It varies from country to country and era to era what kind of legal entities take upon public services such as supply of electricity and gas etc. and transportation of passengers and goods. At present, in Japan, the policy of leaving public services, in principle, to the market is being promoted. That is what is called privatization. However, as entities providing services in the market, in addition to the central and local governments, there exist legal entities which can be seen practically as a part of government. How to position these legal entities legally is an important task for the current scholarship on administrative organization law. This thesis analyses the historical process on the argument in the Japanese administrative law about the entities other than central and local governments, which provide public services.
This essay presents my view on caste as derived from my long experience as an anthropologist in India, which dates back to 1953. My fieldwork has been directed at the Hindu family and village community, not necessarily at caste perse. Nevertheless, it was the working of caste society that provided considerable stimulation to my analytical thought process. My understanding of caste also owes to works by Western and Indian social anthropologists, who have since the 1950s contributed most to the study of caste, and with whom I have enjoyed close contacts as colleagues. This essay consists of four successive parts. (1) Caste-Varna and Jati. Both are called“caste, ”though they have different historical backgrounds as well as different connotations. In actual Hindu life, caste is articulated as jati, numerous primary functional groups variously classified by occupation (as explained in the next section). Simultaneously, jati members also have a strong concern with varna, i.e. the four status groups of Brahman, Kshatriya, Vaisha and Sudra, as clearly stated in ancient Vedic literature. People desire to interpret their jati within a varna classification. This is particularly the case with Kshatriya, in order to profess a higher status. In this paper, the term“caste”refers to jati or a cluster of the same kind of jati.
1. For about ten years after the end of the cold war regime, the World Bank, in parallel with the IMF, was engaged in rethinking about its economic aid policy toward the developing countries, and at the end of the 1990s, a conclusion was reached. Its policy, or its economic development strategy, was thus far characterized by“growth promotion”of the recipient developing countries taken as its goal and the framework of the aid policies evolved to achieve that goal. The new policy has shifted its goal to“poverty reduction”, and the policy framework geared to it containing new methods and contents. Thus after July 2002, all kinds of the concessional aid of the World Bank are to be conducted on the basis of the new policy. In terms of procedure, the same new policy is to be reflected in a document called Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (PRSP) which should be prepared by the recipient governments and approved by the Board of Directors at the World Bank before starting the concenssional aid.