To structure care managers' approaches (upright) to and awareness (oblique) of nutritional improvement for care-dependent older people, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 12 care managers in Japan. Concerning nutritional improvement for care-dependent older people, the care managers, managing older people with [mental and physical dysfunctions due to a decline in the nutritional status] and consequently [realizing the association between their nutritional status and mental and physical functions] developed dilemmas, while perceiving [distress due to problems care managers cannot resolve alone] as a result of [insufficient nutrition education through care manager training]. Although they perceived [distress due to problems care managers cannot resolve alone], they continued to adopt approaches, such as [devising measures for nutritional management from the perspective of a care manager] and [assessing nutritional status based on the living conditions and body weight]. However, the results also revealed their dilemmas due to [difficulty in accurately assessing nutritional status], suggesting [the importance of performing nutritional management through collaboration with other professionals and services].
The purpose of this study was to verify the cross-validity of the "self-care scale for dysmenorrhea in young females" that we developed, to clarify the causal relationship between snacking and each of the factors with menstrual pain from the results of a multiple regression analysis of the related factors survey in the previous study (Yamamoto, 2019). The study participants were 1,000 young females who had menstrual pain and participated in this study, and 300 young females who had menstrual pain and participated in the related factors survey. Assuming that the two participant populations had the same factor structure, we performed a simultaneous multi-population analysis. Based on the multiple regression analysis of the previous study (Yamamoto, 2019), we set up a hypothesis for the causal relationship between snacking and each scale factor with menstrual pain, and then clarified the relationship using a path analysis. The results of our multi-population analysis revealed that the factor structure of the main survey and the related factors survey were equivalent, and that the self-care scale for menstrual pain could accurately measure six structural concepts even in different populations. When they ate more snacks, the 1st factor "perception of self-efficacy" decreased, which led to the 5th factor "expected level of burden needed to improve menstrual pain". It also led to the 4th factor "self-care using medicine". The more menstrual pain they had, the less of the 4th factor "self-care using medicine" they performed. It was demonstrated that the self-care scale for menstrual pain had cross-validity. The relationship between snacking and each factor with menstrual pain became clear.
This study aimed to review the literature related to elderly men after spousal bereavement in Japan, to clarify the characteristics of grief and trends in life, and to gain insights into the support system and future research issues. Of 13 studies found, two were qualitative and 11 quantitative. Eight studies were conducted on general elderly adults, with a few results focusing on the grief work itself of elderly men at home. Elderly men after spousal bereavement tended to be unable to continue “interacting with neighbors and relatives” as they did before the death of their wives. Together with the “human relations of friends and others made before the death of their wives,” the way of involvement in maintaining these was through a support perspective. In addition, the elderly men desired more support for their “current situation” than “bereavement-related situations,” and their view of support was characterized by the “examination of timing” and “selection of contents” of specific support for solving real-life problems. Elderly men who had provided nursing care before bereavement had a high feeling of emptiness owing to the loss of their career role. As such, the main issues were pre-bereavement support and continuous support after bereavement. No research had focused on the stressors of spousal death, dementia, strength of family and community, and evaluation of support; as such, these areas merit future research.
In Japan, the number of visually impaired persons who develop at the middle of life is increasing because of super-ageing society. They tend to be have psychological stress, and thus decrease their health-related Quality of Life (HRQOL). In this situation, although the role of nurses is extremely important, system of nursing care against adventitious visually impaired patients is not established sufficiently. In this study, we aim to disclose the actual situation of health anxiety of the adventitious visually impaired persons in daily life and the current status and issues of acceptance systems at medical institutions. A semi-structured interview with five patients living in a community revealed that there were many characteristic psychological stresses caused by the health anxiety mainly based on psychological aspect. In addition, it was also found that the lack of patient acceptance system of medical institutions, including the lack of care of medical staff caused mental stress of patients. This study reveals a wide variety of health anxiety factors are exist with adventitious blindness and low vision patients in daily life. This information provides a lot of insights towards to examine in detail the nursing care system needed to improve HRQOL for them.
Although disability awareness program is implemented in the medical, welfare, and education fields, the effectiveness of disability awareness programs has not been clarified. If a disability awareness program outcome evaluation scale that can be used across fields is developed, it is possible to quantitatively clearly indicate what program content was implemented and what effect was obtained. This study verifies the content validity in order to develop the Disability Awareness Program (DAP) scale. In this study, in order to develop the DAP scale; Prepared a scale (draft) and construction concepts was examined by experts and students (the Content Validity Verification). As a result, a scale of 3 areas and 15 items was developed. The scale consists of three areas: “Awareness of basic human rights ”, “Awareness of disability”, and “Awareness of diversity” and the items include the elements of “Disability Rights Convention”, “the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health”, and “diversity”.
Background: An increasing number of clients with special health care needs receive long-term mechanical ventilatory support at home. This study presents the types of care given to old-aged clients with special health care needs in a Japanese ‘Kantaki ’ home-care institution.
Methods: The care given was followed closely using 24-hour audio-video recording.
Results: The type of care given by the nurse alone was mostly medical care, by the care-worker alone was assistance in eating, toilet, and medical care, and the care given by both together was bathing.
Conclusion: Findings are first direct evidence quantifying the type and respective amounts in such a care home for the old-aged persons with special health care needs.
Conditions supporting the acquisition of verbs by children with Down syndrome were investigated from early childhood to lower grades of elementary school. Moreover, correlations between verb acquisition and parents’ approaches to their children were analyzed. Participants were parents having children with Down syndrome that had acquired meaningful words (n=27). The “words and grammar” version of the Japanese MacArthur Bates Communicative Development Inventories (JCDls) was administered to examine the parents’ involvement. The results indicated that when the total number of expressed vocabularies exceeded 200, the rate of acquiring verbs increased even in children with Down syndrome, which indicated that “200 words” was an important criterion. Moreover, results suggested that reading and writing letters and numbers as well as teaching children the polite use of language used by parents supported verb acquisition by children with Down syndrome.
This study investigated the difference of experiences between reflecting process (RP) and conventional case conference. The subjects were 20 graduate students who were novice counsellors. All of the subjects were divided into two groups, high session management self-efficacy and low session management self-efficacy. Before and after RP, the transition of the self-efficacy was examined. The results showed that RP got higher score than conventional case conference in such items as “I was able to express my opinions properly,” “I was able to listen properly to the opinions of other participants.” RP also marked higher than usual case conference in some categories; considerations from multilateral perspective and unexpected ideas. However, although the group of low session management self-efficacy increased the self-efficacy after RP, the group of high session management self-efficacy did not show the change of self-efficacy. These results suggested the effectiveness of conducting RP in considering purposes and according to development stage of graduate students.
Japan is transforming into a super-aging society and the medical need for in-home care is rising. Nursing students have to deal with a wide range of diseases, degeneration and circumstances in such a situation. This study aimed to identify difficulties faced by home health nursing practicum instructors in order to gain an insight for effective learning. Quantitative research by questionnaire was conducted, and a total of 387 questionnaires were sent to managers, clinical instructors, and home health nurses at all 129 facilities in the southern Kanto region of Japan. As a result, 78 valid responses were obtained out of 89 responses (valid response rate 20.16%). The participants with 0 to 6 years of home health nursing experience were concerned that the practicum time was too short to provide adequate instruction and that students under their instruction might not be meeting practicum goals. The participants with 6 to 20 year experience stated that students do not know how to behave appropriately during home visits, students do not know specifically what they want to learn. The participants with ≥15 year experience felt they are unsure how to integrate students’ different motivations for learning. Focusing with participants’ nursing experience, the respondents with 5 to 15 years of nursing experience did not feel that they concern about leading a practicum, and the respondents with ≥15 year of nursing experience felt that students did not go specifically what they want to learn. To conclude, it was found important that lecture contents should be revised to help students first visualize what home visits look like and second, make assessments and provide care based on case details within the allotted time. What is more, faculty members must not make instructors solely responsible for students’ learning, but rather maintain close contact with instructors for effective on-site instruction.
The use of ICT is said to be an effective learning support tool for children with disabilities. In addition, though the learning styles of individual are different and vary among individuals, these differences are considered important because of their influence on the academic achievement of individuals (Baderaddin, 2015). Lessons using ICT are said to be effective for any learning method. However, in Japan, it has been found that there are issues with improving reading comprehension and ICT utilization, including that “In the field of school education, the number of local governments and schools that are introducing tablet PCs is gradually increasing, but compared to other countries, the current situation in Japan is that the utilization of ICT is progressing slowly.” (Ogawa, 2017)
This study implemented the teaching method of UDL using ICT in the classroom and verified whether it was effective as an inclusive learning teaching method. According to student’s evaluation of the lessons by questionnaire, results showed that UDL classes are effective for them. Particularly on questionnaire items ②Overall satisfaction, ③I want to recommend it to other students, ④ I understood contents of the lesson well, ⑥ English knowledge improved compared to before (until last year), ⑦Class difficulty is appropriate, ⑧Class pace is appropriate, ⑨ the voice is clear and easy to hear, ⑩ the letters on the sheet are easy to read, and ⑫ Materials ( textbook, workbook, PC only ) are appropriate, 100% of responses were positive.
As a result, it was found that UDL-style lessons utilizing ICT are effective for students with special needs and various ways of learning.