Transactions of the Japan Academy
Online ISSN : 2424-1903
Print ISSN : 0388-0036
ISSN-L : 0388-0036
Volume 56 , Issue 1
Showing 1-2 articles out of 2 articles from the selected issue
  • Hiroshi TSUKISHIMA
    2001 Volume 56 Issue 1 Pages 1-12
    Published: 2001
    Released: June 22, 2007
    In the early years in the 9th century, Japanese scholars began to note Japanese vocabulary on the Chinese sentences in the Buddhist sutra and in other texts written in Chinese, in order to read and understand them. The tradition of noting Japanese in this way had been carried on ever since, and considerably large number of texts with those Japanese notes have been preserved up to the present days. These texts are called“kunten materials”.
    Japanese words found in“kunten materials”have some formality because of the character of the contents of the original texts, which are mostly philosophical or historical. But it is supposed that scholars in the 10th century began to adopt some colloquial words as Japanese notes in some special texts.
    The word“TUDATUDA”, meaning “into pieces”, is one of those informal vocabularies. Most examples of this“TUDATUDA” are found in the“kunten materials”of“Nihon-shoki _??__??__??__??_”(The History of Ancient Japan) and of “Yusenkutsu _??__??__??_”(a Chinese novel written in the T'ang dynasty). The historical change of this word is observed as follows: TUDATUDA→DZUDADZUDA →ZUDAZUDA→ZUTAZUTA. Some Scholars in Edo period considered that this word was not proper for kunten. It is interesting that the final form ZUTAZUTA is even now used in our everyday language.
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  • Ken'ichi MIYAZAWA
    2001 Volume 56 Issue 1 Pages 13-37
    Published: 2001
    Released: June 22, 2007
    Will it be possible to achieve a convergence of agreement on social order? How can“efficiency”and“fairness”in the paradigm for evaluating system operation be harmonized and coordinated? These questions are explored on both the logical level of principle and the actual level of reality. By juxtaposing the two, the distance between principle and reality is sought and the meaning of that distance considered.
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