IEICE Transactions on Communications
Online ISSN : 1745-1345
Print ISSN : 0916-8516
Volume E102.B , Issue 8
Showing 1-44 articles out of 44 articles from the selected issue
Special Section on Technology Trials and Proof-of-Concept Activities for 5G and Beyond
  • Hidekazu MURATA
    2019 Volume E102.B Issue 8 Pages 1351
    Published: August 01, 2019
    Released: August 01, 2019
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
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  • Yukihiko OKUMURA, Satoshi SUYAMA, Jun MASHINO, Kazushi MURAOKA
    Type: INVITED PAPER
    2019 Volume E102.B Issue 8 Pages 1352-1362
    Published: August 01, 2019
    Released: August 01, 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: February 22, 2019
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS

    In order to cope with recent growth of mobile data traffic and emerging various services, world-wide system trials for the fifth-generation (5G) mobile communication system that dramatically extends capability of the fourth-generation mobile communication system are being performed to launch its commercial service in 2020. In addition, research and development of new radio access technologies for 5G evolution and beyond 5G systems are beginning to be made all over the world. This paper introduces our recent activities on 5G transmission experiments that aim to validate Massive MIMO technologies using higher frequency bands such as SHF/EHF bands, that is, 5G experimental trials. Recent results of 5G system trials to create new services and applications in 5G era in cooperation with partners in vertical industries are also introduced.

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  • Jan LEWANDOWSKY, Gerhard BAUCH, Matthias TSCHAUNER, Peter OPPERMANN
    Type: INVITED PAPER
    2019 Volume E102.B Issue 8 Pages 1363-1370
    Published: August 01, 2019
    Released: August 01, 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: February 20, 2019
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS

    Receiver implementations with very low quantization resolution will play an important role in 5G, as high precision quantization and signal processing are costly in terms of computational resources and chip area. Therefore, low resolution receivers with quasi optimum performance will be required to meet complexity and latency constraints. The Information Bottleneck method allows for a novel, information centric approach to design such receivers. The method was originally introduced by Naftali Tishby et al. and mostly used in the machine learning field so far. Interestingly, it can also be applied to build surprisingly good digital communication receivers which work fundamentally different than state-of-the-art receivers. Instead of minimizing the quantization error, receiver components with maximum preservation of relevant information for a given bit width can be designed. All signal processing in the resulting receivers is performed using only simple lookup operations. In this paper, we first provide a brief introduction to the design of receiver components with the Information Bottleneck method. We keep referring to decoding of low-density parity-check codes as a practical example. The focus of the paper lies on practical decoder implementations on a digital signal processor which illustrate the potential of the proposed technique. An Information Bottleneck decoder with 4bit message passing decoding is found to outperform 8bit implementations of the well-known min-sum decoder in terms of bit error rate and to perform extremely close to an 8bit belief propagation decoder, while offering considerably higher net decoding throughput than both conventional decoders.

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  • Shohei YOSHIOKA, Satoshi SUYAMA, Tatsuki OKUYAMA, Jun MASHINO, Yukihik ...
    Type: PAPER
    2019 Volume E102.B Issue 8 Pages 1371-1381
    Published: August 01, 2019
    Released: August 01, 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: February 20, 2019
    JOURNAL RESTRICTED ACCESS

    Towards furthering the industrial revolution, the concept of a new cellular network began to be drawn up around 2010 as the fifth generation (5G) mobile wireless communication system. One of the main differences between the fourth generation (4G) mobile communication system Long Term Evolution (LTE) and 5G new radio (NR) is the frequency bands utilized. 5G NR assumes higher frequency bands. Effective utilization of the higher frequency bands needs to resolve the technical issue of the larger path-loss. Massive multiple-input multiple-output (Massive MIMO) beamforming (BF) technology contributes to overcome this problem, hence further study of Massive MIMO BF for each frequency band is necessary toward high-performance and easy implementation. In this paper, then, we propose a Massive MIMO method with fully-digital BF based on two-tap precoding for low super high frequency (SHF) band downlink (DL) transmissions (called as Digital FBCP). Additionally, three intersite coordination algorithms for Digital FBCP are presented for multi-site environments and one of the three algorithms is enhanced. It is shown that Digital FBCP achieves better throughput performance than a conventional algorithm with one-tap precoding. Considering performance of intersite coordination as well, it is concluded that Digital FBCP can achieve around 5 Gbps in various practical environments.

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  • Tatsuki OKUYAMA, Satoshi SUYAMA, Jun MASHINO, Kazushi MURAOKA, Kohei I ...
    Type: PAPER
    2019 Volume E102.B Issue 8 Pages 1382-1389
    Published: August 01, 2019
    Released: August 01, 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: February 20, 2019
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    The beamforming (BF) provided by Massive MIMO is a promising technique for the fifth-generation (5G) mobile communication system. In low SHF bands such as 3-6GHz, fully digital Massive MIMO can be a feasible option. Previous works proposed eigenvector zero-forcing (E-ZF) as a digital precoding algorithm to lower the complexity of block diagonalization (BD). On the other hand, another previous work aiming to reduce complexity of BD due to the number of antenna elements proposed digital fixed BF and channel-state-information based precoding (Digital FBCP) with BD whose parameter is the number of beams. Moreover, in order to lower the complexity of the Digital FBCP with BD while retaining the transmission performance, this paper proposes Digital FBCP with E-ZF as a lower complexity digital BF algorithm. The pros and cons of these digital BF algorithms in terms of transmission performance and computational complexity are clarified to select the most appropriate algorithm for the fully digital Massive MIMO. Furthermore, E-ZF can be implemented to 4.5GHz-band fully digital Massive MIMO equipment only when the number of antenna elements is less than or equal to 64, and thus 5G experimental trial employing E-ZF was carried out in Tokyo, Japan where early 5G commercial services will launch. To the best of our knowledge, this was the first outdoor experiment on 4.5GHz-ban Massive MIMO in a dense urban area. An outdoor experiment in a rural area was also carried out. This paper shows both a coverage performance under the single user condition and system throughput performance under a densely deployed four-user condition in the outdoor experimental trials employing the E-ZF algorithm. We reveal that, in the MU-MIMO experiment, the measured system throughput is almost 80% of the maximum system throughput even if users are closely located in the dense urban area thanks to the E-ZF algorithm.

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  • Takaharu KOBAYASHI, Masafumi TSUTSUI, Takashi DATEKI, Hiroyuki SEKI, M ...
    Type: PAPER
    2019 Volume E102.B Issue 8 Pages 1390-1400
    Published: August 01, 2019
    Released: August 01, 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: February 20, 2019
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    Fifth-generation mobile communication systems (5G) must offer significantly higher system capacity than 4G in order to accommodate the rapidly increasing mobile data traffic. Cell densification has been considered an effective way to increase system capacity. Unfortunately, each user equipment (UE) will be in line-of-sight to many more transmission points (TPs) and the resulting inter-cell interference will degrade system capacity. We propose large-scale coordinated multi-user multiple-input multiple-output (LSC-MU-MIMO), which combines MU-MIMO with joint transmission from all the TPs connected to a centralized baseband unit. We previously investigated the downlink performance of LSC-MU-MIMO by computer simulation and found that it can significantly reduce inter-TP interference and improve the system capacity of high-density small cells. In this paper, we investigate the throughput of LSC-MU-MIMO through an indoor trial where the number of coordinated TPs is up to sixteen by using an experimental system that can execute real-time channel estimation based on TDD reciprocity and real-time data transmission. To clarify the improvement in the system capacity of LSC-MU-MIMO, we compared the throughput measured in the same experimental area with and without coordinated transmission in 4-TP, 8-TP, and 16-TP configurations. The results show that with coordinated transmission the system capacity is almost directly proportional to the number of TPs.

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  • Yi JIANG, Kenichiro YAMAZAKI, Toshihiro HAYATA, Kohei IZUI, Kanada NAK ...
    Type: PAPER
    2019 Volume E102.B Issue 8 Pages 1401-1410
    Published: August 01, 2019
    Released: August 01, 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: February 20, 2019
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS

    Massive multiple input and multiple output (Massive MIMO) is a key technique to achieve high system capacity and user data rate for the fifth generation (5G) radio access network (RAN). To implement Massive MIMO in 5G, how much Massive MIMO meets our expectation with various user equipment (UEs) in different environments should be carefully addressed. We focused on using Massive MIMO in the low super-high-frequency (SHF) band, which is expected to be used for 5G commercial bands relatively soon. We previously developed a prototype low-SHF-band centralized-RAN Massive MIMO system that has a flexible active antenna system (AAS)-unit configuration and facilitates advanced radio coordination features, such as coordinated beamforming (CB) coordinated multi-point (CoMP). In this study, we conduct field trials to evaluate downlink (DL) multi-user (MU)-MIMO performance by using our prototype system in outdoor and indoor environments. The results indicate that about 96% of the maximum total DL system throughput can be achieved with 1 AAS unit outdoors and 2 AAS units indoors. We also investigate channel capacity based on the real propagation channel estimation data measured by the prototype system. Compared with without-CB mode, the channel capacity of with-CB mode increases by a maximum of 80% and 104%, respectively, when the location of UEs are randomly selected in the outdoor and indoor environments. Furthermore, the results from the field trial of with-CB mode with eight UEs indicate that the total DL system throughput and user data rate can be significantly improved.

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  • Yuta TAKAHASHI, Tatsuki OKUYAMA, Kazushi MURAOKA, Satoshi SUYAMA, Jun ...
    Type: PAPER
    2019 Volume E102.B Issue 8 Pages 1411-1417
    Published: August 01, 2019
    Released: August 01, 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: February 20, 2019
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    Field trials of the fifth-generation (5G) mobile communication system using 28GHz band at which almost 1GHz bandwidth will be available have been performed all over the world. To realize large coverage with such a high frequency band, beamforming by Massive MIMO (Multiple Input Multiple Output) is necessary to compensate the large path loss. Furthermore, beam tracking which adaptively changes beam direction according to user location, is an important function to support user mobility. In previous works, field trials in subway environment at 25GHz band was carried out, but only fixed beam were employed. On the other hand, the field trials result of 28 GHz-band 5G transmission employing beam tracking in the road environment has been reported. Therefore, we conducted 5G field trials in the actual railway environment using 28GHz band experimental equipment employing beam tracking. This paper reveals the downlink performance achieved by using railway cars traveling at 90km/h. In addition, we show how mobile stations position in the railway car affects the performance of 5G transmission.

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  • Daisuke KITAYAMA, Kiichi TATEISHI, Daisuke KURITA, Atsushi HARADA, Min ...
    Type: PAPER
    2019 Volume E102.B Issue 8 Pages 1418-1426
    Published: August 01, 2019
    Released: August 01, 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: February 20, 2019
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    This paper describes the results of outdoor mobility measurements and high-speed vehicle tests that clarify the 4-by-8 multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) throughput performance when applying distributed MIMO with narrow antenna-beam tracking in a 28-GHz frequency band in the downlink of a 5G cellular radio access system. To clarify suitable transmission point (TP) deployment for mobile stations (MS) moving at high speed, we examine two arrangements for 3TPs. The first sets all TPs in a line along the same side of the path traversed by the MS, and the other sets one TP on the other side of the path. The experiments in which the MS is installed on a moving wagon reveal that the latter deployment case enables a high peak data rate and high average throughput performance exhibiting the peak throughput of 15Gbps at the vehicle speed of 3km/h. Setting the MS in a vehicle travelling at 30km/h yielded the peak throughput of 13Gbps. The peak throughput of 11Gbps is achieved at the vehicle speed of 100km/h, and beam tracking and intra-baseband unit hand over operation are successfully demonstrated even at this high vehicle speed.

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  • Daisuke KURITA, Kiichi TATEISHI, Daisuke KITAYAMA, Atsushi HARADA, Yos ...
    Type: PAPER
    2019 Volume E102.B Issue 8 Pages 1427-1436
    Published: August 01, 2019
    Released: August 01, 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: February 20, 2019
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    This paper evaluates a variety of key 5G technologies such as base station (BS) massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) antennas, beamforming and tracking, intra-baseband unit (BBU) hand over (HO), and coverage. This is done in different interesting 5G areas with a variety of radio conditions such as an indoor office building lobby, an outdoor parking area, and a realistic urban deployment of a 5G radio access system with BSs installed in buildings to deploy a 5G trial area in the Tokyo Odaiba waterfront area. Experimental results show that throughput exceeding 10Gbps is achieved in a 730MHz bandwidth using 8 component carriers, and distributed MIMO throughput gain is achieved in various transmission point deployments in the indoor office building lobby and outdoor parking area using two radio units (RUs). In particular, in the outdoor parking area, a distinct advantage from distributed MIMO is expected and the distributed MIMO gain in throughput of 60% is achieved. The experimental results also clarify the downlink performance in an urban deployment. The experimental results show that throughput exceeding 1.5Gbps is achieved in the area and approximately 200 Mbps is achieved at 500m away from the BS. We also confirm that the beam tracking and intra-BBU HO work well compensating for high path loss at 28-GHz, and achieve coverage 500m from the BS. On the other hand, line of sight (LoS) and non-line-of sight (N-LoS) conditions are critical to 5G performance in the 28-GHz band, and we observe that 5G connections are sometimes dropped behind trees, buildings, and under footbridges.

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  • Masashi IWABUCHI, Anass BENJEBBOUR, Yoshihisa KISHIYAMA, Guangmei REN, ...
    Type: PAPER
    2019 Volume E102.B Issue 8 Pages 1437-1446
    Published: August 01, 2019
    Released: August 01, 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: February 20, 2019
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    This paper presents results of outdoor experiments conducted in the 39-GHz band. In particular, assuming mobile communications such as the fifth generation mobile communications (5G) and beyond, we focus on achieving 1Gbit/s or greater throughput at transmission distances exceeding 1km in the experiments. In order to enhance the data rate and capacity, the use of higher frequency bands above 6GHz for mobile communications is a new and important technical challenge for 5G and beyond. To extend further the benefits of higher frequency bands to various scenarios, it is important to enable higher frequency bands to basically match the coverage levels of existing low frequency bands. Moreover, mobility is important in mobile communications. Therefore, we assume the 39-GHz band as a candidate frequency for 5G and beyond and prepare experimental equipment that utilizes lens antenna and beam tracking technologies. In the experiments, we achieve the throughput values of 2.14Gbit/s at the transmission distance of 1850m and 1.58Gbit/s at 20-km/h mobility. Furthermore, we show the possibility of achieving high throughput even under non-line-of-sight conditions. These experimental results contribute to clarifying the potential for the 39-GHz band to support gigabit-per-second class data rates while still providing coverage and supporting mobility over a coverage area with distance greater than 1km.

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  • Manabu MIKAMI, Hitoshi YOSHINO
    Type: PAPER
    2019 Volume E102.B Issue 8 Pages 1447-1457
    Published: August 01, 2019
    Released: August 01, 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: February 20, 2019
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS

    The fifth generation mobile communication system (5G) is designed to have new radio capabilities to support not only conventional enhanced Mobile Broadband (eMBB) communications but also new machine type communications such as Ultra-Reliable Low-Latency communications (URLLC) and massive Machine Type communications (m-MTC). In such new areas of URLLC and m-MTC, mobile operators need to explore new use cases and/or applications together with vertical industries, the industries which are potential users of 5G, in order to fully exploit the new 5G capabilities. Intelligent Transport System (ITS), including automated driving, is one of the most promising application areas of 5G since it requires both ultra-reliable and low-latency communications. We are actively working on the research and development of truck platooning as a new 5G application. We have developed a field trial system for vehicular-to-network (V2N) communications using 5G prototype equipment and actual large-size trucks in order to assess 5G capabilities, including ultra-low-latency, in automotive test courses in the field. This paper discusses the fundamental performance evaluation required for vehicular communications between platooning trucks, such as low-latency message communication for vehicle control and low-latency video monitoring of following platooning truck vehicles. The paper also addresses the field evaluation results of 5G V2N communications in a rural area. It clarifies the fundamental radio propagation issues at the leading and the following vehicles in truck platooning for V2N communications, and discusses the impact of the radio propagation over a road to the over-the-air transmission performance of 5G V2N communications.

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  • Eiji OKAMOTO, Manabu MIKAMI, Hitoshi YOSHINO
    Type: PAPER
    2019 Volume E102.B Issue 8 Pages 1458-1466
    Published: August 01, 2019
    Released: August 01, 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: February 20, 2019
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS

    In fifth-generation mobile communications systems (5G), grant-free non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) schemes have been considered as a way to accommodate the many wireless connections required for Internet of Things (IoT) devices. In NOMA schemes, both system capacity enhancement and transmission protocol simplification are achieved, and an overload test of more than one hundred percent of the transmission samples over conducted. Multi-user shared multiple access (MUSA) has been proposed as a representative scheme for NOMA. However, the performance of MUSA has not been fully analyzed nor compared to other NOMA or orthogonal multiple access schemes. Therefore, in this study, we theoretically and numerically analyze the performance of MUSA in uplink fading environments and compare it with orthogonal frequency division multiple access (OFDMA), space division multiple access-based OFDMA, low-density signature, and sparse code multiple access. The characteristics and superiority of MUSA are then clarified.

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  • Masafumi MORIYAMA, Kenichi TAKIZAWA, Masayuki OODO, Hayato TEZUKA, Fum ...
    Type: PAPER
    2019 Volume E102.B Issue 8 Pages 1467-1476
    Published: August 01, 2019
    Released: August 01, 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: February 20, 2019
    JOURNAL RESTRICTED ACCESS

    The number of Internet-of-Things (IoT) devices will increase rapidly. In next-generation mobile communication systems, a base station (BS) must effectively accommodate massive numbers of IoT devices. To address this problem, we have proposed a novel up-link non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) system that can also be utilized for low latency communication. We have developed and evaluated the system through computer simulation. This paper describes experiments conducted on a prototype system in actual environments. The paper shows results of the experiments when 3 fixed user equipments (UEs) and 2 mobile UEs transmitted signals simultaneously to a BS and then the BS separated superimposed signals using successive interference cancellation (SIC). We also evaluated repetition transmission (RT) and space receive diversity (SD) techniques employed to enhance the signal separation performance for NOMA systems. The results of the experiments confirm that the system using neither SD nor RT could separate 3.5 UEs' signals on average while employing either SD or RT could make the number increase to 4.1 and 4.0, respectively. When both SD and RT were employed, the number rose to 4.4.

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  • Aya SHIMURA, Mamoru SAWAHASHI, Satoshi NAGATA, Yoshihisa KISHIYAMA
    Type: PAPER
    2019 Volume E102.B Issue 8 Pages 1477-1489
    Published: August 01, 2019
    Released: August 01, 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: February 20, 2019
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    This paper proposes frequency domain precoding vector switching (PVS) transmit diversity for synchronization signals to achieve fast physical cell identity (PCID) detection for the narrowband (NB)-Internet-of-Things (IoT) radio interface. More specifically, we propose localized and distributed frequency domain PVS transmit diversity schemes for the narrowband primary synchronization signal (NPSS) and narrowband secondary synchronization signal (NSSS), and NPSS and NSSS detection methods including a frequency offset estimation method suitable for frequency domain PVS transmit diversity at the receiver in a set of user equipment (UE). We conduct link-level simulations to compare the detection probabilities of NPSS and NSSS, i.e., PCID using the proposed frequency domain PVS transmit diversity schemes, to those using the conventional time domain PVS transmit diversity scheme. The results show that both the distributed and localized frequency domain PVS transmit diversity schemes achieve a PCID detection probability almost identical to that of the time domain PVS transmit diversity scheme when the effect of the frequency offset due to the frequency error of the UE temperature compensated crystal oscillator (TCXO) is not considered. We also show that for a maximum frequency offset of less than approximately 8 kHz, localized PVS transmit diversity achieves almost the same PCID detection probability. It also achieves a higher PCID detection probability than one-antenna transmission although it is degraded compared to the time domain PVS transmit diversity when the maximum frequency offset is greater than approximately 10 kHz.

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  • Takahiro OHTOMO, Hiroki YAMADA, Mamoru SAWAHASHI, Keisuke SAITO
    Type: PAPER
    2019 Volume E102.B Issue 8 Pages 1490-1502
    Published: August 01, 2019
    Released: August 01, 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: February 20, 2019
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    In full duplex (FD), which improves the system capacity (or cell throughput) and reduces the transmission delay (or latency) through simultaneous transmission and reception in the same frequency band, self-interference (SI) from the transmitter should be suppressed using antenna isolation, an analog SI canceler, and digital SI canceler (DSIC) to a level such that the data or control channel satisfies the required block error rate (BLER). This paper proposes a structure of iterative DSIC with alternating estimate subtraction (AES-IDSIC) for orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) using FD. We first present the required SI suppression level considering SI, quantization noise of an analog-to-digital converter, and nonlinear distortion of a power amplifier and RF receiver circuit for a direct conversion transceiver using FD. Then, we propose an AES-IDSIC structure that iterates the generation of the SI estimate, the downlink symbol estimate, and then alternately removes one of the estimates from the received signal in the downlink including SI. We investigate the average BLER performance of the AES-IDSIC for OFDM using FD in a multipath fading channel based on link-level simulations under the constraint that the derived required signal-to-SI ratio must be satisfied.

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  • Kazuki MARUTA, Chang-Jun AHN
    Type: PAPER
    2019 Volume E102.B Issue 8 Pages 1503-1511
    Published: August 01, 2019
    Released: August 01, 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: February 20, 2019
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    This paper improves our previously proposed semi-blind uplink interference suppression scheme for multicell multiuser massive MIMO systems by incorporating the beamspace approach. The constant modulus algorithm (CMA), a known blind adaptive array scheme, can fully exploit the degree of freedom (DoF) offered by massive antenna arrays to suppress inter-user interference (IUI) and inter-cell interference (ICI). Unfortunately, CMA wastes a lot of the benefit of DoF for null-steering even when the number of incoming signal is fewer than that of receiving antenna elements. Our new proposal introduces the beamspace method which degenerates the number of array input for CMA from element-space to beamspace. It can control DoF expended for subsequent interference suppression by CMA. Optimizing the array beamforming gain and null-steering ability, can further improve the output signal-to-interference and noise power ratio (SINR). Computer simulation confirmed that our new proposal reduced the required number of data symbols by 34.6%. In addition, the 5th percentile SINR was also improved by 14.3dB.

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  • Nana ZHANG, Huarui YIN, Weidong WANG, Suhua TANG
    Type: PAPER
    2019 Volume E102.B Issue 8 Pages 1512-1525
    Published: August 01, 2019
    Released: August 01, 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: February 20, 2019
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS

    In-phase and quadrature-phase imbalance (IQI) at transceivers is one of the serious hardware impairments degrading system performance. In this paper, we study the overall performance of massive multi-user multi-input multi-output (MU-MIMO) systems with IQI at both the base station (BS) and user equipments (UEs), including the estimation of channel state information, required at the BS for the precoding design. We also adopt a widely-linear precoding based on the real-valued channel model to make better use of the image components of the received signal created by IQI. Of particular importance, we propose estimators of the real-valued channel and derive the closed-form expression of the achievable downlink rate. Both the analytical and simulation results show that IQI at the UEs limits the dowlink rate to finite ceilings even when an infinite number of BS antennas is available, and the results also prove that the widely-linear precoding based on the proposed channel estimation method can improve the overall performance of massive MU-MIMO systems with IQI.

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  • Masaki KITSUNEZUKA, Kenta TSUKAMOTO, Jun SAKAI, Taichi OHTSUJI, Kazuak ...
    Type: PAPER
    2019 Volume E102.B Issue 8 Pages 1526-1537
    Published: August 01, 2019
    Released: August 01, 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: February 20, 2019
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    Dynamic sharing of limited radio spectrum resources is expected to satisfy the increasing demand for spectrum resources in the upcoming 5th generation mobile communication system (5G) era and beyond. Distributed real-time spectrum sensing is a key enabler of dynamic spectrum sharing, but the costs incurred in observed-data transmission are a critical problem, especially when massive numbers of spectrum sensors are deployed. To cope with this issue, the proposed spectrum sensors learn the ambient radio environment in real-time and create a time-spectral model whose parameters are shared with servers operating in the edge-computing layer. This process makes it possible to significantly reduce the communication cost of the sensors because frequent data transmission is no longer needed while enabling the edge servers to keep up on the current status of the radio environment. On the basis of the created time-spectral model, sharable spectrum resources are dynamically harvested and allocated in terms of geospatial, temporal, and frequency-spectral domains when accepting an application for secondary-spectrum use. A web-based prototype spectrum management system has been implemented using ten servers and dozens of sensors. Measured results show that the proposed approach can reduce data traffic between the sensors and servers by 97%, achieving an average data rate of 10 kilobits per second (kbps). In addition, the basic operation flow of the prototype has been verified through a field experiment conducted at a manufacturing facility and a proof-of-concept experiment of dynamic-spectrum sharing using wireless local-area-network equipment.

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  • Takumi HIGUCHI, Hideki SHINGU, Noriyuki SHIMIZU, Takeshi MIYAGOSHI, Hi ...
    Type: PAPER
    2019 Volume E102.B Issue 8 Pages 1538-1546
    Published: August 01, 2019
    Released: August 01, 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: February 20, 2019
    JOURNAL RESTRICTED ACCESS

    The fifth-generation (5G) mobile communication system is being researched and developed for launch as a commercial service in 2020. The 5G mobile network will include many radio access technologies, such as LTE, 5G NR, and WLAN. Therefore, a user equipment (UE) will be connected to different types of base stations as it moves within a 5G heterogeneous network. Accordingly, it is assumed that the throughput will change with each change in the serving cell. The 5G mobile network is expected to serve large capacity contents, such as 4K videos. However, a conventional video streaming method cannot effectively use the available bandwidth in a 5G heterogeneous network. In this study, we propose a sending rate adaptation method based on predictions for the available bandwidth. In the proposed method, the available bandwidth is predicted from the communication log data. The communication logging database, including past throughput with its location, is created by a UE. A UE refers to the communication log data for predictions when the serving cell is likely to change. We develop a video streaming device that implements the proposed method and evaluates its performance. The results show that the proposed method can change the sending rate and resolution according to the available bandwidth. The proposed method increases the probability of transmitting high-resolution video, which is not possible with conventional methods. Moreover, we performed subjective evaluation of the transmitted video by the proof-of-concept test. The result of the subjective evaluation shows that the proposed method improves the quality of experience for video streaming.

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Regular Section
  • Lei NI, Xinyu DA, Hang HU, Miao ZHANG, Hehao NIU
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Fundamental Theories for Communications
    2019 Volume E102.B Issue 8 Pages 1547-1553
    Published: August 01, 2019
    Released: August 01, 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: January 25, 2019
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    This paper introduces an energy-efficient transmit design for multiple-input single-output (MISO) energy-harvesting cognitive radio (CR) networks in the presence of external eavesdroppers (Eves). Due to the inherent characteristics of CR network with simultaneous wireless information and power transfer (SWIPT), Eves may illegitimately access the primary user (PU) bands, and the confidential message is prone to be intercepted in wireless communications. Assuming the channel state information (CSI) of the Eves is not perfectly known at the transmitter, our approach to guaranteeing secrecy is to maximize the secrecy energy efficiency (SEE) by jointly designing the robust beamforming and the power splitting (PS) ratio, under the constraints of total transmit power, harvested energy at secondary receiver (SR) and quality of service (QoS) requirement. Specifically, a non-linear energy harvesting (EH) model is adopted for the SR, which can accurately characterize the property of practical RF-EH circuits. To solve the formulated non-convex problem, we first employ fractional programming theory and penalty function to recast it as an easy-to-handle parametric problem, and then deal with the non-convexity by applying S-Procedure and constrained concave convex procedure (CCCP), which enables us to exploit the difference of concave functions (DC) programming to seek the maximum worst-case SEE. Finally, numerical results are presented to verify the performance of the proposed scheme.

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  • Takahiro KUBO, Chisa TAKANO, Masaki AIDA
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Fundamental Theories for Communications
    2019 Volume E102.B Issue 8 Pages 1554-1564
    Published: August 01, 2019
    Released: August 01, 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: January 24, 2019
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    The explosive dynamics present in on-line social networks, typically represented by flaming phenomena, can have a serious impact on not only the sustainable operation of information networks but also on activities in the real world. In order to counter the flaming phenomenon, it is necessary to understand the mechanism underlying the generation of the flaming phenomena within an engineering framework. This paper discusses a new model of the generating mechanism of the flaming phenomena. Our previous study has shown that the cause of flaming phenomena can, by reference to an oscillation model on networks, be understood complex eigenvalues of the matrix formed to describe oscillating phenomena. In this paper, we show that the flaming phenomena can occur due to coupling between degenerated oscillation modes even if all the eigenvalues are real numbers. In addition, we investigate the generation process of flaming phenomena with respect to the initial phases of the degenerated oscillation modes.

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  • Xiao XUE, Song XIAO, Hongping GAN
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Fundamental Theories for Communications
    2019 Volume E102.B Issue 8 Pages 1565-1578
    Published: August 01, 2019
    Released: August 01, 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: February 18, 2019
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    In compressive sensing theory (CS), the restricted isometry property (RIP) is commonly used for the measurement matrix to guarantee the reliable recovery of sparse signals from linear measurements. Although many works have indicated that random matrices with excellent recovery performance satisfy the RIP with high probability, Toeplitz-structured matrices arise naturally in real scenarios, such as applications of linear time-invariant systems. Thus, the corresponding measurement matrix can be modeled as a Toeplitz (partial) structured matrix instead of a completely random matrix. The structure characteristics introduce coherence and cause the performance degradation of the measurement matrix. To enhance the recovery performance of the Toeplitz structured measurement matrix in multichannel convolution source separation, an efficient construction of measurement matrix is presented, referred to as sparse random block-banded Toeplitz matrix (SRBT). The sparse signal is pre-randomized by locally scrambling its sample locations. Then, the signal is subsampled using the sparse random banded matrix. Finally, the mixing measurements are obtained. Based on the analysis of eigenvalues, the theoretical results indicate that the SRBT matrix satisfies the RIP with high probability. Simulation results show that the SRBT matrix almost matches the recovery performance of random matrices. Compared with the existing banded block Toeplitz matrix, SRBT significantly improves the probability of successful recovery. Additionally, SRBT has the advantages of low storage requirements and fast computation in reconstruction.

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  • Hitoshi TAKESHITA, Keiichi MATSUMOTO, Hiroshi HASEGAWA, Ken-ichi SATO, ...
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Fiber-Optic Transmission for Communications
    2019 Volume E102.B Issue 8 Pages 1579-1589
    Published: August 01, 2019
    Released: August 01, 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: January 24, 2019
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS

    We realize a multicore erbium-doped fiber amplifier (MC-EDFA) with 2dB optical gain improvement (average) by recycling the residual 0.98μm pump light from the MC-EDF output. Eight-channel per core wavelength division multiplexed (WDM) Nyquist PM-16QAM optical signal amplification is demonstrated over a 40-minute period. Furthermore, we demonstrate the proposed MC-EDFA's stability by using it to amplify a Nyquist PM-16QAM signal and evaluating the resulting Q-factor variation. We found that our scheme contributes to reducing the total power consumption of MC-EDFAs in spatial division multiplexing (SDM)/WDM networks by up to 33.5%.

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  • Shun ORII, Kyo INOUE, Koji IGARASHI
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Fiber-Optic Transmission for Communications
    2019 Volume E102.B Issue 8 Pages 1590-1594
    Published: August 01, 2019
    Released: August 01, 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: February 06, 2019
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    Wavelength-division multiplexing multicore fibers can transmit a large amount of information over one fiber, and high-density core allocations enable a large number of fiber lines to be deployed in limited spaces. However, inter-core crosstalk degrades the signal in these systems. This paper describes the design of a frequency interleaving scheme for a 7-core hexagonal multicore fiber. Interleaving schemes shift signal spectra between neighboring cores to reduce the signal degradation caused by inter-core crosstalk. The channel frequency allocation that most efficiently lowers the bit error rate is numerically determined in this study. The results indicate that the optimum frequency interleaving improves the allowable crosstalk ratio by 6.3 dB for QPSK signals, demonstrating its potential for improving wavelength-division multiplexing multicore fiber transmission systems.

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  • Hanxing XUE, Jiali YOU, Jinlin WANG
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Network
    2019 Volume E102.B Issue 8 Pages 1595-1606
    Published: August 01, 2019
    Released: August 01, 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: February 12, 2019
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    Smart-routers develop greatly in recent years as one of the representative products of IoT and Smart home. Different from traditional routers, they have storage and processing capacity. Actually, smart-routers in the same location or ISP have better link conditions and can provide high quality service to each other. Therefore, for the content required services, how to construct the overlay network and efficiently deploy replications of popular content in smart-routers' network are critical. The performance of existing centralized models is limited by the bottleneck of the single point's performance. In order to improve the stability and scalability of the system through the capability of smart-router, we propose a novel intelligent and decentralized content diffusion system in smart-router network. In the system, the content will be quickly and autonomously diffused in the network which follows the specific requirement of coverage rate in neighbors. Furthermore, we design a heuristic node selection algorithm (MIG) and a replacement algorithm (MCL) to assist the diffusion of content. Specifically, system based MIG will select neighbor with the maximum value of information gain to cache the replication. The replication with the least loss of the coverage rate gain will be replaced in the system based on MCL. Through the simulation experiments, at the same requirement of coverage rate, MIG can reduce the number of replications by at least 20.2% compared with other algorithms. Compared with other replacement algorithms, MCL achieves the best successful service rate which means how much ratio of the service can be provided by neighbors. The system based on the MIG and MCL can provide stable service with the lowest bandwidth and storage cost.

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  • Hideaki KINSHO, Rie TAGYO, Daisuke IKEGAMI, Takahiro MATSUDA, Jun OKAM ...
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Network
    2019 Volume E102.B Issue 8 Pages 1607-1616
    Published: August 01, 2019
    Released: August 01, 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: February 06, 2019
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS

    In this paper, we consider network monitoring techniques to estimate communication qualities in wide-area mobile networks, where an enormous number of heterogeneous components such as base stations, routers, and servers are deployed. We assume that average delays of neighboring base stations are comparable, most of servers have small delays, and delays at core routers are negligible. Under these assumptions, we propose Heterogeneous Delay Tomography (HDT) to estimate the average delay at each network component from end-to-end round trip times (RTTs) between mobile terminals and servers. HDT employs a crowdsourcing approach to collecting RTTs, where voluntary mobile users report their empirical RTTs to a data collection center. From the collected RTTs, HDT estimates average delays at base stations in the Graph Fourier Transform (GFT) domain and average delays at servers, by means of Compressed Sensing (CS). In the crowdsourcing approach, the performance of HDT may be degraded when the voluntary mobile users are unevenly distributed. To resolve this problem, we further extend HDT by considering the number of voluntary mobile users. With simulation experiments, we evaluate the performance of HDT.

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  • Ravindra Sandaruwan RANAWEERA, Eiji OKI, Nattapong KITSUWAN
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Network
    2019 Volume E102.B Issue 8 Pages 1617-1625
    Published: August 01, 2019
    Released: August 01, 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: February 04, 2019
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    Apache Hadoop and its ecosystem have become the de facto platform for processing large-scale data, or Big Data, because it hides the complexity of distributed computing, scheduling, and communication while providing fault-tolerance. Cloud-based environments are becoming a popular platform for hosting Hadoop clusters due to their low initial cost and limitless capacity. However, cloud-based Hadoop clusters bring their own challenges due to contradictory design principles. Hadoop is designed on the shared-nothing principle while cloud is based on the concepts of consolidation and resource sharing. Most of Hadoop's features are designed for on-premises data centers where the cluster topology is known. Hadoop depends on the rack assignment of servers (configured by the cluster administrator) to calculate the distance between servers. Hadoop calculates the distance between servers to find the best remote server from which to fetch data from when fetching non-local data. However, public cloud environment providers do not share rack information of virtual servers with their tenants. Lack of rack information of servers may allow Hadoop to fetch data from a remote server that is on the other side of the data center. To overcome this problem, we propose a delay distribution based scheme to find the closest server to fetch non-local data for public cloud-based Hadoop clusters. The proposed scheme bases server selection on the delay distributions between server pairs. Delay distribution is calculated measuring the round-trip time between servers periodically. Our experiments observe that the proposed scheme outperforms conventional Hadoop nearly by 12% in terms of non-local data fetch time. This reduction in data fetch time will lead to a reduction in job run time, especially in real-world multi-user clusters where non-local data fetching can happen frequently.

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  • Guodong WU, Chao DONG, Aijing LI, Lei ZHANG, Qihui WU, Kun ZHOU
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Network
    2019 Volume E102.B Issue 8 Pages 1626-1635
    Published: August 01, 2019
    Released: August 01, 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: January 25, 2019
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    With no need for Road Side Unit (RSU), multi-hop Vehicular Ad Hoc NETworks (VANETs) have drawn more and more attention recently. Considering the safety of vehicles, a Media Access Control (MAC) protocol for reliable transmission is critical for multi-hop VANETs. Most current works need RSU to handle the collisions brought by hidden-terminal problem and the mobility of vehicles. In this paper, we proposed RV-MAC, which is a reliable MAC protocol for multi-hop VANETs based on Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA). First, to address the hidden-terminal under the networks with multi-hop topology, we design a region marking scheme to divide vehicles into different regions. Then a collisions avoidance scheme is proposed to handle the collisions owing to channel competition and the mobility of vehicles. Simulation results show that compared with other protocol, RV-MAC can decrease contention collisions by 30% and encounter collisions by 50% respectively. As a result, RV-MAC achieves higher throughput and lower network delay.

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  • Sheng HAO, Huyin ZHANG
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Network
    2019 Volume E102.B Issue 8 Pages 1636-1648
    Published: August 01, 2019
    Released: August 01, 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: February 20, 2019
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    Power line communication (PLC) networks play an important role in home networks and in next generation hybrid networks, which provide higher data rates (Gbps) and easier connectivity. The standard medium access control (MAC) protocol of PLC networks, IEEE 1901, uses a special carrier sense multiple access with collision avoidance (CSMA/CA) mechanism, in which the deferral counter technology is introduced to avoid unnecessary collisions. Although PLC networks have achieved great commercial success, MAC layer analysis for IEEE 1901 PLC networks received limited attention. Until now, a few studies used renewal theory and strong law of large number (SLLN) to analyze the MAC performance of IEEE 1901 protocol. These studies focus on saturated conditions and neglect the impacts of buffer size and traffic rate. Additionally, they are valid only for homogeneous traffic. Motivated by these limitations, we develop a unified and scalable analytical model for IEEE 1901 protocol in unsaturated conditions, which comprehensively considers the impacts of traffic rate, buffer size, and traffic types (homogeneous or heterogeneous traffic). In the modeling process, a multi-layer discrete Markov chain model is constructed to depict the basic working principle of IEEE 1901 protocol. The queueing process of the station buffer is captured by using Queueing theory. Furthermore, we present a detailed analysis for IEEE 1901 protocol under heterogeneous traffic conditions. Finally, we conduct extensive simulations to verify the analytical model and evaluate the MAC performance of IEEE 1901 protocol in PLC networks.

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  • Takamasa OCHIAI, Kohei MATSUEDA, Takao KONDO, Hiroaki TAKANO, Ryota KI ...
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Network
    2019 Volume E102.B Issue 8 Pages 1649-1659
    Published: August 01, 2019
    Released: August 01, 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: February 20, 2019
    JOURNAL RESTRICTED ACCESS

    In LTE (Long Term Evolution) / LTE-Advanced (LTE-A) system, the user-plane for a user equipment (UE) is provided by tunneling, which increases header overhead, processing overhead, and management overhead. In addition, the LTE-A system does not support moving cells which are composed of a mobile Relay Node (RN) and UEs attached to the mobile RN. Although there are several proposals for moving cells in the LTE-A system and the 5G system, all of them rely on tunneling for the user-plane, which means that none of them avoid the tunneling overheads. This paper proposes MocLis, a moving cell support protocol based on a Locator/ID split approach. MocLis does not use tunneling. Nested moving cells are supported. Signaling cost for handover of a moving cell is independent of the number of UEs and nested RNs in the moving cell. A MocLis prototype, implemented in Linux, includes user space daemons and modified kernel. Measurements show that the attachment time and handover time are short enough for practical use. MocLis has higher TCP throughput than the tunneling based approaches.

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  • Daijiro HIYOSHI, Masaharu TAKAHASHI
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Antennas and Propagation
    2019 Volume E102.B Issue 8 Pages 1660-1667
    Published: August 01, 2019
    Released: August 01, 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: February 18, 2019
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS

    In recent years, capsule endoscopy has attracted attention as one of the medical devices that examine internal digestive tracts without burdening patients. Wireless power transmission of the capsule endoscope has been researched now, and the power transmission efficiency can be improved by knowing the capsule location. In this paper, we develop a localization method wireless power transmission. Therefore, a simple algorithm for using received signal strength (RSS) has been developed so that position estimation can be performed in real time, and the performance is evaluated by performing three-dimensional localization with eight receiving antennas.

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  • Bakar ROHANI, Ryosuke KANEDA, Hiroyuki ARAI
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Antennas and Propagation
    2019 Volume E102.B Issue 8 Pages 1668-1675
    Published: August 01, 2019
    Released: August 01, 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: February 12, 2019
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    Urban area suffers severe multipath effects due to its complex infrastructure environment and sector antenna is a popular choice as a base station antenna in those areas. Within sector antennas, omni cell antenna is utilized as supporting antenna to cover low reception areas between them. This paper proposes a slant ±45° dual polarized omnidirectional antenna to operate as the omni cell antenna in those environments. The frequency band covers the IMT band, ranging from 1920MHz to 2170MHz with directivity focusing in horizontal plane. The antenna structure consists of a loop slot antenna array as excitation element which is placed inside a cylindrical slot antenna as parasitic element. Good performance is achieved in both S-parameter and directivity results, with a gain of more than 4 dBi and a gain difference of less than 1.5dB. The measurement results also agree well with the simulation results and the final design confirms that the proposed antenna works effectively as a slant ±45° dual polarized omnidirectional antenna.

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  • Mitsuki NAKAMURA, Motoharu SASAKI, Wataru YAMADA, Naoki KITA, Takeshi ...
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Antennas and Propagation
    2019 Volume E102.B Issue 8 Pages 1676-1688
    Published: August 01, 2019
    Released: August 01, 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: February 12, 2019
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    This paper proposes a path loss model for crowded outdoor environments that can consider the density of people. Measurement results in an anechoic chamber with three blocking persons showed that multiple human body shadowing can be calculated by using finite width screens. As a result, path loss in crowded environments can be calculated by using the path losses of the multipath and the multiple human body shadowing on those paths. The path losses of the multipath are derived from a ray tracing simulation, and the simulation results are then used to predict the path loss in crowded environments. The predicted path loss of the proposed model was examined through measurements in the crowded outdoor station square in front of Shibuya Station in Tokyo, and results showed that it can accurately predict the path loss in crowded environments at the frequencies of 4.7GHz and 26.4GHz under two different conditions of antenna height and density of people. The RMS error of the proposed model was less than 4dB.

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  • Hao LUO, Wenhao TAN, Luoning GAN, Houjun SUN
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Antennas and Propagation
    2019 Volume E102.B Issue 8 Pages 1689-1694
    Published: August 01, 2019
    Released: August 03, 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: February 20, 2019
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    A W-band corporate-feed 16×16-slot array antenna with low sidelobe level is designed and fabricated. The basic unit of the array is a 2×2-circular-slot subarray with step square cavities and uses an E-plane waveguide as the feeding line. An efficient method to design an unequal power-splitting ratio but equal phase (UPEP) E-plane waveguide T-junction (E-T) is proposed for constructing a 1-to-64 power-tapering feed network, which is the critical part to realize low sidelobe level. The whole array is fabricated with aluminum by milling and bonded by the vacuum brazing process. The measured results demonstrate that the array can achieve a 7.2% bandwidth with VSWR<1.5 and holistic sidelobe levels lower than -23.5dB in E-plane and H-plane from 89GHz ∼ 95.8GHz. The measured gain is higher than 31.7dBi over the working band with the antenna efficiency better than 67.5%.

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  • Junshan LUO, Shilian WANG, Qian CHENG
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Wireless Communication Technologies
    2019 Volume E102.B Issue 8 Pages 1695-1704
    Published: August 01, 2019
    Released: August 01, 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: February 12, 2019
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    Joint transmit and receive antenna selection (JTRAS) for transceive spatial modulation (TRSM) is investigated in this paper. A couple of low-complexity and efficient JTRAS algorithms are proposed to improve the reliability of TRSM systems by maximizing the minimum Euclidean distance (ED) among all received signals. Specifically, the QR decomposition based ED-JTRAS achieves near-optimal error performance with a moderate complexity reduction as compared to the optimal ED-JTRAS method. The singular value decomposition based ED-JTRAS achieves sub-optimal error performance with a significant complexity reduction. Simulation results show that the proposed methods remarkably improve the system reliability in both uncorrelated and spatially correlated Rayleigh fading channels, as compared to the conventional norm based JTRAS method.

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  • Xiangbin YU, Xi WANG, Tao TENG, Qiyishu LI, Fei WANG
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Wireless Communication Technologies
    2019 Volume E102.B Issue 8 Pages 1705-1714
    Published: August 01, 2019
    Released: August 01, 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: February 12, 2019
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    In this paper, we study the power allocation (PA) scheme design for energy efficiency (EE) maximization with discrete-rate adaptive modulation (AM) in the downlink distributed antenna system (DAS). By means of the Karush-Kuhn-Tucker (KKT) conditions, an optimal PA scheme with closed-form expression is derived for maximizing the EE subject to maximum transmit power and target bit error rate (BER) constraints, where the number of active transmit antennas is also derived for attaining PA coefficients. Considering that the optimal scheme needs to calculate the PA of all transmit antennas for each modulation mode, its complexity is extremely high. For this reason, a low-complexity suboptimal PA is also presented based on the antenna selection method. By choosing one or two remote antennas, the suboptimal scheme offers lower complexity than the optimal one, and has almost the same EE performance as the latter. Besides, the outage probability is derived in a performance evaluation. Computer simulation shows that the developed optimal scheme can achieve the same EE as the exhaustive search based approach, which has much higher complexity, and the suboptimal scheme almost matches the EE of the optimal one as well. The suboptimal scheme with two-antenna selection is particularly effective in terms of balancing performance and complexity. Moreover, the derived outage probability is in good agreement with the corresponding simulation.

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  • Tao WANG, Mingfang WANG, Yating WU, Yanzan SUN
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Wireless Communication Technologies
    2019 Volume E102.B Issue 8 Pages 1715-1727
    Published: August 01, 2019
    Released: August 01, 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: February 04, 2019
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    This paper proposes an energy efficiency (EE) maximized resource allocation (RA) algorithm in orthogonal frequency division multiple access (OFDMA) downlink networks with multiple relays, where a novel opportunistic subcarrier pair based decode-and-forward (DF) protocol with beamforming is used. Specifically, every data transmission is carried out in two consecutive time slots. During every transmission, multiple parallel paths, including relayed paths and direct paths, are established by the proposed RA algorithm. As for the protocol, each subcarrier in the 1st slot can be paired with any subcarrier in 2nd slot to best utilize subcarrier resources. Furthermore, for each relayed path, multiple (not just single or all) relays can be chosen to apply beamforming at the subcarrier in the 2nd slot. Each direct path is constructed by an unpaired subcarrier in either the 1st or 2nd slot. In order to guarantee an acceptable spectrum efficiency, we also introduce a minimum rate constraint. The EE-maximized problem is a highly nonlinear optimization problem, which contains both continuous, discrete variables and has a fractional structure. To solve the problem, the best relay set and resource allocation for a relayed path are derived first, then we design an iterative algorithm to find the optimal RA for the network. Finally, numerical experiments are taken to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm, and show the impact of minimum rate requirement, user number and circuit power on the network EE.

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  • Keiichi MIZUTANI, Takeshi MATSUMURA, Hiroshi HARADA
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Wireless Communication Technologies
    2019 Volume E102.B Issue 8 Pages 1728-1740
    Published: August 01, 2019
    Released: August 01, 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: February 22, 2019
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS

    A variety of all-new systems such as a massive machine type communication (mMTC) system will be supported in 5G and beyond. Although each mMTC device occupies quite narrow bandwidth, the massive number of devices expected will generate a vast array of traffic and consume enormous spectrum resources. Therefore, it is necessary to proactively gather up and exploit fractional spectrum resources including guard bands that are secured but unused by the existing Long Term Evolution (LTE) systems. The guard band is originally secured as a margin for high out-of-band emission (OOBE) caused by the discontinuity between successive symbols in the cyclic prefix-based orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (CP-OFDM), and new-waveforms enabling high OOBE suppression have been widely researched to efficiently allocate narrowband communication to the frequency gap. Time-domain windowing is a well-known signal processing technique for reducing OOBE with low complexity and a universal time-domain windowed OFDM (UTW-OFDM) with a long transition duration exceeding the CP length has demonstrated its ability in WLAN-based systems. In this paper, we apply UTW-OFDM to the LTE downlink system and comprehensively evaluate its performance under the channel models defined by 3GPP. Specifically, we evaluate OOBE reduction and block error rate (BLER) by computer simulation and clarify how far OOBE can be reduced without degrading communication quality. Furthermore, we estimate the implementation complexity of the proposed UTW-OFDM, the conventional CP-OFDM, and the universal filtered-OFDM (UF-OFDM) by calculating the number of required multiplications. These evaluation and estimation results demonstrate that the proposed UTW-OFDM is a practical new-waveform applicable to the 5G and beyond.

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  • Hui ZHI, Yukun ZHA, Xiaotong FANG
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Wireless Communication Technologies
    2019 Volume E102.B Issue 8 Pages 1741-1750
    Published: August 01, 2019
    Released: August 01, 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: February 20, 2019
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    A novel adaptive cross-layer optimal power allocation (OPA) scheme over physical layer and data-link layer for two-way relaying system with amplify-and-forward policy (TWR-AF) is proposed in this paper. Our goal is to find the optimal power allocation factors under each channel state information (CSI) to maximize the sum throughput of two sources under total transmit power constraint in the physical layer while guaranteeing the statistical delay quality-of-service (QoS) requirement in the data-link layer. By integrating information theory with the concept of effective capacity, the OPA problem is formulated into an optimization problem to maximize the sum effective capacity. It is solved through Lagrange multiplier approach, and the optimal power allocation factors are presented. Simulations are developed and the results show that the proposed cross-layer OPA scheme can achieve the best sum effective capacity with relatively low complexity when compared with other schemes. In addition, the proposed cross-layer OPA scheme achieves the maximal sum effective capacity when the relay is located in (or near) the middle of the two source nodes, and the sum effective capacity becomes smaller when the difference between two QoS exponents becomes larger.

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  • Mizuki SUGA, Atsushi OHTA, Kazuto GOTO, Takahiro TSUCHIYA, Nobuaki OTS ...
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Wireless Communication Technologies
    2019 Volume E102.B Issue 8 Pages 1751-1762
    Published: August 01, 2019
    Released: August 01, 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: February 06, 2019
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    A propagation experiment on an actual channel is conducted to confirm the effectiveness of the 1-tap time domain beamforming (TDBF) technique we proposed in previous work. This technique offers simple beamforming for the millimeter waveband massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) applied wireless backhaul and so supports the rapid deployment of fifth generation mobile communications (5G) small cells. This paper details propagation experiments in the 75GHz band and the characteristics evaluations of 1-tap TDBF as determined from actual channel measurements. The results show that 1-tap TDBF array gain nearly equals the frequency domain maximal ratio combining (MRC) value, which is ideal processing; the difference is within 0.5dB. In addition, 1-tap TDBF can improve on the signal-to-interference power ratio (SIR) by about 13% when space division multiplexing (SDM) is performed assuming existing levels of channel estimation error.

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  • Takuya MIYASAKA, Hiroshi SATO, Masaharu TAKAHASHI
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Wireless Communication Technologies
    2019 Volume E102.B Issue 8 Pages 1763-1770
    Published: August 01, 2019
    Released: August 01, 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: February 20, 2019
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS

    In recent years, MIMO technology which uses multiple antennas has been introduced to the mobile terminal to increase communication capacity per unit frequency. However, if MIMO antennas are put closely, a strong mutual coupling occurred. Moreover, CA which uses multiple frequencies is also utilized to improve communication speed. Therefore, reducing mutual coupling in multiple frequencies is required. In this paper, we propose a dual-band decoupling method by using a short stub and a branch element and confirmed that the proposed model performed decoupling, increased radiation efficiency.

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  • Hiroki UTATSU, Hiroyuki OTSUKA
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Wireless Communication Technologies
    2019 Volume E102.B Issue 8 Pages 1771-1780
    Published: August 01, 2019
    Released: August 01, 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: February 20, 2019
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS

    Denser infrastructures can reduce terminal-to-infrastructure distance and thus improve the link budget in mobile communication systems. One such infrastructure, relaying can reduce the distance between the donor evolved node B (eNB) and user equipment (UE). However, conventional relaying suffers from geographical constraints, i.e., installation site, and difficulty in simultaneous transmission and reception on the same carrier frequency. Therefore, we propose a new type of fiber-optic relaying in which the antenna facing the eNB is geographically separated from the antenna facing the UE, and the two antennas are connected by an optical fiber. This structure aims to extend coverage to heavily shadowed areas. Our primary objective is to establish a design method for the proposed fiber-optic relaying in the presence of self-interference, which is the interference between the backhaul and access links, when the backhaul and access links simultaneously operate on the same carrier frequency. In this paper, we present the performance of the fiber-optic relaying in the presence of intra- and inter-cell interferences as well as self-interference. The theoretical desired-to-undesired-signal ratio for both uplink and downlink is investigated as parameters of the optical fiber length. We demonstrate the possibility of fiber-optic relaying with simultaneous transmission and reception on the same carrier frequency for the backhaul and access links. We validate the design method for the proposed fiber-optic relay system using these results.

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  • Suguru KAMEDA, Kei OHYA, Hiroshi OGUMA, Noriharu SUEMATSU
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Satellite Communications
    2019 Volume E102.B Issue 8 Pages 1781-1790
    Published: August 01, 2019
    Released: August 01, 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: January 25, 2019
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    We have already proposed synchronized spread spectrum code division multiple access (SS-CDMA) for the Quasi-Zenith Satellite System (QZSS) safety confirmation system to be used in times of great disaster. In this system, the satellite reception timings of all uplink signals are synchronized using a transmission timing control method in order to realize high-density user multiple access. An issue that should be addressed in order for this system to be viable is the error that can occur in the satellite reception timing. This error occurs due to the terminal time deviation and the error in calculating the propagation delay to the satellite. In this paper, we measure the terminal time deviation and the propagation delay calculation error at the same time by using the same receivers and evaluate the satellite reception timing error of the uplink signal. By this measurement, it is shown that satellite reception timing error within 50ns can be realized in 99.98% of mobile terminals. This shows that the synchronized SS-CDMA with the transmission timing control method has a potential to realize the QZSS short message system with high-density user multiple access.

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