To evaluate feasibility of the gas-phase formation of glycine in dense interstellar clouds from formic acid, methylenimine and related cations, main stationary points for the reactions HN＝CH2 + HCOOH → H2N―CH2―COOH, HN+CH + HCOOH → HN+―CH2―COOH and H2N+＝CH2 + HCOOH → H2N+―CH2―COOH have been computed at the B3LYP/6-31++G(d,p) level of theory. Although all the reactions are exothermic, they are prohibited due to the presence of transition states with positive relative energies of ＞40 kcal mol-1 and the possibility of competitive formation of side products.
Genetic codes were found to have emerged as semeiotic culture of hierarchical tRNA-riboorganismic society in early intracellular micro-environment (“semeiotic culture theory” or “poly-tRNA theory” on the origin of genetic codes). Well-made biomachines such as bee super-organism (＝ bee eusociety consisting of queens and workers), animal body (＝ super-organism consisting of germ-line and somatic-line unicell diploid animals), and genetic apparatus were found to have evolved by neural-network-like machinogenesis via queen-worker-like hierarchical sociogenesis. Every of these socio-machinogenesis depends on the society's own specific semeiotic system which is considered to be the society's “semeiotic culture”. Origins and evolution of cognitive and autopoietic characters of various biosytems were discussed, with special emphases on intracellular riboorganismic societies (RNA societies), multi-cellular societies (＝ multicellular animal body), and multi-individual iso-species society (＝ interbreeding population or “specia”), as well as on various semeiotic culture systems including genetic codes, bee-dance language, hormones (in multi-cellular society ＝ animal body, etc.) and pheromones (in “specia”), and primate language systems. We have reached a new concept that every life is, most plausibly, some kind of autopoietic (self-improving) cognitive system, which can well explain “why organisms behave and evolve ‘actively” or ‘autopoietically’ Lamarck's “use-disuse phenomenon” was found to be elegantly explained by active selection of gene-sets derived from the previous generation's germ-line (queen)-cells by somatic worker-cells of the present generation. A new finding of the roles of germ-line and somatic cells was made, i.e., somatic cells play in “active gene-selection”, whereas germ-line cells in “gene-transmission to the next generation. 20th century's biology was wrong in the interpretation of Lamarckian use-disuse theory. Discussions were made towards establishing “Unified Theory on the origins and evolution of general bio-systems”.