Transactions of the Japan Academy
Online ISSN : 2424-1903
Print ISSN : 0388-0036
ISSN-L : 0388-0036
Volume 59 , Issue 3
Showing 1-3 articles out of 3 articles from the selected issue
  • Makoto ITOH
    2005 Volume 59 Issue 3 Pages 161-183
    Published: 2005
    Released: June 22, 2007
    In these three decades Japan has experienced a rapid demographic change with a falling birthrate. As a result, Japanese population will soon absolutely decline after 2006, and estimated to become one half of the current size by the end of this century. Such a trend for smaller number of younger generations gathers wide social concern about the future of social security systems, educational institutions, and socio-economic vitality.
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  • Sasagu ARAI
    2005 Volume 59 Issue 3 Pages 185-198
    Published: 2005
    Released: June 22, 2007
    I will summarize several points developed through my consideration of the Apostle“Junia(s)”in Rom 16:7.
    (1) In view of the textcriticism and of the history of the notation “Junia/Junias”, the Vulgata notation“Iuniam”(→Iunia) correctly translates the ancient Greek Unicals“IOYNIAN”(→IOYNIA) to Latin.
    (2) This notation has been retained in the translation of the Catholic Church who regarded the Vulgata as their canon, and of the Orthodox Church based on“Textus Receptus”through modern times until today. After the Second Vatican Council (1st: 1962, 2nd: 1963, 3rd: 1964, 4th: 1965), however, the ecumenical flavour was emphasized in the Catholic Church, and the Vatican encouraged Catholic scholars to make a translation of the Common Bible with the Protestant Church. It led the Catholic Church to part from the Vulgata and translate Novum Testamentum Graece/ Greek New Testament (NTG/GNT) as the original text for the Common Bible with the Protestant Church. In consequence, the notation of“Junia”(a female name) was changed to“Junias”(a male name) by NTG/GNT ('Ιουνιαζ). The Bible Translation of the Franciscan Bible Institute and the Common Bible Translation in Japan reflect this, and both of them adopt the notation“Junias”.
    (3) The notation“Junias”which comes from medieval Minuscules ('Ιουνιαν→'Ιουναζ) is the result of the Aegituius Romanus' view (early fourteenth century) that only men can be“Apostles”, the influence of Protestant Church theologians, such as Luther and Calvin, and the authority of the NTG/GNT.
    (4) The feminist viewpoint which proposes the notation“Junia”against these authorities should be regarded highly. It seems that“Junia”in the Aono's Japanese translatoin in the Iwanami Shoten Version and the Japanese translation of the Franciscan Bible Institute (the 15th printing of revised edition) results from the acceptance of this proposal.
    (5) Independent of the feminist viewpoint, however, it should be noted that the notation“Junia”has been dominant particularly in Catholic biblical translation through modern times until today.
    (6) It is certain that there was at least one woman“Apostle”in Roman christian communities in the middle of the first century.
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  • Takashi NEGISHI
    2005 Volume 59 Issue 3 Pages 199-210
    Published: 2005
    Released: June 22, 2007
    No one can deny the important contributions made by Johann Heinrich von Thünen (1783-1850), a pioneer of the marginal revolution in economics, as an independent discoverer of the marginal productivity theory and as the father of the economics of space. Commemorating the two hundredth anniversary of his birth, Samuelson (1983) analyzed these contributions beautifully and skillfully. Von Thünen is, however, also known by the formula of natural wage inscribed on his grave stone. Classical economists before the marginal revolution explained the wage as the subsistence wage, while modern economists after the revolution emphasized the importance of the labor productivity in their theory of wage. In between, Thünen demonstrated the natural wage as the geometric mean of the subsistence wage and the average product of a laborer. Samuelson, who evaluated Thünen's positivistic economics (the marginal productivity theory and the economics of space) very high, interpreted the natural wage of Thünen as the socially optimal wage from the point of view of the welfare economics, and criticized that it is a major felony and a crime against normative economics.
    In Negishi (1990), we defended Thünen against Samuelson. Following an interpretation suggested by Yamada (1934), a pioneering study of Thünen in Japan, the natural wage is derived as an equilibrium wage in a competitive stationary economy, which Thünen himself studied in his famous Der isolierte Staat. In other words, we defended the theory of natural wage as a positive theory against Samuelson's criticism which regarded it as a normative theory. To be more decisive, however, as a rejoinder to Samuelson's critical comment that Thünen maximized a strange, irrational social welfare function, we have to argue further that the so-called Thünen's social welfare function itself is a rational, reasonable function, given his own model of a competitive stationary economy. In other words, what Thünen did can be interpreted as an early, pioneering attempt to use the so-called Negishi method, Negishi approach, or Negishi theorem, which is now intensively used for the proof of the existence of a general equilibrium and the numerical calculation of a general equilibrium. See Negishi (1960), Kehoe (1991), Mas-Colell and Zame (1991) and Ginsburgh and Keyzer (1997).
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