in corresponding to the change of construction markets and social conditions is commented, at first. Then, some misunderstandings implemented on the past are pointed, and the main problems to be examined are suggested for the comprehensive evaluation method to be effective enough about procurement with overall superiority in price and quality. Moreover, the framework of examination on “the approach to the best procurement”, composed of the development of performance index of procurement, analysis the correlation between the evaluation method and the index, and improvement of the method in direction to increasing the index.
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  • Tsuneki IHARA
    2007 Volume 14 Pages 227-234
    Published: November 08, 2007
    Released: June 04, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    In late years a rise of import prices of natural resources used as materials of many activity continues and gives our country big influence. I push up industrial production cost to need import materials, and import prices remarkable rise of materials suppresses corporate profits. And an upheaval of production cost spreads to the influence for the other industry through price imputation, and naturally production cost of construction material takes the influence, too.
    Therefore there is it for the purpose of examining the influence that a rise of import prices of materials gives production cost of construction material in this study. At first, in this examination, I examined the ripple effect that a rise of import prices of materials gave to a construction material price with an equilibrium price model. In addition, I clarified the change of influence by using data of plural years and considered a change factor of influence.
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  • H. Takasaki, T. Hojo, N. Suzuki, T. Miya, K. Ishijima
    2007 Volume 14 Pages 235-242
    Published: November 08, 2007
    Released: June 04, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    It has been required that “technology appraisal” is done in all scenes. objectivity and universality of technology appraisal heighten, if it can formulate the technology appraisal method with equitability, objectivity and accountability, the reliability and applicability seem to heighten more.
    In this paper, the following were clarified that a proposal of selection method of the new technology appraisal index as a methodology which applied basic investigation on the method of existing technology appraisal methods, and based upon the above background, effect of technology appraisal considering the price in the synthesized evaluation bid system is analized.
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  • Go-kyo KATAYAMA, Yuji NAKAMURA, Kazumasa OZAWA
    2007 Volume 14 Pages 243-254
    Published: November 08, 2007
    Released: June 04, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Local governments have been recently facing financial depression due to the central government's policy to restructure subsidiaries and/or grants. Cutting cost on public services for reduction of financial debt is no longer acceptable, but measures to ensure new financial sources have not yet sufficiently taken. This paper contributes to innovating the finances of local governments while proposing application of assetbacked securities to local infrastructures. More specifically, the paper (1) offers a financial structure model to activate local infrastructures, (2) clarifies legal issues, (3) attempts computation using a toll road model project, (4) investigates the effect of the proposed financial structure, and finally (5) discusses laws and regulations that must be deregulated.
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  • Kotaro ABE, Yuichiro KANEKO
    2007 Volume 14 Pages 255-262
    Published: November 08, 2007
    Released: June 04, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The object of this paper is to study on possibilities of introducing Private Finance Initiative (PFI) into LRT project in Japan. Value for Money (VFM) is calculated based on Public Sector Comparator (PSC) and LCC (Life Cycle Cost), LCCR (Loan Life Coverage Ratio) are evaluated in virtual LRT project.
    Sensitive analysis shows that the range of subsidy by the local government, the range of cost down by special purpose company, and the volume of passengers to meet the enablement requirement of PFI.
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  • Emi MORIMOTO, Susumu NAMERIKAWA, Taichi OKAMOTO, Hideo YAMANAKA
    2007 Volume 14 Pages 263-276
    Published: November 08, 2007
    Released: June 04, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Various kinds of reformation have been implemented in the field of bids and contract system of public construction in Japan since 1993. Yet those reformations were promoted as a result of political and social pressure caused by collusive bidding at the initiative of government agencies, so that management systems based on performance evaluation on outcomes of those reformations haven't been improved. In this paper, based on the recognition above, Authors did a statistical analysis on the relationship between the performance of public works and various indicators as follows; a. the ratio of contract price to government's engineering cost, b. the competitive states, c. the past performance of the successful bidders, d. the number of times that the successful bidders were designated in past with the data of public works ordered by the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport Shikoku Regional Development when designated tender had been adopted mainly as public procurement. As a result, the indicator of d (the number of times that the successful bidders were designated in past) is one of important indicators to valuate companies.
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  • Shuji TSUNEYAMA
    2007 Volume 14 Pages 277-288
    Published: November 08, 2007
    Released: June 04, 2010
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    Although contracting of public works at extremely low price may make it difficult to keep quality of public works that constitute basis for social security, such low-priced biddings are seen with high frequency in these years. Last year in 2006, the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, and Transportation (MLIT) has issued an official notice “On Urgent Measure for Quality Maintenance of Public Works” to its Regional Development Bureaus so that quality of public works can be insured at the time of tender and contract.
    This study argues the characteristics of recent biddings as well as the effect of MLIT's official notice on low-priced biddings, through processing and analyzing data of biddings in the last two years including that of the fourth quarter of 2006 in which the urgent measure began to take effect. Such research reveals that on one hand, the number of low-priced biddings have greatly decreased in small- and middle-sized public works; while on the other hand, in case of large-sized ones, there still were fairly many biddings at prices lower than the criteria for low-priced bidding investigations, even though the number of biddings at unnaturally low price have decreased very much. Also it is discovered that final bidding prices which once tended to range around target price now seem to range around the criteria for low-priced investigations. Taken in the light of these results, I propose the further necessity for investigating the actual conditions of biddings as well as for making new plans to ensure profit of companies if the current tendency of biddings continues in the future.
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  • Takuya Yamaguchi, Wataru Koizumi, Tatsuo Takase, Ken Koyama
    2007 Volume 14 Pages 289-298
    Published: November 08, 2007
    Released: June 04, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Public works have a close relation to a local bond. In recent years, the local-public-finance problem has occurred in Japanese various places. It also has a discussion on a state regional system. It is important for civil engineering to solve a local-public-finance problem. In this research, financial analysis of northeast north 3 prefectures (Aomori Prefecture, Iwate Prefecture, Akita Prefecture) is performed. The feature is a portion finely analyzed about the cities, towns and villages of each prefecture. The multi-variable analysis was performed using the financial index of each cities, towns and villages. Financial analysis is performed using principal component analysis and cluster analysis. Moreover, “fiscal bankruptcy danger probability” was computed using logistic regression analysis. Furthermore, a simulation when three prefectures unify is performed.
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  • Kyung-rock YE, Nozomu KIUCHI, Kiyoshi KOZUKA
    2007 Volume 14 Pages 299-310
    Published: November 08, 2007
    Released: June 04, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    A community which is in a Hilly, Mountainous and heavy snowfall area holds severe problems such as aging/a population decline, and the maintenance of living environment for the winter season is getting severe year by year. In this study, we chose six different case study area, which are selected based on a characteristic of space and member of community, among the disadvantage village at To-hoku region. And future supporting direction is considered from analyzing the present conditions and problems of case study villages, through a field work and a hearing to the community members.
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  • Fukunari Kouzou, Katsuji Shirai, Katsuhide Yoshikawa
    2007 Volume 14 Pages 311-320
    Published: November 08, 2007
    Released: June 04, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    In Japan, approximately half the population and three quarters of property is located on flood plains where they are at risk from river flooding. Many are protected by river levees that have been constructed throughout history. There is some work on the safety of the levees by focusing on cross-sections of long continuous levees, but there is next to no research into managing the continuous levee systems.
    This paper reports on breaches of the levees along the Tone River system over the past 80 years and presents empirical information on the causes for the breaches (scouring, overtopping, seepage and breaches due to seepage around buildings). The most common reason for levee breaches is overtopping water, but the paper shows that, in recent years, problems have occurred with breaches caused by seepage (leakage) around sluice pipes in levees.
    Based on this survey, the paper clearly indicates the functional and control limitations of managing the historical levees that are still in use today and proposes ways to manage the levee systems in the future, keeping in mind excess flooding and the added factors of damage and risk management.
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  • Masao HIRAMOTO, Ippei NAKAMURA
    2007 Volume 14 Pages 321-331
    Published: November 08, 2007
    Released: June 04, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    This research is to consider the quantification methods of values of information relating to construction business (public works in particular) from the viewpoints of the cost and the benefits (value of information) given to users in the research or case study.
    -The market price of an information material is determined by the relation between seller's sales strategy and the buyer's subjective value.
    -From such viewpoints, common marketing theory can be applied to the procedure of determining the prices.“Assertion Selection Method” capable of measuring unavailable values is appropriate as a method to measure values.
    -In a case study, it provide the theoretical validity by the time, it didn't result. But it succeeded in finding a new applicability of the procedure by combining the value measurement and price setting procedure.
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  • Shinri SONE, Keiko KIMURA, Yoshiharu NAMIKAWA
    2007 Volume 14 Pages 333-342
    Published: November 08, 2007
    Released: June 04, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    This paper shows result of case-study of greenpurcbasing system for analyzing restructuring of technical policy on national level, from view points of external auditing system, and technical standards, outhouring of tasks. The author has selected green purchasing system of public works as a case-study subject. The system started in FY2000. The government installed external auditing system, and technical standards, outsouring of tasks to Imake the system more accoutable and specialized, during 7 years. The author realized the hardness of analyzinig restructuring of technical policy on national level, as a result.
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  • Nozomu Kiuchi, Kiyoshi Kozuka
    2007 Volume 14 Pages 343-348
    Published: November 08, 2007
    Released: June 04, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    In July 2005, the fundamental principles of universal-design policy were decided as for the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, and Transport. And then, in December 2006, so-called “the new barrier-free law” was enacted, and in present the decision work about the relational standard is being examined. At this presentation, as for “the universaldesign index” which is being examined in our laboratory, I will introduce on the points, the subjects, the approach toward a method of the evaluation, and the examination conditions.
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  • Shinri SONE, Keisuke MASACHIKA, Yasumitsu ICHIMURA, Keiko KIMURA, Yosh ...
    2007 Volume 14 Pages 349-360
    Published: November 08, 2007
    Released: June 04, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    This paper shows outline of green purchasing system in pubic works for recycling society. This paper firstly describes about recent situation of designated purchasing items. i) Number of the items has increased well. ii) Most part of the items has environmental functions in waste-resource sector. Iii) Purchasing ratio of the items to total has been improved. This paper secondly assures that the evaluations standards proper in selection of the designated purchasing items in each four categories, i) occurred from construction industry, ii) will be dumped but accepted by construction industry, iii) accepted mostly by construction industry, iv) accepted partly by construction industry. This paper thirdly describes that there isn't clear relationship between reduction of national construction waste and green purchasing system. This paper tells that the system probably contributes to the recycling society. This paper finally shows subjects for next step.
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  • Yukihisa Okamoto, Reiko Saino, Kaoru Isizuka, Izumi Furukawa, Katsuhid ...
    2007 Volume 14 Pages 361-370
    Published: November 08, 2007
    Released: June 04, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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