Transactions of the Japan Academy
Online ISSN : 2424-1903
Print ISSN : 0388-0036
ISSN-L : 0388-0036
Volume 48 , Issue 1
Showing 1-2 articles out of 2 articles from the selected issue
  • Tatsusaburo HAYASHIYA
    1993 Volume 48 Issue 1 Pages 1-18
    Published: 1993
    Released: June 22, 2007
    Looking forward to the 1200th establishment anniversary of Heiankyo, final and the longest survived crown city of ancient Japan, in 1994 (the 6th year of Heisei), Kyoto Chamber of Commerce and Industry, together with municipal government of the prefecture and the city of Kyoto, has organized The Memorial Foundation for her celebration. Various programs are now proposed or carried into practice through this Foundation which combines civil and official supports.
    The grand design for these projects sprouted up from the soil which The 1100th Anniversary Memorial Enterprises has brought forth, taking the experiences just 100 years ago as a guide line to be cleared. Present projects have fresh leading idea that recognizes the coming 100 years as century for the confirmation of human rights, and that has been induced from global perspective over current history of the mankind. A great number of studies in history and related fields collected to serve the compilation of communal history of the city of Kyoto may effectively support the charming events based upon that idea.
    Considering these situations and fundamental subjects of The Memorial Project, attention to the basic characteristics of Kyoto's cultural tradition will have to be focused on its thick and fine accumulation of historical facts full of diversity, and on wide and far reaching internationality that cherished in the numerous layers of times that the city has inherited.
    (1) Accumulation of historical facts;
    Judging from the general view over the maturing process of Kyoto's cultural tradition, it may properly be insisted to notice five basic factors, each of which had had its own climax in a certain age from prehistoric until early modern respectively.
    A) Alien culture transplanted by immigrants from Asian Continent (Torai jin), especially their technology.
    B) Noblemen's culture which came in full blossom in Imperial Court of Heiankyo.
    C) Religious culture created by and conveyed through sacred environment (Jisha Buddhist temple and Shinto shrine).
    D) Townsmen's (Machi shu's) culture supported mainly by economic vitality of enterprising merchants and manufacturers.
    E) Highly sophisticated culture based upon elaborate system of instruction through which solid value system had developped and preserved.
    (2) Internationality;
    Cultural tradition of Kyoto obtained its internationality within limited extent of world view, consisting of only three states namely Nippon, Shintan (China) and Tenjiku (India), in ancient and medieval days. But, when the contact with European began around the end of medieval times, the perspective expanded to a new field, Nanban: Islamic and Christian world) as it was named. At the dawn of modern times, arrival of Kurofune, the iron ocean steamer from New World added another component to its internationality and resulted in the opening of the country to foreign intercourses.
    These backgrounds conducted the history to inscribe the evidences of internationality in Kyoto's cultural tradition such as follows.
    A) Square and grid patterned plan of ancient crown city with her Imperial Court and guest house for diplomatic troops from abroad, Korokan.
    B) Cultural properties bearing witnesses to dispatch and receipt of information to/from alien countries in the earlier times.
    C) Positive attitude of citizens to exotic culture to keep the initiative against other domestic regions as proved through Kyoto's modernization process.
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  • Hirofumi UZAWA
    1993 Volume 48 Issue 1 Pages 19-34
    Published: 1993
    Released: June 22, 2007
    The phenomenon of global warming occurs because the equilibrium of the global carbon cycle is disturbed by anthropogenic activities, particularly by the consumption of fossil fuels. The global carbon cycle on the earth's surface had been delicately balanced before the advent of the Industrial Revolution. In particular, the exchange of carbon between three great revervoirs-the atmosphere, the terrestrial biosystem, and the surface ocean-had been approximately in equilibrium, with the eruption of volcanos and other natural phenomena balancing the residuals. The massive applications of the new technologies brought about by the Industrial Revolution have changed this natural eguilibrium process. The combustion of fossil fuels emits an enormous amount of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere, and the atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide has been steadily increasing, contributing to an increase in the global average surface air temperature. In addition, the process of economic development in the last thirty years has accompanied the destruction of tropical rain forests to a significant extent, accelerating the process of global warming. The phenomenon of global warming thus is primarily caused by anthropogenic activities, the predominant forces behind them being economic. Any policy or institutional arrangements to arrest the process would have to take into account the economic and political implications.
    We construct a dynamic model where economic and social implications of global warming are analyzed with a particular emphasis upon the time pattern of economic development which is sustainable both with respect to the atmospheric environment and the market economy.
    The concept of the imputed prices of atmospheric carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases is effectively utilized to derive those time-paths of economic activities that result with the patterns of intertemporal allocation of scarce resources in which the optimum balance between global warming and economic development is obtained.
    Under certain qualifying assumptions concerning the welfare effect of global warming, it is possible to derive a simple formula for calculating the imputed price of each greenhouse gas, which indicates the imputed price in each country is equal to the per capita level of national income multiplied by a certain imputation coefficient which is identical for all countries involved.
    Similar formulas are obtained for the imputed prices of land forests-temperate and tropical rain forests.
    It will be shown that the economy approaches the long-run stationary state of optimum global warming when emissions of greenhouse gases are levied the‘carbon taxes’evaluated at the imputed prices of greenhouse gases and afforestation (or deforestation) activities are given subsidies (or levied charges) evaluated at the imputed prices of land forests.
    Finally, an International Fund for Atmospheric Stabilization is proposed in order to stabilize atmospheric disequilibrium and at the same time to narrow the gaps in the stage of economic development between developing and developed countries.
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