IEICE Transactions on Communications
Online ISSN : 1745-1345
Print ISSN : 0916-8516
Volume E104.B , Issue 9
Showing 1-22 articles out of 22 articles from the selected issue
Special Section on Technology Trials and Proof-of-Concept Activities for 5G Evolution and Beyond
  • Tomoaki OHTSUKI
    2021 Volume E104.B Issue 9 Pages 983
    Published: September 01, 2021
    Released: September 01, 2021
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
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  • Erik DAHLMAN, Gunnar MILDH, Stefan PARKVALL, Patrik PERSSON, Gustav WI ...
    Type: INVITED PAPER
    2021 Volume E104.B Issue 9 Pages 984-991
    Published: September 01, 2021
    Released: September 01, 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: March 08, 2021
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS

    The paper provides an overview of the current status of the 5G evolution as well as a research outlook on the future wireless-access evolution towards 6G.

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  • Satoshi SUYAMA, Tatsuki OKUYAMA, Yoshihisa KISHIYAMA, Satoshi NAGATA, ...
    Type: INVITED PAPER
    2021 Volume E104.B Issue 9 Pages 992-999
    Published: September 01, 2021
    Released: September 01, 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: April 01, 2021
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS

    In sixth-generation (6G) mobile communication system, it is expected that extreme high data rate communication with a peak data rate over 100Gbps should be provided by exploiting higher frequency bands in addition to millimeter-wave bands such as 28GHz. The higher frequency bands are assumed to be millimeter wave and terahertz wave where the extreme wider bandwidth is available compared with 5G, and hence 6G needs to promote research and development to exploit so-called terahertz wave targeting the frequency from 100GHz to 300GHz. In the terahertz wave, there are fundamental issues that rectilinearity and pathloss are higher than those in the 28GHz band. In order to solve these issues, it is very important to clarify channel characteristics of the terahertz wave and establish a channel model, to advance 6G radio access technologies suitable for the terahertz wave based on the channel model, and to develop radio-frequency device technologies for such higher frequency bands. This paper introduces a direction of studies on 6G radio access technologies to explore the higher frequency bands and technical issues on the device technologies, and then basic computer simulations in 100Gbps transmission using 100GHz band clarify a potential of extreme high data rate over 100Gbps.

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  • Nobuhide NONAKA, Kazushi MURAOKA, Tatsuki OKUYAMA, Satoshi SUYAMA, Yuk ...
    Type: PAPER
    2021 Volume E104.B Issue 9 Pages 1000-1008
    Published: September 01, 2021
    Released: September 01, 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: April 01, 2021
    JOURNAL RESTRICTED ACCESS

    In order to enhance the fifth generation (5G) mobile communication system further toward 5G Evolution, high bit-rate transmission using high SHF bands (28GHz or EHF bands) should be more stable even in high-mobility environments such as high speed trains. Of particular importance, dynamic changes in the beam direction and the larger Doppler frequency shift can degrade transmission performances in such high frequency bands. Thus, we conduct the world's first 28 GHz-band 5G experimental trial on an actual Shinkansen running at a speed of 283km/h in Japan. This paper introduces the 28GHz-band experimental system used in the 5G experimental trial using the Shinkansen, and then it presents the experimental configuration in which three base stations (BSs) are deployed along the Tokaido Shinkansen railway and a mobile station is located in the train. In addition, transmission performances measured in this ultra high-mobility environment, show that a peak throughput of exceeding 1.0Gbps and successful consecutive BS connection among the three BSs.

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  • Tatsuki OKUYAMA, Nobuhide NONAKA, Satoshi SUYAMA, Yukihiko OKUMURA, Ta ...
    Type: PAPER
    2021 Volume E104.B Issue 9 Pages 1009-1016
    Published: September 01, 2021
    Released: September 01, 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: March 23, 2021
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    The fifth-generation (5G) mobile communications system initially introduced massive multiple-input multiple-output (M-MIMO) with analog beamforming (BF) to compensate for the larger path-loss in millimeter-wave (mmW) bands. To solve a coverage issue and support high mobility of the mmW bands, base station (BS) cooperation technologies have been investigated in high-mobility environments. However, previous works assume one mobile station (MS) scenario and analog BF that does not suppress interference among MSs. In order to improve system performance in the mmW bands, fully digital BF that includes digital precoding should be employed to suppress the interference even when MSs travel in high mobility. This paper proposes two mmW BS cooperation technologies that are inter-baseband unit (inter-BBU) and intra-BBU cooperation for the fully digital BF. The inter-BBU cooperation exploits two M-MIMO antennas in two BBUs connected to one central unit by limited-bandwidth fronthaul, and the intra-BBU cooperates two M-MIMO antennas connected to one BBU with Doppler frequency shift compensation. This paper verifies effectiveness of the BS cooperation technologies by both computer simulations and outdoor experimental trials. First, it is shown that that the intra-BBU cooperation can achieve an excellent transmission performance in cases of two and four MSs moving at a velocity of 90km/h by computer simulations. Second, the outdoor experimental trials clarifies that the inter-BBU cooperation maintains the maximum throughput in a wider area than non-BS cooperation when only one MS moves at a maximum velocity of 120km/h.

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  • Naoto TSUMACHI, Masaya SHIBAYAMA, Ryuji KOBAYASHI, Issei KANNO, Yasuhi ...
    Type: PAPER
    2021 Volume E104.B Issue 9 Pages 1017-1025
    Published: September 01, 2021
    Released: September 01, 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: March 23, 2021
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    In March 2020, the 5th generation mobile communication system (5G) was launched in Japan. Frequency bands of 3.7GHz, 4.5GHz and 28GHz were allocated for 5G services, and the 5G use cases fall into three broad categories: Enhanced Mobile Broadband (eMBB), Massive Machine Type Communication (mMTC) and Ultra-Reliable Low Latency Communication (URLLC). The use cases and services that take advantage of the characteristics of each category are expected to be put to practical use, and experiments of practical use are underway. This paper introduces and demonstrates a touchless gate that can identify, authenticate and allow passage through the gate by using these features and 5G beam tracking to estimate location by taking advantage of the low latency of 5G and the straightness of the 28GHz band radio wave and its resistance to spreading. Since position estimation error due to reflected waves and other factors has been a problem, we implement an algorithm that tracks the beam and estimates the user's line of movement, and by using an infrared sensor, we made it possible to identify the gate through which the user passes with high probability. We confirmed that the 5G touchless gate is feasible for gate passage. In addition, we demonstrate that a new service based on high-speed high-capacity communication is possible at gate passage by taking advantage of the wide bandwidth of the 28GHz band. Furthermore, as a use case study of the 5G touchless gate, we conducted a joint experiment with an airline company.

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  • Manabu MIKAMI, Koichi SERIZAWA, Kohei MOTO, Hitoshi YOSHINO
    Type: PAPER
    2021 Volume E104.B Issue 9 Pages 1026-1034
    Published: September 01, 2021
    Released: September 01, 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: March 17, 2021
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    Fifth generation mobile communication system (5G) mobile operators need to explore new use cases and/or applications together with vertical industries, the industries which are potential users of 5G, in order to fully exploit the new 5G capabilities in terms of its application. Vehicular communications for platooning are considered to be one of new use cases of 5G whose low-latency and ultra-reliability are required. This paper presents our field evaluations on latency and reliability performance of 5G V2V Direct communication towards application to truck platooning. The authors build a field experimental environment, for V2X communications of truck platooning, with actual large-size trucks and a prototype system employing 5G New Radio (NR) technologies, and performed some field experiments in rural areas. In this paper, we introduce the 5G NR-V2X prototype system. Its most distinctive feature is that the prototype system is equipped with V2V Direct communication radio interface (i.e., sidelink), in addition to the traditional radio interfaces between BS and UE (i.e., downlink and uplink). Then, we present the field evaluation results of radio propagation environment results and over-the-air transmission performance of latency and reliability characteristics on the V2V Direct communication of the prototype in real public express highway environment including tunnel area as well as tunnel outside area, in order to assess 5G NR-V2X system applying to truck platooning. The radio propagation and the latency performance evaluation results clarify that the latency performance is degraded due to Hybrid Automatic Repeat reQuest (HARQ) retransmission at the outside of tunnel more possibly than the inside of tunnel, since larger path loss values can be observed at the outside of tunnel than the inside of tunnel, in V2V Direct communications of truck platooning. The over-the-air latency and reliability evaluation results confirm that it is important to set an appropriate maximum number of HARQ retransmissions since there is a trade-off problem in order to realize low latency and high reliability simultaneously.

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  • Manabu MIKAMI, Kohei MOTO, Koichi SERIZAWA, Hitoshi YOSHINO
    Type: PAPER
    2021 Volume E104.B Issue 9 Pages 1035-1045
    Published: September 01, 2021
    Released: September 01, 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: March 17, 2021
    JOURNAL RESTRICTED ACCESS

    Fifth generation mobile communication system (5G) mobile operators need to explore new use cases and/or applications together with vertical industries, the industries that are potential users of 5G, in order to fully exploit the new 5G capabilities in terms of its application. Vehicle-to-Everything (V2X) communications for platooning are considered to be one of new 5G use cases requiring low-latency and ultra-reliability are required. This paper presents our field trial of dynamic mode switching for 5G New Radio (NR) based V2X sidelink communications towards application to truck platooning. The authors build a field trial environment, for V2X communications of truck platooning, with actual large-size trucks and a prototype system employing 5G NR technologies, and performed some field trials in rural areas. In this paper, we introduce the 5G NR-V2X prototype system. Its most distinctive characteristic is that the prototype system is equipped with vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) Direct communication radio interface (i.e., sidelink), in addition to the traditional radio interfaces between base station (BS) and user equipment (UE), i.e., downlink and uplink. Moreover, it is also most distinctive that the sidelink (SL) interface supports a new function of dynamic mode switching between two modes of BS In-Coverage mode (SL Mode-1) and BS Out-of-Coverage mode (SL Mode-2) in order to achieve seamless V2V communications between BS in-coverage area and BS out-of-coverage area. Then, we present the evaluation results on over-the-air latency performance on the V2V Direct communication of the prototype using SL dynamic mode switching with two experimental base station antenna sites in a public express highway environment towards application to truck platooning. The results demonstrate that our developed the SL dynamic mode switching achieves the seamless V2V Direct communications between in-coverage area and out-of-coverage area.

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  • Yutaro KOBAYASHI, Yukitoshi SANADA
    Type: PAPER
    2021 Volume E104.B Issue 9 Pages 1046-1053
    Published: September 01, 2021
    Released: September 01, 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: March 23, 2021
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS

    In a multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) system, maximum likelihood detection (MLD) is the best demodulation scheme if no a priori information is available. However, the complexity of MLD increases exponentially with the number of signal streams. Therefore, various demodulation schemes with less complexity have been proposed and some of those schemes show performance close to that of MLD. One kind of those schemes uses a Gibbs sampling (GS) algorithm. GS MIMO detection that combines feedback from turbo decoding has been proposed. In this scheme, the accuracy of GS MIMO detection is improved by feeding back loglikelihood ratios (LLRs) from a turbo decoder. In this paper, GS MIMO detection using only feedback LLRs from a turbo decoder is proposed. Through extrinsic information transfer (EXIT) chart analysis, it is shown that the EXIT curves with and without metrics calculated from received signals overlap as the feedback LLR values increase. Therefore, the proposed scheme calculates the metrics from received signals only for the first GS MIMO detection and the selection probabilities of GS MIMO detection in the following iterations are calculated based only on the LLRs from turbo decoders. Numerical results obtained through computer simulation show that the performance of proposed GS turbo MIMO detection is worse than that of conventional GS turbo MIMO detection when the number of GS iterations is small. However the performance improves as the number of GS iterations increases. When the number of GS iterations is 30 or more, the bit error rate (BER) performance of the proposed scheme is equivalent to that of the conventional scheme. Therefore, the proposed scheme can reduce the computational complexity of selection probability calculation in GS turbo MIMO detection.

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  • Chihiro MORI, Miyu NAKABAYASHI, Mamoru SAWAHASHI, Teruo KAWAMURA, Nobu ...
    Type: PAPER
    2021 Volume E104.B Issue 9 Pages 1054-1066
    Published: September 01, 2021
    Released: September 01, 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: March 17, 2021
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    This paper presents the average block error rate (BLER) performance of circular 32QAM and 64QAM schemes employing a frequency domain equalizer (FDE) for discrete Fourier transform (DFT)-precoded orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) in multipath Rayleigh fading channels. The circular QAM scheme has an advantageous feature in that the fluctuation in the amplitude component is smaller than that for the cross or rectangular QAM scheme. Hence, focusing on the actual received signal-to-noise power ratio (SNR) taking into account a realistic peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) measure called the cubic metric (CM), we compare the average BLER of the circular 32QAM and 64QAM schemes with those of cross 32QAM and rectangular 64QAM schemes, respectively. We investigate the theoretical throughput of various circular 32QAM and 64QAM schemes based on mutual information from the viewpoint of the minimum Euclidean distance. Link-level simulation results show that the circular 32QAM and 64QAM schemes with independent bit mapping for the phase and amplitude modulations achieves a lower required average received SNR considering the CM than that with the minimum Euclidean distance but with composite mapping of the phase and amplitude modulations. Through extensive link-level simulations, we show the potential benefit of the circular 32QAM and 64QAM schemes in terms of reducing the required average received SNR considering the CM that satisfies the target average BLER compared to the cross 32QAM or rectangular 64QAM scheme.

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  • Kana AONO, Bin ZHENG, Mamoru SAWAHASHI, Norifumi KAMIYA
    Type: PAPER
    2021 Volume E104.B Issue 9 Pages 1067-1078
    Published: September 01, 2021
    Released: September 01, 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: March 17, 2021
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    This paper presents the bit error rate (BER) performance of frequency domain equalization (FDE) using cyclic-shifted code division multiplexing (CDM) pilot signals for single-carrier line-of-sight (LOS) - multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) multiplexing. We propose applying different cyclic-shift resources of the same Zadoff-Chu sequence to transmission-stream-specific pilot signals that are essential for estimating the channel response for FDE and phase noise in LOS-MIMO. To validate the effectiveness of the cyclic-shifted pilot multiplexing, we use partial low-density parity-check (LDPC) coding with double Gray mapping and collaborative decoding. Simulations show that pilot signal multiplexing using a cyclic-shifted Zadoff-Chu sequence, and frequency domain averaging of the estimated channel response are effective in achieving accurate channel estimation for single-carrier LOS-MIMO. We also show that the required received signal-to-noise power ratio at the BER of 10-7 using partial LDPC coding is decreased by more than 6.6dB compared to that without LDPC coding even for the deep notch depth of -20dB regardless of the relationship between the notch frequencies in the direct and cross links for 2×2 LOS-MIMO in a Rummler fading channel. Therefore, we conclude that the CDM-based pilot signal multiplexing with different cyclic shifts is effective in accurately estimating the channel response specific to the combination sets of transmitter and receiver antennas and in achieving a low pilot-overhead loss for single-carrier LOS-MIMO.

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  • Tsubasa SHOBUDANI, Mamoru SAWAHASHI, Yoshihisa KISHIYAMA
    Type: PAPER
    2021 Volume E104.B Issue 9 Pages 1079-1088
    Published: September 01, 2021
    Released: September 01, 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: March 17, 2021
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    This paper proposes time division multiplexing (TDM) based reference signal (RS) multiplexing for faster-than-Nyquist (FTN) signaling using orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM). We also propose a subframe structure in which a cyclic prefix (CP) is appended to only the TDM based RS block and the first FTN symbol to achieve accurate estimation of the channel response in a multipath fading channel with low CP overhead. Computer simulation results show that the loss in the required average received SNR satisfying the average block error rate (BLER) of 10-2 using the proposed TDM based RS multiplexing from that with ideal channel estimation is suppressed to within approximately 1.2dB and 1.7dB for QPSK and 16QAM, respectively. This is compared to when the improvement ratio of the spectral efficiency from CP-OFDM is 1.31 with the rate-1/2 turbo code. We conclude that the TDM based RS multiplexing with the associated CP multiplexing is effective in achieving accurate channel estimation for FTN signaling using OFDM.

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  • Nobuhide NONAKA, Satoshi SUYAMA, Tatsuki OKUYAMA, Kazushi MURAOKA, Yuk ...
    Type: PAPER
    2021 Volume E104.B Issue 9 Pages 1089-1096
    Published: September 01, 2021
    Released: September 01, 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: April 07, 2021
    JOURNAL RESTRICTED ACCESS

    In order to realize the higher bit rates compared for the fifth-generation (5G) mobile communication system, massive MIMO technologies in higher frequency bands with wider bandwidth are being investigated for 5G evolution and 6G. One of practical method to realize massive MIMO in the high frequency bands is hybrid beamforming (BF). With this approach, user selection is an important function because its performance is highly affected by inter-user interference. However, the computational complexity of user selection in multi-user massive MIMO is high because MIMO channel matrix size excessive. Furthermore, satisfying user fairness by proportional fairness (PF) criteria leads to further increase of the complexity because re-calculation of precoding and postcoding matrices is required for each combination of selected users. To realize a fair and low-complexity user selection algorithm for multi-user massive MIMO employing hybrid BF, this paper proposes a two-step user selection algorithm that combines PF based user selection and chordal distance user selection. Computer simulations show that the proposed two-step user selection algorithm with higher user fairness and lower computational complexity can achieve higher system performance than the conventional user selection algorithms.

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  • Ryo TAKAHASHI, Hidenori MATSUO, Fumiyuki ADACHI
    Type: PAPER
    2021 Volume E104.B Issue 9 Pages 1097-1109
    Published: September 01, 2021
    Released: September 01, 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: March 29, 2021
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    Ultra-densification of radio access network (RAN) is essential to efficiently handle the ever-increasing mobile data traffic. In this paper, a joint multi-layered user clustering and scheduling is proposed as an inter-cluster interference coordination scheme for ultra-dense RAN using cluster-wise distributed MIMO transmission/reception. The proposed joint multi-layered user clustering and scheduling consists of user clustering using the K-means algorithm, user-cluster layering (called multi-layering) based on the interference-offset-distance (IOD), cluster-antenna association on each layer, and layer-wise round-robin-type scheduling. The user capacity, the sum capacity, and the fairness are evaluated by computer simulations to show the effectiveness of the proposed joint multi-layered user clustering and scheduling. Also shown are uplink and downlink capacity comparisons and optimal IOD setting considering the trade-off between inter-cluster interference mitigation and transmission opportunity.

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  • Daisuke INOUE, Kyogo OTA, Mamoru SAWAHASHI, Satoshi NAGATA
    Type: PAPER
    2021 Volume E104.B Issue 9 Pages 1110-1119
    Published: September 01, 2021
    Released: September 01, 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: March 17, 2021
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    This paper presents the physical-layer cell identity (PCID) detection probability using the narrowband primary synchronization signal (NPSS) and narrowband secondary synchronization signal (NSSS) based on the narrowband Internet-of-Things (NB-IoT) radio interface considering frequency offset and the maximum Doppler frequency in the 28-GHz band. Simulation results show that the autocorrelation based NPSS detection method is more effective than the cross-correlation based NPSS detection using frequency offset estimation and compensation before the NPSS received timing detection from the viewpoints of PCID detection probability and computational complexity. We also show that when using autocorrelation based NPSS detection, the loss in the PCID detection probability at the carrier frequency of fc =28GHz compared to that for fc =3.5GHz is only approximately 5% at the average received signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of 0dB when the frequency stability of a local oscillator of a user equipment (UE) set is 20ppm. Therefore, we conclude that the multiplexing schemes and sequences of NPSS and NSSS based on the NB-IoT radio interface associated with autocorrelation based NPSS detection will support the 28-GHz frequency spectra.

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  • Daisuke INOUE, Kyogo OTA, Mamoru SAWAHASHI, Satoshi NAGATA
    Type: PAPER
    2021 Volume E104.B Issue 9 Pages 1120-1128
    Published: September 01, 2021
    Released: September 01, 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: March 17, 2021
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    This paper proposes a physical-layer cell identity (PCID) detection method that uses joint estimation of the frequency offset and secondary synchronization signal (SSS) sequence for the 5G new radio (NR) initial access with beamforming transmission at a base station. Computer simulation results show that using the PCID detection method with the proposed joint estimation yields an almost identical PCID detection probability as the primary synchronization signal (PSS) detection probability at an average received signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of higher than approximately -5dB suggesting that the residual frequency offset is compensated to a sufficiently low level for the SSS sequence estimation. It is also shown that the PCID detection method achieves a high PCID detection probability of greater than 90% and 50% at the carrier frequency of 30 and 50GHz, respectively, at the average received SNR of 0dB for the frequency stability of a user equipment oscillator of 3ppm.

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  • Kazuo IBUKA, Hikaru KAWASAKI, Takeshi MATSUMURA, Fumihide KOJIMA
    Type: PAPER
    2021 Volume E104.B Issue 9 Pages 1129-1137
    Published: September 01, 2021
    Released: September 01, 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: March 08, 2021
    JOURNAL RESTRICTED ACCESS

    In the 5th generation mobile communication system (5G), super high frequency (SHF) bands such as 28GHz will be used in many scenarios. In Japan, a local 5G working group has been established to apply advanced 5G technologies to private networks and is working to encourage local companies and municipalities to introduce new services for local needs. Meanwhile, the smaller size of the 28GHz band cells creates the difficulties when establishing deployment areas for homogeneous networks. In general, heterogeneous network approach with the combination of macro-cell and micro-cell have been considered practical and applied by the giant telecommunication operators. However, private network operators have difficulty in deploying both micro- and macro-cells due to the cost issue. Without the assistance of macro-cells, local spot cells with a small service area may not be able to start services while high-speed mobile users are staying in the service area. In this paper, we propose a virtual pre-connection scheme allowing fast connection to local spot cells without the assistance of macro-cells. In addition, we confirm that the proposed scheme can reduce the cell search time required when entering a local spot cell from 100 seconds or more to less than 1 second, and can reduce the loss of connection opportunities to local spot cells for high-speed mobile users.

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  • Toshiro NAKAHIRA, Tomoki MURAKAMI, Hirantha ABEYSEKERA, Koichi ISHIHAR ...
    Type: PAPER
    2021 Volume E104.B Issue 9 Pages 1138-1146
    Published: September 01, 2021
    Released: September 01, 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: March 23, 2021
    JOURNAL RESTRICTED ACCESS

    In this paper, we examine techniques for improving the throughput of unlicensed radio systems such as wireless LANs (WLANs) to take advantage of multi-radio access to mobile broadband, which will be important in 5G evolution and beyond. In WLANs, throughput is reduced due to mixed standards and the degraded quality of certain frequency channels, and thus control techniques and an architecture that provide efficient control over WLANs are needed to solve the problem. We have proposed a technique to control the terminal connection dynamically by using the multi-radio of the AP. Furthermore, we have proposed a new control architecture called WiSMA for efficient control of WLANs. Experiments show that the proposed method can solve those problems and improve the WLAN throughput.

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Regular Section
  • Risa FUJITA, Fujun HE, Eiji OKI
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Network
    2021 Volume E104.B Issue 9 Pages 1147-1158
    Published: September 01, 2021
    Released: September 01, 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: March 22, 2021
    JOURNAL RESTRICTED ACCESS

    This paper presents an analytical model that yields the unavailability of a network function when each backup server can protect two functions and can recover one of them. Previous work describes a model to deal with the case that each function can be protected only by one server. In our model, we allow each function to be protected by multiple servers to ensure function availability. This requires us to know the feasible states of a connected component and its state transitions. By adopting the divide-and-conquer method, we enumerate the feasible states of a connected component. We then classify its state transitions. Based on the obtained feasible states and the classification of the state transitions, we enumerate the feasible states incoming to and outgoing from a general state, the transfer rates, and the conditions. With those informations, we generate multiple equations about the state transitions. Finally, by solving them, we obtain the probabilities that a connected component is in each state and calculate the unavailability of a function. Numerical results show that the average unavailability of a function is reduced by 18% and 5.7% in our two examined cases by allowing each function to be protected by multiple servers.

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  • Jian-Yu PAN, Kuei-Chiang LAI, Yi-Ting LI, Szu-Lin SU
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Wireless Communication Technologies
    2021 Volume E104.B Issue 9 Pages 1159-1171
    Published: September 01, 2021
    Released: September 01, 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: March 22, 2021
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    Iterative block decision feedback equalization with hard-decision feedback (HD-IBDFE) was proposed for single-carrier transmission with frequency-domain equalization (SC-FDE). The detection performance hinges upon not only error propagation, but also the accuracy of estimating the parameters used to re-compute the equalizer coefficients at each iteration. In this paper, we use the erasure zone (EZ) to de-emphasize the feedback values when the hard decisions are not reliable. EZ use also enables a more accurate, and yet computationally more efficient, parameter estimation method than HD-IBDFE. We show that the resulting equalizer coefficients share the same mathematical form as that of the HD-IBDFE, thereby preserving the merit of not requiring matrix inverse operations in calculating the equalizer coefficients. Simulations show that, by using the EZ and the proposed parameter estimation method, a significant performance improvement over the conventional HD-IBDFE can be achieved, but with lower complexity.

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  • Kuei-Chiang LAI, Chi-Jen CHEN
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Wireless Communication Technologies
    2021 Volume E104.B Issue 9 Pages 1172-1187
    Published: September 01, 2021
    Released: September 01, 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: March 22, 2021
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    In this paper, we address the problem of detector design in severely frequency-selective channels for spatial multiplexing systems that adopt filter bank multicarrier based on offset quadrature amplitude modulation (FBMC/OQAM) as the communication waveforms. We consider decision feedback equalizers (DFEs) that use multiple feedback filters to jointly cancel the post-cursor components of inter-symbol interference, inter-antenna interference, and, in some configuration, inter-subchannel interference. By exploiting the special structures of the correlation matrix and the staggered property of the FBMC/OQAM signals, we obtain an efficient method of computing the DFE coefficients that requires a smaller number of multiplications than the linear equalizer (LE) and conventional DFE do. The simulation results show that the proposed detectors considerably outperform the LE and conventional DFE at moderate-to-high signal-to-noise ratios.

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  • Sakae NAGAOKA, Mark BROWN, Daniel DELAHAYE
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Navigation, Guidance and Control Systems
    2021 Volume E104.B Issue 9 Pages 1188-1196
    Published: September 01, 2021
    Released: September 01, 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: March 22, 2021
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    Air traffic management (ATM) systems around the world are being modernized to accommodate shifts towards performance- and trajectory-based operations. These shifts will require new indices for safety, efficiency and complexity. The authors have been developing an index for evaluating air traffic control (ATC) difficulty that utilizes the relative positions and velocity vectors of aircraft pairs as input data. Prior to practical application of the index, it is necessary to understand the effects of input data error, i.e. errors in the positions and velocities of a pair of aircraft, on the estimated difficulty value. Two sensitivity analyses were therefore performed for a pair of aircraft cruising at constant speeds on intersecting linear tracks at the same altitude. Sensitivity analysis examines how uncertainty in inputs relates to uncertainty in outputs. Firstly, an analysis of propagation error was carried out. The formula of the propagation error at a certain point was derived based on the assumed input error, and the distribution of propagation error was investigated for all possible situations and compared with the distribution of difficulty values to clarify its characteristics. Secondly, a sensitivity analysis based on variance was carried out that evaluated the effect of each input parameter using a conditional variance value called the Sobol indices. Using a Monte Carlo method, we investigated the effect of each input parameter on the calculated difficulty value for all possible situations of aircraft pairs on intersecting trajectories. As a result, it was found that the parameter that most affects the difficulty value is the intersection angle of the trajectories.

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