“Tetsugaku-kai”was founded in 17th year of Meiji era (1884) by Dr. Inouye and other younger scholars under guidance of Professor Dr. H. Kato (afterwards President) and several professors of Tokyo University. Three years after (1887) started the Journal“Tetsugaku-zasshi”. As both the society and journal were the only research body of this science in Japan, during next forty years, i.e. the remaining Meiji and the first half of the Taishô era (circa 1887-1916); the receptance or introduction of European philosophy in Japan would be in the main traced back in that of the Journal and also in intellectual activities of its members. Immediately after the Restoration of Meiji, Japan required eagerly the theoretical ground of the great social and political revolution just experienced, learning and introducing European thoughts on the democratic and parliamental organisation, which was necessary for the coming age. For this purpose people studied honestly the English philosophers of 19th century. In the first twenty years of Meiji era they translated very often the works of J. S. Mill, Herbert Spencer and J. Bentham, above all their books on social problem, but not yet the philosophical in proper sense. The task and aim given to the Society just established should be, therefore, to organize or to philosophize the traditional oriental thoughts of Buddhism and Chinese ethics on the one hand, and to introduce and to get possession of the new concept of philosophy on the other hand. To this latter task contributed three foreign professors, who taught philosophy in early age of the University, and their successors and members of the Society. The approach to philosophy on the side of these scholars was honest and regular, for they began to study the history of philosophy, and published in following years monographies and translations of Classics. As to the contemporary philosophy, however, which prevailed in Europe and America, immediately after the Russo-Japanese War (1904-5), attracted our attention the Pragmatism (James etc.), which, because of its distinguishing mark, especially of the attention and accent it laid on experiences of daily life, became a timely topic, not only in academic circles, but also among learned people in general. Similar circumstance was to be seen in receiving Nietsche's and Bergson's philosophy of life, which acquired popularity in following years, although the concept of life is entirely different from each other and from that of Pragmatism. On the contrary, the academic circles arround universities leaned towards scientific, systematic philosophies coming from Germany, such as Neo-Kantianism (Rickert and Cohen) and Phenomenology (Husserl), more recently Existentialism (Heidegger etc.). After the Second World War it is to be mentioned, that a great deal of interest has been aroused, especially among young members of universities, for the Anglo-American philosophy such as Logical Positivism and so-called Analytic Philosophy. In addition to this I should say a word on recent renewed studies of Classics of philosophy, renewed I say, by deeper and more regular investigations of the works themselves, than those introductive above mentioned.
This paper is an entirely revised version of the author's article“The Geographical Distribution of Japanese Accents”in S. A. Wurm and Shiro Hattori (1983). The geographical distribution is made more accurate, and his hypothetical view on the genealogical relationships among Japanese accents is expounded this time. In part (1), the following three accent types are treated: Ibuki-jima dialect (1/2/3/4/5), Manabe type dialects (1•5/2/3/4) and Sanuki type dialects (1•3/2/4/5). After their accentual systems and the geographical dis-tribution are described, proto-Manabe accent and proto-Sanuki accent are reconstructed as table 2 (p. 229) and table 25 (p. 244), respectively. Ibuki-jima is the only dialect that preserves all the oppositions supposed to have existed in the protolanguage of all dialects, but the tonetic substances (tone values) are considered to have changed somewhat from the proto-accent.