IEICE Transactions on Communications
Online ISSN : 1745-1345
Print ISSN : 0916-8516
Volume E96.B , Issue 6
Showing 1-42 articles out of 42 articles from the selected issue
Special Section on Heterogeneous Networks for Future Cellular Systems
  • Kenichi HIGUCHI
    2013 Volume E96.B Issue 6 Pages 1229
    Published: June 01, 2013
    Released: June 01, 2013
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • Shao-Yu LIEN, Shin-Ming CHENG, Kwang-Cheng CHEN
    Type: INVITED PAPER
    2013 Volume E96.B Issue 6 Pages 1230-1242
    Published: June 01, 2013
    Released: June 01, 2013
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The heterogeneous network (HetNet), which deploys small cells such as picocells, femotcells, and relay nodes within macrocell, is regarded as a cost-efficient and energy-efficient approach to resolve increasing demand for data bandwidth and thus has received a lot of attention from research and industry. Since small cells share the same licensed spectrum with macrocells, concurrent transmission induces severe interference, which causes performance degradation, particularly when coordination among small cell base stations (BSs) is infeasible. Given the dense, massive, and unplanned deployment of small cells, mitigating interference in a distributed manner is a challenge and has been explored in recent papers. An efficient and innovative approach is to apply cognitive radio (CR) into HetNet, which enables small cells to sense and to adapt to their surrounding environments. Consequently, stations in each small cell are able to acquire additional information from surrounding environments and opportunistically operate in the spectrum hole, constrained by minimal inducing interference. This paper summarizes and highlights the CR-based interference mitigation approaches in orthogonal frequency division multiple access (OFDMA)-based HetNet networks. With special discussing the role of sensed information at small cells for the interference mitigation, this paper presents the potential cross-layer facilitation of the CR-enable HetNet.
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  • Satoshi KONISHI
    Type: INVITED PAPER
    2013 Volume E96.B Issue 6 Pages 1243-1255
    Published: June 01, 2013
    Released: June 01, 2013
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    We have seen a rapid increase in mobile data traffic in cellular networks, especially in densely populated areas called “hotspots.” In order to deal with this trend, heterogeneous networks (HetNet) are attracting much attention as a method of effectively accommodating such traffic increases using the Long Term Evolution (LTE)-Advanced system in the 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP). This paper first presents an overview of HetNet, where various wireless nodes can be deployed over the coverage area formed by macro base stations (BSs). Next, various evaluation results are provided for HetNet, where pico BSs (“Pico-BSs”) are deployed over the coverage area of macro BSs (“Macro-BSs”). Then, this paper presents a comprehensive analysis, not only of the effect of overlaying Pico-BSs but also a detailed analyses of the techniques called “cell range expansion (CRE)” and “enhanced inter-cell interference coordination (eICIC)” for facilitating the offloading of user terminals (UEs) from Macro-BSs to Pico-BSs and mitigating interference, respectively, for both downlink and uplink. Noteworthy outcomes found through the comprehensive study are that CRE provides throughput improvements for uplinks, especially for UE connected to Pico-BSs. In addition, this paper demonstrates that CRE contributes to improving downlink throughput especially for low traffic loads. The outcome regarding eICIC is that eICIC provides improvements in total throughput, in spite of the fact that eICIC causes unfairness between UE connected to the Pico-BSs and those with Macro-BSs.
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  • Kentaro NISHIMORI, Keisuke KUSUMI, Misaki HORIO, Koshiro KITAO, Tetsur ...
    Type: PAPER
    2013 Volume E96.B Issue 6 Pages 1256-1264
    Published: June 01, 2013
    Released: June 01, 2013
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    In LTE-Advanced heterogeneous networks, a typical cell layout to enhance frequency utilization is to incorporate picocells and femtocells in a macrocell. However, the co-channel interference between the marcocell and picocell/femtocell is an important issue when the same frequency band is used between these systems. We have already clarified how the interference from the femto(macro) cell affects on the macro(femto) cell. In this paper, we evaluate the interference rejection characteristics by an adaptive array with user equipment (UE). The characteristics are evaluated based on the K-factor used in the Nakagami-Race Fading model and the spatial correlation that is obtained in an actual outdoor environment. It is shown that a two-element adaptive array at the macro UE (M-UE) can sufficiently reduce the interference from the femto base station (F-BS) to the M-UE even if the number of total signals exceeds the degrees of freedom of the array.
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  • Yusuke OHWATARI, Akihito MORIMOTO, Nobuhiko MIKI, Yukihiko OKUMURA
    Type: PAPER
    2013 Volume E96.B Issue 6 Pages 1265-1276
    Published: June 01, 2013
    Released: June 01, 2013
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    The interference rejection combining (IRC) receiver effectively improves the cell-edge user throughput by suppressing interference from the surrounding cells. The work item (WI) for the specification of the IRC receiver is now ongoing for Release 11 Long-Term Evolution (LTE)-Advanced. Furthermore, heterogeneous networks where low power nodes such as picocells are overlaid onto macrocells are important to further improve the system throughput per unit area. In heterogeneous networks, to achieve an offloading gain from macrocells to picocells, cell range expansion (CRE) is applied. Additionally, inter-cell interference coordination (ICIC) is applied to reduce the severe inter-cell interference imposed from the macrocells onto the sets of user equipment (UEs) connected to picocells. In such cases, the interference statistics are completely different from traditional well-planned macrocell deployments, which have been investigated for the IRC receiver. This paper clarifies the effect of the IRC receiver in a heterogeneous network employing CRE and ICIC. Simulation results show that when both CRE and ICIC are applied, the effect of the IRC receiver becomes small due to a reduction in the severe inter-cell interference from ICIC. However, we clarify that the user throughput gain at the cumulative distribution function of 5% from the IRC receiver exceeding 10% is achieved compared to the conventional minimum mean square error (MMSE) receiver in a heterogeneous network regardless of the usage of ICIC. Furthermore, in heterogeneous networks employing CRE and ICIC, we clarify that an average user throughput gain exceeding 5% is achieved from the IRC receiver and the improvement in the average user throughput is high especially for the UEs connected to picocells compared to UEs connected to macrocells.
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  • Kohei HANADA, Koji YAMAMOTO, Masahiro MORIKURA, Koichi ISHIHARA, Riich ...
    Type: PAPER
    2013 Volume E96.B Issue 6 Pages 1277-1287
    Published: June 01, 2013
    Released: June 01, 2013
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    As the demand for high-throughput communications in wireless LANs (WLAN) increases, the need for expanding channel bandwidth also increases. However, the use of wider band channels results in a decrease in the number of available channels because the total available bandwidth for WLAN is limited. Therefore, if multiple access points (APs) are in proximity and the cells overlap, it is difficult for each AP to use an orthogonal channel and competition increases between APs using the same channel. Coordination of APs is one promising approach; however, it is impractical to control all APs in WLAN systems. To cope with this problem, we proposed to analyze throughput performances of a multibandwidth channel selection by the coordinating APs at Nash equilibria, which can be considered as operating points for independent channel selection by APs. To clarify the effect of coordinating APs, we assume a simple scenario where the cells of three or more APs overlap, and each AP can select multibandwidth channels to maximize their own throughput. Through game-theoretic analysis, we find that the coordinated APs are able to select channels more effectively than if each AP independently selects channels. Consequently, the total throughput of the coordinated APs at Nash equilibria is significantly improved.
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  • Hiroyuki SEKI, Takaharu KOBAYASHI, Dai KIMURA
    Type: PAPER
    2013 Volume E96.B Issue 6 Pages 1288-1296
    Published: June 01, 2013
    Released: June 01, 2013
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    Bandwidth expansion in Long Term Evolution (LTE)-Advanced is supported via carrier aggregation (CA), which aggregates multiple component carriers (CCs) to accomplish very high data rate communications. Heterogeneous networks (HetNets), which set pico-base stations in macrocells are also a key feature of LTE-Advanced to achieve substantial gains in coverage and capacity compared to macro-only cells. When CA is applied in HetNets, transmission on all CCs may not always be the best solution due to the extremely high levels of inter-cell interference experienced by HetNets. Activated CCs that are used for transmission should be selected depending on inter-cell interference conditions and the traffic offered in the cells. This paper presents a scheme to select CCs through centralized control assuming a centralized baseband unit (C-BBU) configuration. A C-BBU involves pooling tens or hundreds of baseband resources where one baseband resource can be connected to any CC installed in remote radio heads (RRHs) via optical fibers. Fewer baseband resources can be prepared in a C-BBU than those of CCs in RRHs to reduce the cost of equipment. Our proposed scheme selects the activated CCs by considering the user equipment (UE) assigned to CCs under the criterion of maximizing the proportional fairness (PF) utility function. Convex optimization using the Karush-Kuhn-Tucker (KKT) conditions is applied to solve the resource allocation ratio that enables user throughput to be estimated. We present results from system level simulations of the downlink to demonstrate that the proposed algorithm to select CCs can outperform the conventional one that selects activated CCs based on the received signal strength. We also demonstrate that our proposed algorithm to select CCs can provide a good balance in traffic load between CCs and achieve better user throughput with fewer baseband resources.
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  • Takahiro TAKIGUCHI, Kohei KIYOSHIMA, Yuta SAGAE, Kengo YAGYU, Hiroyuki ...
    Type: PAPER
    2013 Volume E96.B Issue 6 Pages 1297-1305
    Published: June 01, 2013
    Released: June 01, 2013
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    This paper evaluates the downlink performance of an LTE-Advanced (LTE-A) heterogeneous network that uses carrier aggregation (CA) between macro and small cells. The concept of utilizing the CA functionalities in LTE-A is effective in increasing the network capacity in a congested area through raising of the base station density using small cells overlaid onto an existing macro cell network. This concept is also effective in maintaining the mobility performance of user equipment (UE) because handover operation is not applied when entering/leaving a small cell, but component carrier addition/removal is only performed through CA while maintaining the connection to a macro cell. In order to present comprehensive performance evaluations in an LTE-A heterogeneous network with CA, this paper evaluates various performance criteria, e.g., downlink cell throughput and downlink user throughput. According to the obtained simulation results, the total downlink cell throughput achieved in an LTE-A heterogeneous network deployment with CA (four small cells overlaid onto a macro cell sector) exhibits a 3.9-fold improvement compared to a conventional-macro-cell-only network deployment using two frequency bands.
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  • Moo Ryong JEONG, Nobuhiko MIKI
    Type: PAPER
    2013 Volume E96.B Issue 6 Pages 1306-1317
    Published: June 01, 2013
    Released: June 01, 2013
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    Scheduling restriction is attracting much attention in LTE-Advanced as a technique to reduce the power consumption and network overheads in interference coordinated heterogeneous networks (HetNets). Such a network with inter-cell interference coordination (ICIC) provides two radio resources with different channel quality statistics. One of the resources is protected (unprotected) from inter-cell interference (hence, called protected (non-protected) resource) and has higher (lower) average channel quality. Without scheduling restriction, the channel quality feedback would be doubled to reflect the quality difference of the two resources. We present a simple scheduling restriction scheme that addresses the problem without significant performance degradation. Users with relatively larger (smaller) average channel quality difference between the two resources are scheduled in the protected (non-protected) resource only, and a boundary user, determined by a proportional fair resource allocation (PFRA) under simplified static channels, is scheduled on one of the two resources or both depending on PFRA. Having most users scheduled in only one of the resources, the power consumption and network overheads that would otherwise be required for the channel quality feedback on the other resource can be avoided. System level simulation of LTE-Advanced downlink shows that the performance degradation due to our scheduling restriction scheme is less than 2%, with the average feedback reduction of 40%.
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  • Masashi FUSHIKI, Noriaki MIYAZAKI, Xiaoqiu WANG, Satoshi KONISHI
    Type: PAPER
    2013 Volume E96.B Issue 6 Pages 1318-1326
    Published: June 01, 2013
    Released: June 01, 2013
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    In order to support the increasing amount of mobile data traffic, Third Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) is actively discusses cell range expansion (CRE) and time domain multiplexing — inter-cell interference coordination (TDM-ICIC). They have shown to be attractive techniques for heterogeneous network (HetNet) deployment where pico base stations (BSs) overlay macro BSs. There are two control schemes of the TDM-ICIC. One, named ZP-scheme, stops radio resource assignments for data traffic in predetermined radio resources in the time domain (subframes). The other, named RP-scheme, maintains the resource assignment whereas it reduces the transmission power at macro BSs at predetermined subframes. In this paper, we clarify the effective ranges of both ZP-scheme and RP-scheme by conducting the system level simulations. Moreover, the appropriate power reduction value at predetermined subframes is also clarified from the difference in the effective range of various power reduction values. The comprehensive evaluation results show that both ZP-scheme and RP-scheme are not effective when the CRE bias value is 0dB or less. If the CRE bias value is larger than 0dB, they are effective when the ratio of predetermined subframes in all subframes is set to appropriate values. These values depend on the CRE bias value and power reduction in the predetermined subframes. The effective range is expanded when the power reduction in the predetermined subframes changes with the CRE bias value. Therefore, the effective range of RP-scheme is larger than that of ZP-scheme by setting an appropriate power reduction in the predetermined subframes.
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  • Akihito MORIMOTO, Nobuhiko MIKI, Yukihiko OKUMURA
    Type: PAPER
    2013 Volume E96.B Issue 6 Pages 1327-1337
    Published: June 01, 2013
    Released: June 01, 2013
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    In Long-Term Evolution (LTE)-Advanced, heterogeneous networks are important to further improve the system throughput per unit area. In heterogeneous network deployment, low power nodes such as picocells are overlaid onto macrocells. In the downlink, the combined usage of inter-cell interference coordination (ICIC), which is a technique that reduces the severe interference from macrocells by reducing the transmission power or stopping the transmission from the macrocells, and cell range expansion (CRE), which is a technique that expands the cell radius of picocells by biasing the received signal power, is very effective in improving the system and cell-edge user throughput. In this paper, we consider two types of ICIC. The first one reduces the transmission power from the macrocells (referred to as reduced power ICIC) and the second one stops the transmission from the macrocells (referred to as zero power ICIC). This paper investigates the impact of the reduction in the transmission power when using reduced power ICIC and the restriction on the modulation scheme caused by the reduction in the transmission power when using reduced power ICIC on the user throughput performance with the CRE offset value as a parameter. In addition, the throughput performance when applying reduced power ICIC is compared to that when applying zero power ICIC. Simulation results show that the user throughput with reduced power ICIC is not sensitive to the protected subframe ratio compared to that with zero power ICIC even if the modulation scheme is restricted to only QPSK in the protected subframes. This indicates that reduced power ICIC is more robust than zero power ICIC for non-optimum protected subframe ratios.
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  • Hidekazu SHIMODAIRA, Gia Khanh TRAN, Kei SAKAGUCHI, Kiyomichi ARAKI, S ...
    Type: PAPER
    2013 Volume E96.B Issue 6 Pages 1338-1347
    Published: June 01, 2013
    Released: June 01, 2013
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    In recent years, heterogeneous cellular network (HetNet) topology has been attracting much attention. HetNet, which is a network topology with low power base stations installed inside the cell range of conventional macrocells, can realize network capacity enhancement through the effects of macrocell offloading and cell shrinkage. Due to the heterogeneity nature of HetNet, network designers should carefully consider about the interference management, resource allocation, user association and cell range expansion. These issues have been well studied in recent literatures. However, one of the important problems which has not been well investigated in conventional works is the base station (BS) deployment problem in HetNet. This paper investigates the optimal pico base station deployment in heterogeneous cellular networks especially with the existence of hotspots. In this paper, pico BS locations are optimized together with other network parameters including spectrum splitting ratio and signal-to-interference-noise ratio (SINR) bias for cell range expansion to maximize the total system rate, by considering two spectrum allocation strategies, i.e. spectrum overlapping and spectrum splitting. Numerical results show that the optimized pico BS locations can improve the system rate, the average user rate and outage user rate in HetNet with hotspots.
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  • Yuefeng PENG, Wei YANG, Candy YIU, Yujian ZHANG, Hongwen YANG
    Type: PAPER
    2013 Volume E96.B Issue 6 Pages 1348-1357
    Published: June 01, 2013
    Released: June 01, 2013
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    Heterogeneous networks (HetNets) can provide higher capacity and user throughput than homogeneous networks in Long Term Evolution (LTE)-Advanced systems. However, because of increased interference from neighboring cells and the characteristics of the embedded small cells, handover performance is impacted adversely, especially when the user equipment (UE) moves at medium or high speeds. In this paper, to improve mobility performance, we propose two schemes, i.e., 1) using wideband signal-to-interference noise ratio (SINR) as the handover metric and 2) emergency attaching. The schemes can enhance mobility performance since handovers are performed based on the quality of the radio link. Importantly, the two schemes compliment rather than contradict each other. System-level simulations show that both the individual proposed schemes and the joint schemes can improve mobility performance significantly.
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  • Tetsunosuke KOIZUMI, Kenichi HIGUCHI
    Type: PAPER
    2013 Volume E96.B Issue 6 Pages 1358-1366
    Published: June 01, 2013
    Released: June 01, 2013
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    This paper proposes a simple decentralized cell association method for heterogeneous networks, where low transmission-power pico or femto base stations (BSs) overlay onto a high transmission-power macro BS. The focus of this investigation is on the downlink and the purpose of cell association is to achieve better user fairness, in other words, to increase the minimum average user throughput (worst user throughput). In the proposed method, an appropriate cell association for all users within a cell is achieved in an iterative manner based on the feedback information of each individual user assisted by a small amount of broadcast information from the respective BSs. The proposed method does not require cooperation between BSs. Furthermore, the proposed method is applicable to cases of inter-cell interference coordination (ICIC) between macro and pico/femto BSs through the use of protected radio resources exclusively used by the pico/femto BSs. Based on numerical results, we show that the proposed method adaptively achieves better cell association for all users according to the user location distributions compared to the conventional cell range expansion (CRE) method. The advantage of the proposed method over CRE is further enhanced in an ICIC scenario.
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  • Koichiro KITAGAWA, Toshiaki YAMAMOTO, Satoshi KONISHI
    Type: PAPER
    2013 Volume E96.B Issue 6 Pages 1367-1376
    Published: June 01, 2013
    Released: June 01, 2013
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    Cell Range Expansion (CRE) is a promising technique for the enhancement of traffic offload to pico cells. CRE is realized by adjusting the trigger timing of handover (HO) toward/from pico cells. However, inappropriate setting of trigger timing results in HO failures or Ping-Pong HOs. Both the HO failures and the Ping-Pong HOs degrade the continuity of user data services. Therefore, when CRE is applied, both the HO failures and the Ping-Pong HOs should be kept suppressed in order to guarantee the continuity of services for users. However, in the conventional studies, the application of CRE is discussed without consideration of HO performance. This paper clarifies the application range of CRE from the perspective of HO performance by taking the HO failure rates and the Ping-Pong HO rates as HO performance measures. As an example, we reveal that there is an appropriate CRE bias values which keep both the HO failure rate and Ping-Pong HO rate less than 1%. Such an appropriate CRE bias value range is smaller than the one without consideration of HO performance, which is reported in the conventional studies. The authors also observed that Ping-Pong HO occurs due to the short staying time of users at pico cells in high velocity environment. The rate of such Ping-Pong HOs becomes more than about 1% when the user velocity is more than 60km/h. Therefore, it is more difficult in high velocity environment than that in low velocity environment to find appropriate CRE bias values.
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  • Tomohiko MIMURA, Koji YAMAMOTO, Masahiro MORIKURA, Ayako IWATA, Akihik ...
    Type: PAPER
    2013 Volume E96.B Issue 6 Pages 1377-1384
    Published: June 01, 2013
    Released: June 01, 2013
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    In this paper, we introduce the concept of a multi-operator mobile relay node (RN) for cellular networks on buses or trains. The installation of RNs improves spectral efficiency because an antenna with a higher gain than that of user equipment (UE) can be installed in an RN. However, installing different RNs for different operators is not efficient because of the large amount of space needed to install multiple RNs in a bus. Thus, sharing one RN among multiple operators is a more practical approach. When we use a multi-operator mobile RN, the required amount of resource for each operator varies independently as the RN moves. Consequently, we propose a system of shared-spectrum allocation among operators for RN-UEs communication. Shared bandwidth can be allocated to operators according to link quality in order to achieve effective utilization of radio resources. However, to introduce shared-spectrum allocation, fairness among the operators and the total efficiency of the system should be taken into consideration. Using computer simulations, we evaluate shared-spectrum allocation based on the Nash bargaining solution (NBS). The results, in terms of both fairness and efficiency, indicate that total throughput can be improved by approximately 20% compared with the situation where multiple operators install different RNs individually.
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Regular Section
  • Toru HASEGAWA
    Type: INVITED SURVEY PAPER
    Subject area: Network
    2013 Volume E96.B Issue 6 Pages 1385-1401
    Published: June 01, 2013
    Released: June 01, 2013
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The Internet was designed for academic use more than 40 years ago. After having been used commercially, many unpredictable requirements have emerged, including mobility, security and content distribution. In addition, the Internet has become so ossified that fulfilling new requirements is difficult. Instead of developing ad-hoc solutions, re-designing clean-slate Internet architectures has become a key research challenge in networking communities. This survey paper addresses key research issues and then introduces ongoing research projects from Japan, the United States and the European Union.
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  • Norifumi KAMIYA, Yoichi HASHIMOTO, Masahiro SHIGIHARA
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Fundamental Theories for Communications
    2013 Volume E96.B Issue 6 Pages 1402-1411
    Published: June 01, 2013
    Released: June 01, 2013
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    In this paper, we present a novel class of long quasi-cyclic low-density parity-check (QC-LDPC) codes. Each of the codes in this class has a structure formed by concatenating single-parity-check codes and QC-LDPC codes of shorter lengths, which allows for efficient, high throughput encoder/decoder implementations. Using a code in this class, we design a forward error correction (FEC) scheme for optical transmission systems and present its high throughput encoder/decoder architecture. In order to demonstrate its feasibility, we implement the architecture on a field programmable gate array (FPGA) platform. We show by both FPGA-based simulations and measurements of an optical transmission system that the FEC scheme can achieve excellent error performance and that there is no significant performance degradation due to the constraint on its structure while getting an efficient, high throughput implementation is feasible.
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  • Wissarut YUTTACHAI, Poompat SAENGUDOMLERT, Wuttipong KUMWILAISAK
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Fiber-Optic Transmission for Communications
    2013 Volume E96.B Issue 6 Pages 1412-1424
    Published: June 01, 2013
    Released: June 01, 2013
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    We consider the problem of detecting and localizing of link quality degradations in transparent wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) networks. In particular, we consider the degradation of the optical signal-to-noise ratio (OSNR), which is a key parameter for link quality monitoring in WDM networks. With transparency in WDM networks, transmission lightpaths can bypass electronic processing at intermediate nodes. Accordingly, links cannot always be monitored by receivers at their end nodes. This paper proposes the use of optical multicast probes to monitor OSNR degradations on optical links. The proposed monitoring scheme consists of two steps. The first step is an off-line process to set up monitoring trees using integer linear programming (ILP). The set of monitoring trees is selected to guarantee that significant OSNR degradations can be identified on any link or links in the network. The second step uses optical performance monitors that are placed at the receivers identified in the first step. The information from these monitors is collected and input to the estimation algorithm to localize the degraded links. Numerical results indicate that the proposed monitoring algorithm is able to detect link degradations that cause significant OSNR changes. In addition, we demonstrate how the information obtained from monitoring can be used to detect a significant end-to-end OSNR degradation even though there is no significant OSNR degradation on individual links.
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  • Ziwen ZHANG, Zhigang SUN, Baokang ZHAO, Jiangchuan LIU, Xicheng LU
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Network System
    2013 Volume E96.B Issue 6 Pages 1425-1434
    Published: June 01, 2013
    Released: June 01, 2013
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    In cloud computing, multiple users coexist in one datacenter infrastructure and the network is always shared using VMs. Network bandwidth allocation is necessary for security and performance guarantees in the datacenter. InfiniBand (IB) is more widely applied in the construction of datacenter cluster and attracts more interest from the academic field. In this paper, we propose an IB dynamic bandwidth allocation mechanism IBShare to achieve different Weight-proportional and Min-guarantee requirements of allocation entities. The differentiated IB Congestion Control (CC) configuration is proven to offer the proportional throughput characteristic at the flow level. IBShare leverages distributed congestion detection, global congestion computation and configuration to dynamically provide predictable bandwidth division. The real IB experiment results showed IBShare can promptly adapt to the congestion variation and achieve the above two allocation demands through CC reconfiguration. IBShare improved the network utilization than reservation and its computation/configuration overhead was low.
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  • Shuang QIN, Gang FENG, Wenyi QIN, Yu GE, Jaya Shankar PATHMASUNTHARAM
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Network
    2013 Volume E96.B Issue 6 Pages 1435-1443
    Published: June 01, 2013
    Released: June 01, 2013
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    In maritime networks, the communication links are characterized as high dynamics due to ship mobility and fluctuation of the sea surface. The performance of traditional transmission protocols is poor in maritime networks. Thus, some researchers have considered using Delay Tolerant Network (DTN) to improve the performance of data transmission in maritime environment. Most existing work on maritime DTNs uses simulation to evaluate the transmission performance in maritime DTNs. In this paper, we develop a theoretical model to analyze the performance of data transmission in maritime DTNs. We first construct a model to describe the ship encounter probability. Then, we use this model to analyze the data delivery ratio from ships in the seaway to the base station (BS) on the coast. Based on the data of tracing the ships navigating in a realistic seaway, we develop a simulator and validate the theoretical models. In addition, by comparing the performance of DTN transmission protocol and traditional end-to-end transmission protocol, we confirm that DTN protocol can effectively improve the performance of data transmission in maritime networks.
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  • SangKwon MOON, Jong-Woon YOO, Jaesub KIM, Kyu-Ho PARK
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Network
    2013 Volume E96.B Issue 6 Pages 1444-1458
    Published: June 01, 2013
    Released: June 01, 2013
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    In the sensor networks for surveillance, the requirements of providing energy efficiency and service differentiation, which is to deliver high-priority packets preferentially, while maintaining high goodput, which is to deliver many packets within their deadline are increasing. However, previous works have difficulties in satisfying the requirements simultaneously. Thus, we propose GES-MAC, which satisfies the requirements simultaneously. GES-MAC reduces idle listening energy consumption by using a duty cycle, periodic listen (i.e., turn on radio module) and sleep (i.e. turn off radio module) of sensor nodes. Cluster-based multi-hop scheduling provides high goodput in a duty-cycled environment by scheduling clusters of nodes in the listen period and opportunistically forwarding data packets in the sleep period. Priority-aware schedule switching makes more high-priority packets reach the sink node by letting high-priority packets preempt the schedules of low-priority packets. In experiments with MICA2 based sensor nodes and in simulations, the energy consumption of the radio module is reduced by 70% compared to the approaches without a duty cycle, while providing 80% ∼ 100% goodput of the approaches that provide high goodput. Service differentiation is also supported with little overhead.
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  • Noriaki KAMIYAMA, Ryoichi KAWAHARA, Tatsuya MORI, Haruhisa HASEGAWA
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Network
    2013 Volume E96.B Issue 6 Pages 1459-1471
    Published: June 01, 2013
    Released: June 01, 2013
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    The number of users of video on demand (VoD) services has increased dramatically. In VoD services, the demand for content items changes greatly hour to hour. Because service providers are required to maintain a stable service during peak hours, they need to design system resources based on the demand at peak time, so reducing the server load at this time is important. Although multicast delivery, in which multiple users requesting the same content item are supported by one delivery session, is effective for suppressing the server load during peak hours, user response times can increase greatly. A peer-to-peer-assisted delivery system, in which users download content items from other users watching the same content item, is also effective for reducing server load. However, system performance depends on selfish user behavior, and optimizing the usage of system resources is difficult. Moreover, complex operation, i.e., switching the delivery multicast tree or source peers, is necessary to support video cassette recorder (VCR) operation, e.g., fast forward, rewind, and pause. In this paper, we propose to reduce server load without increasing user response time by multicasting popular content items to all users independent of actual requests as well as providing on-demand unicast delivery. Through a numerical evaluation that uses actual VoD access log data, we clarify the effectiveness of the proposed method.
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  • Xuan ZHANG, Hao LIU, Fulong JIANG, Zhiqun LI
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Network
    2013 Volume E96.B Issue 6 Pages 1472-1480
    Published: June 01, 2013
    Released: June 01, 2013
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    Duty-cycle MAC protocols achieve high energy-effici-ency. However, duty-cycle MACs introduce significant end-to-end delivery latency. Recently proposed protocols such as RMAC and PRMAC improve the latency of duty-cycle MAC protocols by employing a mechanism of multi-hop wakeup reservation to allow a packet to be forwarded over multiple hops in a single communication cycle. However, these protocols can not efficiently handle cross traffic bursts which are common in applications with space-correlated event detection. If there are multiple packets to send in each flow, most of the data packets will be seriously postponed. This paper proposes a multi-channel pipelined routing-enhanced MAC protocol, called MPR-MAC, to handle this problem. By jointly employing channel diversity and time diversity, MPR-MAC allows cross data flows to forward multiple packets respectively in a single communication cycle without interfering with each other. Simulation results show the advantage of MPR-MAC in handling cross data flows and the significant performance upgrade in terms of end-to-end latency and energy efficiency.
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  • Kazuhito MATSUDA, Go HASEGAWA, Masayuki MURATA
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Network
    2013 Volume E96.B Issue 6 Pages 1481-1491
    Published: June 01, 2013
    Released: June 01, 2013
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    Application-level routing that chooses an end-to-end traffic route that relays other end hosts can improve user-perceived performance metrics such as end-to-end latency and available bandwidth. However, selfish route selection performed by each end user can lead to a decrease in path performance due to overload by route overlaps, as well as an increase in the inter-ISP transit cost as a result of utilizing more transit links compared with native IP routing. In this paper, we first strictly define an optimization problem for selecting application-level traffic routes with the aim of maximizing end-to-end network performance under a transit cost constraint. We then propose an application-level traffic routing method based on distributed simulated annealing to obtain good solutions to the problem. We evaluate the performance of the proposed method by assuming that PlanetLab nodes utilize application-level traffic routing. We show that the proposed routing method can result in considerable improvement of network performance without increasing transit cost. In particular, when using end-to-end latency as a routing metric, the number of overloaded end-to-end paths can be reduced by about 65%, as compared with that when using non-coordinated methods. We also demonstrate that the proposed method can react to dynamic changes in traffic demand and select appropriate routes.
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  • Tomoki MURAKAMI, Riichi KUDO, Takeo ICHIKAWA, Naoki HONMA, Masato MIZO ...
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Antennas and Propagation
    2013 Volume E96.B Issue 6 Pages 1492-1501
    Published: June 01, 2013
    Released: June 01, 2013
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    As wireless LAN systems become more widespread, the number of access points (APs) is increasing. A large number of APs cause overlapping cells where nearby cells utilize the same frequency channel. In the overlapping cells, inter-cell interference (ICI) degrades the throughput. This paper proposes an interference-aware multi-cell beamforming (IMB) technique to reduce the throughput degradation in the overlapping cells. The IMB technique improves transmission performance better than conventional multi-cell beamforming based on a decentralized control scheme. The conventional technique mitigates ICI by nullifying all the interference signal space (ISS) by beamforming, but the signal spaces to the user terminal (UT) is also limited because the degree of freedom (DoF) at the AP is limited. On the other hand, the IMB technique increases the signal space to the UT because the DoF at the AP is increased by selecting the ISS by allowing a small amount of ICI. In addition, we introduce a method of selecting the ISS in a decentralized control scheme. In our work, we analyze the interference channel state information (CSI) and evaluate the transmission performance of the IMB technique by using a measured CSI in an actual indoor environment. As a result, we find that the IMB technique becomes more effective as the number of UT antennas in nearby cells increases.
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  • Myeong-Jin KIM, Hyun-Ho LEE, Young-Chai KO, Taehyun JEON
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Wireless Communication Technologies
    2013 Volume E96.B Issue 6 Pages 1502-1510
    Published: June 01, 2013
    Released: June 01, 2013
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    In this paper, we propose four different strategies of node pair selection in multiple input multiple output (MIMO) interference channel where interference alignment (IA) is considered as a transceiver design method. In the first scheme, we consider the maximization of the sum rate by selecting node pairs in a brute force way. We also propose a sub-optimal sum rate maximization scheme with lower complexity than the first scheme. In the third scheme, we aim to minimize the number of links among pairs which incurs the outage in MIMO interference channel. In the fourth scheme, we suggest a max-min node pair selection scheme to enhance both the sum rate and the outage probability. Simulation results demonstrate that all our proposed node pair selection schemes can increase the sum rate but also while also reducing the outage probability compared to the scheme with random node pair selection.
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  • Chungang YANG, Jiandong LI
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Wireless Communication Technologies
    2013 Volume E96.B Issue 6 Pages 1511-1521
    Published: June 01, 2013
    Released: June 01, 2013
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    Dynamic spectrum leasing (DSL) is regarded as a promising dynamic spectrum sharing (DSS) scheme both to improve the spectrum revenue of primary users (PUs) and to guarantee the QoS of secondary users (SUs). A pricing-based DSL termed PBDSL is formulated as a Stackelberg DSL game model, where PUs as players entering the interacting game with multiple SUs. The strategic design contains both optimal spectrum pricing schemes (including unit spectrum/interference price and interference sensitivity distributed adjustments) of PUs for the specific shared/leased spectrum and optimal transmission strategies (e.g., transmit power and bandwidth) of SUs. To capture two types of competition relationships among multiple SUs and between SUs and PUs, we investigate two intra-game models of multiple PUs and SUs, respectively, which interact with each other to constitute the final Stackelberg DSL game. The existence and uniqueness of Stackelberg equilibrium solution (SES) are analyzed and proved for presented games, based on which a joint multi-stage PBDSL algorithm is presented to approximate the optimal equilibrium strategies. Numerical results demonstrate the convergence property of the interactive decision-making process, and verify the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm, in a comparison with the Nash equilibrium solution (NES)-based approach.
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  • Truc Thanh TRAN, Alagan S. ANPALAGAN, Hyung Yun KONG
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Wireless Communication Technologies
    2013 Volume E96.B Issue 6 Pages 1522-1530
    Published: June 01, 2013
    Released: June 01, 2013
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    In this article, we propose a method to reduce the impact of primary traffic on spectrum sensing performance. In practice, the sensing performance is degraded by noise-only sample in the spectrum sensing time. Therefore, we employ a time of primary user (PU) signal arrival detector in order to remove the noise-only portion. Then, we employ equal-weight-based energy detection (EWED) to provide the detection decision. The analysis and simulation results show that there exists an optimal early time of arrival (ToA) false alarm which provides better performance compared to the use of a single EWED scheme.
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  • Rouhollah AGHAJANI, Reza SAADAT, Mohammad Reza AREF
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Wireless Communication Technologies
    2013 Volume E96.B Issue 6 Pages 1531-1539
    Published: June 01, 2013
    Released: June 01, 2013
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    The focus of this study is the performance of the relaying network with incremental selective decode-and-forward (ISDF) protocol in non-selective slow Nakagami-m fading channels. To enhance bandwidth efficiency, when the direct transmission is not successful the relay is used to retransmit a clean copy of the source signal. The proposed protocol achieves a significant reduction in the power consumption and an improvement in performance compared to the fixed decode-and-forward (DF). The exact symbol error rate (SER) of M-PSK modulation for the ISDF protocol over general fading channels is derived. However, as the exact SER analysis is very complicated, we provide an approximated SER expression. Based on this approximation, we provide an optimum power allocation coefficient where the aggregate transmit power constraint is imposed on the source and the relay. Our results show that at least 50% of total power must be used by the direct link, and the remaining may be used by the relay. Furthermore, power allocation in this protocol is independent of the quality of the source-destination channel and modulation constellation size. Numerical results show that the ISDF protocol can reduce the average transmit power with respect to the fixed DF protocol.
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  • Tomoya OHTA, Satoshi DENNO, Masahiro MORIKURA
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Wireless Communication Technologies
    2013 Volume E96.B Issue 6 Pages 1540-1550
    Published: June 01, 2013
    Released: June 01, 2013
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    This paper proposes a reduced-complexity multiband multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) receiver that can be used in cognitive radios. The proposed receiver uses heterodyne reception implemented with a wide-passband band-pass filter in the radio frequency (RF) stage. When an RF Hilbert transformer is utilized in the receiver, image-band interference occurs because of the transformer's imperfections. Thus, the imperfection of the Hilbert transformer is corrected in the intermediate frequency (IF) stage to reduce the hardware complexity. First, the proposed receiver estimates the channel impulse response in the presence of the strong image-band interference signals. Next, the coefficients are calculated for the correction of the imperfection at the IF stage, and are fed back to the IF stage through a feedback loop. However, the imperfection caused by the digital-to-analog (D/A) converter and the baseband amplifier in the feedback loop corrupts the coefficients on the way back to the IF stage. Therefore, the proposed receiver corrects the imperfection of the analog devices in the feedback loop. The performance of the proposed receiver is verified by using computer simulations. The proposed receiver can maintain its performance even in the presence of strong image-band interference signals and imperfection of the analog devices in the feedback loop. In addition, this paper also reveals the condition for rapid convergence.
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  • Fang WANG, Yong LI, Zhaocheng WANG, Zhixing YANG
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Wireless Communication Technologies
    2013 Volume E96.B Issue 6 Pages 1551-1558
    Published: June 01, 2013
    Released: June 01, 2013
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    There has been an explosion in wireless devices and mobile data traffic, and cellular network alone is unable to support such fast growing demand on data transmission. Therefore, it is reasonable to add another network to the cellular network to augment the capacity. In fact, the dilemma of cellular network is mainly caused by that the same content is repeatedly transmitted in the network, since many people are interested in the same content. A broadcast network, however, could mitigate this problem and save wireless bandwidth by delivering popular content to multiple clients simultaneously. This paper presents a content dissemination system that combines broadcast and cellular networks. Using the model of Markov Decision Process (MDP), we propose an online optimal scheme to maximize the expected number of clients receiving their interested content, which takes clients' interests and queuing length at broadcast and cellular base stations into full consideration. Simulations demonstrate that the proposed scheme effectively decreases item drop rate at base stations and enhances the average number of clients who receive their interested content.
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  • Linfeng LIANG, Jun WANG, Jian SONG
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Terrestrial Wireless Communication/Broadcasting Technologies
    2013 Volume E96.B Issue 6 Pages 1559-1565
    Published: June 01, 2013
    Released: June 01, 2013
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    An improved spectrum sensing method based on PN autocorrelation (PNAC) for Digital Terrestrial Television Multimedia Broadcasting (DTMB) system is proposed in this paper. The low bound of miss-detection probability and the decision threshold for a given false alarm probability are studied. The performances of proposed method and existing methods are compared through computer simulations under both non-time dispersive channel and time dispersive channel. Simulation results show that the proposed method has better performance than the original PNAC-based method, and is more robust to both carrier frequency offset (CFO) and time dispersion of the channel than the existing method based on PN cross-correlation (PNCC).
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  • Hailan PENG, Takeo FUJII
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Terrestrial Wireless Communication/Broadcasting Technologies
    2013 Volume E96.B Issue 6 Pages 1566-1576
    Published: June 01, 2013
    Released: June 01, 2013
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    In this paper, we consider a multi-cell cognitive radio network (CRN), which overlays a multi-cell primary network. To manage the coexistence, a primary-willingness based coexistent architecture and a novel intra-cell spectrum overlay and inter-cell spectrum underlay sharing method are proposed. In the system, primary base stations will broadcast pilot signals and interference margins to assist the CRN for interference channel evaluation and power control. Subject to the interference margins imposed by the primary network, we define a utility (payoff) function that can represent the secondary system performance while taking into account the co-channel interference among secondary cells. A distributed resource allocation scheme is devised to guarantee the primary performance, and at the same time, maximize the secondary utility without any cooperation among cognitive base stations (CBS). Quality of Service among users is also considered by the scheme such that the instantaneous data rate for each secondary user is larger than a given minimum rate. The resource allocation problem can be decomposed into two subproblems: subchannel allocation and distributed power allocation game (DPAG). We prove that there exists a Nash equilibrium in the DPAG and the equilibrium is unique. Moreover, the DPAG is also Pareto optimal in some constrained environments, that is, no CBS can further improve its performance without impairing others. The proposed algorithm turns out to converge to an equilibrium within a small number of iterations.
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  • Abolfazl MEHBODNIYA, Sonia AÏSSA, Fumiyuki ADACHI
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Terrestrial Wireless Communication/Broadcasting Technologies
    2013 Volume E96.B Issue 6 Pages 1577-1587
    Published: June 01, 2013
    Released: June 01, 2013
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    Wireless personal area networks (WPANs) will play an important role in next-generation communication networks. Currently, two technologies are being considered for the physical layer of WPANs, based on the two ultra wideband (UWB) standards, namely, multiband orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (MB-OFDM) UWB and direct-sequence (DS) UWB. The coexistence issue of these two types of WPANs in the same coverage area, raises new issues and introduces new problems which should be dealt with to avoid performance degradation. In particular, efficient radio resource management (RRM) in such environments is challenging. Indeed, the coexistence of heterogenous UWB based WPANs (UPANs) has an ad hoc nature, which requires RRM approaches that are different from traditional infrastructure-based ones. In this paper, we propose new algorithms for two RRM modules in heterogeneous UPANs, namely, radio access technology (RAT) selection and vertical handoff (VHO). To improve the overall performance of the system, our design considers possible narrowband interference (NBI) in the environment as well as the link outage probability, in the decision process. We also provide an analytical model based on a 4D Markov process to study the system in equilibrium and derive the performance metrics, namely, the new-call and handoff-call blocking probabilities, throughput and average carried traffic. Numerical results and comparisons show that our design achieves enhanced performance in terms of throughput and grade of service (GoS).
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  • Suyue LI, Jian XIONG, Peng CHENG, Lin GUI, Youyun XU
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Terrestrial Wireless Communication/Broadcasting Technologies
    2013 Volume E96.B Issue 6 Pages 1588-1596
    Published: June 01, 2013
    Released: June 01, 2013
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    One major challenge to implement orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) systems over doubly selective channels is the non-negligible intercarrier interference (ICI), which significantly degrades the system performance. Existing solutions to cope with ICI include zero-forcing (ZF), minimum mean square error (MMSE) and other linear or nonlinear equalization methods. However, these schemes fail to achieve a satisfactory tradeoff between performance and computational complexity. To address this problem, in this paper we propose two novel nonlinear ICI cancellation techniques, which are referred to as parallel interference cancelation (PIC) and hybrid interference cancelation (HIC). Taking advantage of the special structure of basis expansion model (BEM) based channel matrices, our proposed schemes enjoy low computational complexity and are capable of cancelling ICI effectively. Moreover, since the proposed schemes can flexibly select different basis functions and be independent of the channel statistics, they are applicable to practical OFDM based systems such as DVB-T2 over doubly selective channels. Theoretical analysis and simulation results both confirm their performance-complexity advantages in comparison with some existing methods.
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  • Peng HAN, Hua TIAN, Zhensong ZHANG, Wei XIE
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Terrestrial Wireless Communication/Broadcasting Technologies
    2013 Volume E96.B Issue 6 Pages 1597-1604
    Published: June 01, 2013
    Released: June 01, 2013
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    A wireless emergency communication network with a fixed allocation of spectrum resources cannot meet the tremendous demand for spectrum access when a crisis occurs. It is necessary to develop an effective spectrum access scheme to improve the performance of emergency communication systems. In this paper, we study a new emergency communication system combines cognitive radio technology and an emergency communication network. Emergency users can utility resources in a general network when traffic becomes congested in an emergency network. Non-reciprocal spectrum access scheme (NRA) and reciprocal spectrum access scheme (RA) for two heterogeneous cognitive networks, namely emergency network and general network are proposed to compare with traditional spectrum access scheme (TA). User behavior with each scheme is modeled by continuous-time Markov chains. Moreover, the blocking and dropping probabilities of users in two heterogeneous cognitive networks are derived as the performance metrics. In addition, the throughput and the spectrum utilization rate of the system are evaluated. Finally, we compare the performance of three dynamic spectrum access schemes. The simulation results show that the RA scheme is an effective scheme to enhance the performance of emergency systems.
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  • Isameldin Mohammed SULIMAN, Janne J. LEHTOMÄKI, Kenta UMEBAYASHI, ...
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Terrestrial Wireless Communication/Broadcasting Technologies
    2013 Volume E96.B Issue 6 Pages 1605-1615
    Published: June 01, 2013
    Released: June 01, 2013
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    It is well known that cognitive radio (CR) techniques have great potential for supporting future demands on the scarce radio spectrum resources. For example, by enabling the utilization of spectrum bands temporarily not utilized by primary users (PUs) licensed to operate on those bands. Spectrum sensing is a well-known CR technique for detecting those unutilized bands. However, the spectrum sensing outcomes cannot be perfect and there will always be some misdetections and false alarms which will affect the performance thereby degrading the quality of service (QoS) of PUs. Continuous time Markov chain (CTMC) based modeling has been widely used in the literature to evaluate the performance of CR networks (CRNs). A major limitation of the available literature is that all the key factors and realistic elements such as the effect of imperfect sensing and state dependent transition rates are not modeled in a single work. In this paper, we present a CTMC based model for analyzing the performance of CRNs. The proposed model differs from the existing models by accurately incorporating key elements such as full state dependent transition rates, multi-channel support, handoff capability, and imperfect sensing. We derive formulas for primary termination probability, secondary success probability, secondary blocking probability, secondary forced termination probability, and radio resource utilization. The results show that incorporating fully state dependent transition rates in the CTMC can significantly improve analysis accuracy, thus achieving more realistic and accurate analytical model. The results from extensive Monte Carlo simulations confirm the validity of our proposed model.
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  • Heejung YU, Eui-Rim JEONG
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Terrestrial Wireless Communication/Broadcasting Technologies
    2013 Volume E96.B Issue 6 Pages 1616-1624
    Published: June 01, 2013
    Released: June 01, 2013
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    Cognitive beamforming exploiting spatial opportunity is an attractive technique for secondary users to coexist with primary users in cognitive radio environments. If perfect channel state information of the interfering link is available, interference from a secondary transmitter to a primary receiver can be perfectly pre-nulled by choosing the ideal transmit beam. In practice, however, there is channel estimation error due to noise and the time-varying channels. To minimize the residual interference due to those channel estimation errors, channel prediction based on auto regressive (AR) model is introduced in this paper. Further, to cope with extremely rapidly-varying channels, a cognitive transmit power control technique is proposed as well. By combining channel prediction and transmit power control in cognitive beamforming, the cognitive users can share the spectrum with the primary users with a limited interference level in time-varying channels.
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  • Jian CUI, Nobuyoshi KOUGUCHI
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Sensing
    2013 Volume E96.B Issue 6 Pages 1625-1632
    Published: June 01, 2013
    Released: June 01, 2013
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    This paper presents a bistatic remote sensing system to efficiently estimate the characteristics of sea swell near a harbor by receiving and processing global navigation satellite system signals transmitted in line-of-sight channels and fading multipath channels. The new system is designed to measure and monitor sea swell to improve the safety of mooring and navigation services in or around harbors, and long-term measurement also will provide valuable hydrologic data for harbor construction or reconstruction. The system uses two sets of antennas. One is a conventional antenna to receive line-of-sight signal and mitigate the disturbances from multiple propagation paths, and the other is a left hand circular polarization arrayed antenna to receive reflected signals from sea-surface. In particular, a wide bandwidth RF/IF front-end is designed to process reflected signals with high sampling frequency. A software receiver is developed to provide information from satellites and line-of-sight signals, and a wave characteristic estimator is also developed to process reflected signals. More specifically, correlators and Teager-Kaiser energy operator are combined to detect and depict reflected signals. Wave propagation of sea swell can be accurately mapped using intensity and relative time delays of reflected signals. The operational performance of the remote sensing system was also evaluated by numerical simulations. The results confirm that wavelength and wave period can be measured precisely by the proposed bistatic ocean wave remote sensing system.
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  • Jun LIU, Yu ZHANG, Jian SONG
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Multimedia Systems for Communications
    2013 Volume E96.B Issue 6 Pages 1633-1642
    Published: June 01, 2013
    Released: June 01, 2013
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    This paper analyzes the conventional unequal erasure protection (UXP) scheme for scalable video transmission, and proposes a dynamic hybrid UXP/ARQ transmission framework to improve the performance of the conventional UXP method for bandwidth-constrained scalable video transmission. This framework applies automatic retransmission request (ARQ) to the conventional UXP scheme for scalable video transmission, and dynamically adjusts the transmission time budget of each group of picture (GOP) according to the feedback about the transmission results of the current and previous GOPs from the receiver. Moreover, the parameter of target video quality is introduced and optimized to adapt to the channel condition in pursuit of more efficient dynamic time allocation. In addition, considering the play-out deadline constraint, the time schedule for the proposed scalable video transmission system is presented. Simulation results show that compared with the conventional UXP scheme and its enhanced method, the average peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR) of the reconstructed video can be improved significantly over a wide range of packet loss rates. Besides, the visual quality fluctuation among the GOPs can be reduced for the video which has much movement change.
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  • Sang-Dong KIM, Jong-Hun LEE
    Type: LETTER
    Subject area: Wireless Communication Technologies
    2013 Volume E96.B Issue 6 Pages 1643-1646
    Published: June 01, 2013
    Released: June 01, 2013
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    We propose a new fine Doppler frequency estimator using two fast Fourier transform (FFT) samples for pulse Doppler radar that offers highly sensitive detection and a high resolution of velocity. The procedure of fine Doppler frequency estimation is completed through coarse frequency estimation (CFE) and fine frequency estimation (FFE) steps. During the CFE step, the integer part of the Doppler frequency is obtained by processing the FFT, after which, during the FFE step, the fractional part is estimated using the relationship between the FFT peak and its nearest resultant value. Our simulation results show that the proposed estimator has better accuracy than Candan's estimator in terms of bias. The root mean square error (RMSE) of the proposed estimator has more than 1.4 time better accuracy than Candan's estimator under a 1,024-point FFT and a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of 10dB. In addition, when the FFT size is increased from 512 to 2,048, the RMSE characteristics of the proposed estimator improve by more than two-fold.
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