We show that, in practice, a network adversary can achieve decidedly non-negligible advantage in attacking provable key-protection properties; e.g., the “existential key recovery” security and “multi-key hiding” property of typical nonce-based symmetric encryption schemes whenever these schemes are implemented with standard block ciphers. We also show that if a probabilistic encryption scheme uses certain standard block ciphers (e.g., two-key 3DES), then enforcing the security bounds necessary to protect against network adversary attacks will render the scheme impractical for network applications that share group keys amongst many peers. The attacks presented here have three noteworthy implications. First, they help identify key-protection properties that separate the notion of indistinguishability from random bits (IND$) from the strictly weaker notion of indistinguishability of ciphertexts (IND); also, they help establish new relationships among these properties. Second, they show that nonce-based symmetric encryption schemes are typically weaker than probabilistic ones. Third, they illustrate the need to account for the Internet-level growth of adversary capabilities when establishing the useful lifetime of standard block-cipher parameters.
When Zero-Forcing (ZF) is adopted as a detector, decreasing the condition number of the channel matrix increases the BER performance. In this paper, we propose a new detection algorithm which reduces the condition number of channel matrix down to nearly 2 on average. Since the least singular value of the channel matrix is a major factor determining the condition number, we, first, project the received signal into a space spanned by singular vectors that are orthogonal to the one corresponding to the least singular value. Then, LR decomposition is performed to reduce further the condition number of the projected channel matrix. Computer simulations show that the performance of the proposed algorithm is comparable to that of the ML detector for both correlated and uncorrelated channels. And also the proposed algorithm provides an at least 2dB improvement compared to the conventional LR-based Ordered Successive Interference Cancellation (LR-OSIC) detector with a Bit Error Rate (BER) of 10-3 and a comparable computation load.
This paper describes a simple-yet-effective control method for a DC-DC buck converter with voltage mode control (VMC), with a triangular wave generator (TWG) which regulates the slope of triangular wave based on the input and output voltages of the converter. Using the proposed TWG, both the load and line transient responses are improved. Since the TWG provides a line feed-forward control for the line transient response, it increases the open-loop bandwidth, and then better dynamic performance is obtained. Additional required circuit components are only a voltage controlled linear resistor (VCR) and a voltage controlled current source (VCCS). Compared with the conventional voltage control, the proposed method significantly improves the line and load transient responses. Furthermore this triangular wave slope regulation scheme is simple compared to digital feed-forward control scheme that requires non-linear calculation. Simulation results shows the effectiveness of the proposed method.
The dynamic routing and wavelength assignment (RWA) problem in wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) optical networks with sparse wavelength conversion has been a hot research topic in recent years. An optimized algorithm based on a multiple-layered interconnected graphic model (MIG) for the dynamic RWA is presented in this paper. The MIG is constructed to reflect the actual WDM network topology. Based on the MIG, the link cost is given by the conditions of available lightpath to calculate an initial solution set of optimal paths, and by combination with path length, the optimized solution using objective function is determined. This approach simultaneously solves the route selection and wavelength assignment problem. Simulation results demonstrate the proposed MIG-based algorithm is effective in reducing blocking probability and boosting wavelength resource utilization compared with other RWA methods.
We propose that the current distribution along a dipole can be divided into a component proportional to the port current, a component proportional to the port voltage, and an antisymmetrical component. In this paper, we perform numerical computations to verify that the component proportional to the port voltage always lags the port voltage by 90°, and the ratio of its amplitude to that of the port voltage is not significantly affected by the arrangement of other dipoles located nearby or by circuits connected to the ports of the dipoles if the dipoles have lengths not exceeding one wavelength.
Electrostatic discharge (ESD) generators cause electromagnetic (EM) noises not only at ESD tests but also even before and after the tests. This may provide inconsistent test results, but the mechanism has not been well examined. To explain the mechanism qualitatively, we investigated a generation source model of EM noises from an ESD generator in conjunction with the functional control sequences of built-in relay switches and the DC high voltage power supply. To validate this model, we used a magnetic field probe to measure the induced EM noises before, during, and after contact and air discharges in accordance with the corresponding timing of the functional control sequences. As a result, we confirmed that the EM noises are induced when the relay switches operate before and at ESD testing and after ESD tests for both contact and air discharges. In addition, we found that the noise peaks due to contact discharges increase with charge voltages, and the peaks just before and at the testing are relatively larger than the ones after the tests, while the peaks of the induced noises at the air discharge testing do not always increase with charge voltages, but reach a maximum at 3kV. In addition, the peaks of the induced noises at the air discharge testing become smaller than either the peaks just before the testing and those after the tests at charge voltages above 6kV. This suggests that the EM noises just before ESD testing and after the test may cause the EUT to malfunction when air discharge tests with charge voltages over 6kV are conducted. A new control sequence of the built-in relay switch was also proposed for reducing the EM noises after ESD tests, which was validated through noise measurements.
We introduce a MIMO channel estimation method that exploits the channel's spatiotemporal correlation without the aid of a priori channel statistical information. A simplified Gauss-Markov model that has fewer parameters to be estimated is presented for the Kalman filter. In order to obtain statistical parameters on the time evolution of the channel, considering that the time evolution is a latent statistical variable, the expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm is applied for accurate estimation. Numerical simulations reveal that the proposed method is able to enhance estimation capability by exploiting spatiotemporal correlations, and the method works well even if the forgetting factor is small.
In this paper, resource-efficient multiple description coding (MDC) multicast is investigated in cognitive radio networks with the consideration of imperfect spectrum sensing and imperfect channel feedback. Our objective is to maximize the system goodput, which is defined as the total successfully received data rate of all multicast users, while guaranteeing the maximum transmit power budget and the maximum average received interference constraint. Owing to the uncertainty of the spectrum state and the non-closed-form expression of the objective function, it is difficult to solve the problem directly. To circumvent this problem, a pretreatment is performed, in which we first estimate the real spectrum state of primary users and then propose a Gaussian approximation for the probability density functions of transmission channel gains to simplify the computation of the objective function. Thereafter, a two-stage resource allocation algorithm is presented to accomplish the subcarrier assignment, the optimal transmit channel gain to interference plus noise ratio (T-CINR) setting, and the transmit power allocation separately. Simulation results show that the proposed scheme is able to offset more than 80% of the performance loss caused by imperfect channel feedback when the feedback error is not high, while keeping the average interference on primary users below the prescribed threshold.
This paper investigates the system-level throughput of non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) with a successive interference canceller (SIC) in the cellular downlink assuming proportional fair (PF)-based radio resource (bandwidth and transmission power) allocation. The purpose of this study is to examine the possibility of applying NOMA with a SIC to the systems beyond the 4G cellular system. Both the mean and cell-edge user throughput are important in a real system. PF-based scheduling is known to achieve a good tradeoff between them by maximizing the product of the user throughput among users within a cell. In NOMA with a SIC, the scheduler allocates the same frequency to multiple users simultaneously, which necessitates multiuser scheduling. To achieve a better tradeoff between the mean and cell-edge user throughput, we propose and compare three power allocation strategies among users, which are jointly implemented with multiuser scheduling. Extensive simulation results show that NOMA with a SIC with a moderate number of non-orthogonally multiplexed users significantly enhances the system-level throughput performance compared to orthogonal multiple access (OMA), which is widely used in 3.9 and 4G mobile communication systems.
In a multi-cell MIMO system, the rate of edge users is limited by the inter-cell co-channel interference. The CoMP scheme which includes Joint Process (JP) and Coordinated Scheduling/Beamforming (CS/CB) was developed to reduce the inter-cell interference and enhance the edge rate. Because CS/CB can alleviate the overhead of network, it gains attention recently. In this paper, a modified zero forcing beamforming (ZFBF) is applied to downlink transmission in a two-cell MIMO system. In order to enhance system sum rate, a novel coordinated user scheduling algorithm is proposed. Firstly, we select users with high correlation among cross-channels as candidates, and then group users from candidates with high orthogonality among direct-channels, and match user groups in different cells as the final scheduling group pair. Simulations show that the proposed algorithm can achieve a higher system sum rate with low complexity than traditional scheduling algorithms.
This paper derives the optimal learning time for the learning-assisted rendezvous channel. One problem with the dynamic spectrum access system of cognitive radio is access channel mismatch between two wireless terminals. In the learning-assisted rendezvous channel, before exchanging packets for link connection, the rate of channel occupancy by the other system is estimated within the learning time; it is referred to as the channel occupancy rate (COR). High speed packet exchange is made possible by selecting a low COR channel. However, the optimal learning time and the impact of COR estimation errors have not been clarified yet. This paper analyzes the time to rendezvous channel (TTR), where TTR is the time needed to complete the rendezvous with a certain probability. The results indicate that the learning time and TTR have a concave relationship which means that the optimal learning time can be determined.
In recent 3GPP (3rd Generation Partnership Project) standardization meetings, D2D (Device-to-Device) discovery has been a major issue to support commercial/social services and public safety in disaster environment, and TDM (Time Division Multiplexing) based discovery channel structure is mainly considered to prevent mutual interference between D2D and cellular traffic. In this structure, D2D discovery among the same cell UEs (User Equipment) has no problem because they have the same timing source. However, LTE (Long Term Evolution) assumes an asynchronous network where two adjacent eNBs (evolved Node B) have a symbol-level timing offset. For that reason, asynchronous interference among discovery signals can appear in inter-cell D2D discovery. Therefore, channel re-use scheduling was studied previously in which neighboring cells do not use the same portion of the extended discovery channel and other non-neighboring cells re-use it. However, it still shows interference problems in small cell networks which cause substantial cellular traffic loss. Therefore, in this paper, we propose a novel discovery channel scheduling in which eNBs time-align their discovery channels from each other by sample-level. In the proposed scheme, serving eNB requests cell edge UEs to estimate NTD (Network Time Difference) between serving eNB and neighboring eNB. Then, considering multiple NTDs, eNB adjusts the sample position of its discovery channel based on a novel decision rule. We verify that the proposed scheme can match the discovery performance of a synchronous network with less cellular uplink loss.
We present a new method for generating thumbnail images from H.264/AVC coded bit streams. What distinguishes our approach from previous works is that it determines the thumbnail image pixels by summing the residual and estimate block averages. The residual block averages are directly acquired in the transform domain and the estimated block averages are calculated in the spatial domain. Due to the construction of the reference pixels in the spatial domain, the proposed method eliminates the source of mismatch error, thus the result does not suffer any degradation. The thumbnail images produced by the proposed method are indistinguishable to the ones by the method that decodes the H.264/AVC intra coded bit streams and then scales them down. For most images, the proposed method also executes almost 3 times faster than the down-scaling method at frequently used bandwidths.