The Long-term Care Insurance programs Korea were implemented in July 2008 and Japan in April 2000. Though the Korean LTCI has been influenced by the Japanese LTCI, they have dissimilar as well as similar features. The most noticeable difference between the Korean LTCI and the Japanese LTCI is that the former does not have care managers who can perform case management for care users unlike the latter. The Japanese LTCI care managers, however, are hired by care providers. Therefore, care managers may not work for care users’ best interests when the interests of care providers conflict with the interests of care users. Poor working conditions such as low benefits and wages, job instability, and heavy workload have led to quality problems in both programs. Thus, measures to improve working conditions of care workers need to be implemented.
In this paper, Self-sufficiency project reformation plan which responds to social economic condition changes was examined. Reform plans of Self-sufficiency project based on policy change. The suggested plans are improving the system in microscopic level, reinforcing the association with labour market policy, expanding work first strategy, building self-sufficiency support system in the local government, changing the roles of local self-sufficiency centre and changing government support policy. In the microscopic level of reform suggested the changes in operation method of self-sufficiency programs such as diversifying the goals of Self-sufficiency project, moving toward desire based wage system, changes in the roles of the local self-sufficiency centre, diversifying self-sufficiency providing agency and result based contract system etc. New Self-sufficiency project needs to equip with personalized self-sufficiency support route for Self-sufficiency project objects from the socially vulnerable class.
In 1995, ‘The Beijing Women's Conference’ agreed to assess the situation of women's policy in each country. And that agreement should be the promotion of the gender analysis of policies in terms of the emergence of the important issue. This approach to mainstreaming of women and women's issue was going to be important for Women's Policy in Korea. Indicators of women's policy development and evaluation, the quality of life for women and the ability of women to achieve equality have been developed.Gender Impact Analysis Assessment１) (GIAA) is not only for a women's policy. GIAA is applicable to all government policies. All government policies considered as a neutral policy could be included in GIAA. A similar concept of GIAA is as follows: gender analysis, gender sensitive analysis, and gender-based analysis, etc.The purpose of this paper is to examine the status of GIAA system and present alternatives for the development of system.
Exercise training improves the walking ability and health-related quality of life(HRQOL) in peripheral arterial disease (PAD) with intermittent claudication. However, there is no report about the effects of exercise in PAD patients who had moderate to severe severity. In this study, we evaluated the effect of exercise training on walking ability and HRQOL in patients with moderate to severe peripheral arterial disease.10 patients of moderate to severe severity (5 patients : restenosis after angioplasty or bypass surgery, 5 patients : did not indicate surgical therapies) were performed a 12-week supervised exercise program with treadmill. Pain-free walking distance (PWD) and maximum walking distance (MWD) were assessed as walking ability and HRQOL at baseline and after 3 months. The HRQOL was assessed with the walking impairment questionnaire (WIQ) and 36-item Short-Form (SF-36).Exercise training significantly improved PWD and MWD. In the HRQOL, physical functioning and vitality scores of SF-36 and distance and speed scores of WIQ significantly improved. In the eight SF-36 subscales, role physical and bodily pain scores correlated with PWD after 3 months. Physical functioning score was negatively correlated with MWD after 3 months. In the four WIQ scales, all of the subscale score were correlated with PWD and MWD at baseline. Especially, stair score was correlated with MWD at baseline and after 3 months.Exercise improves the walking ability and HRQOL in the patients with moderate to severe PAD who are unsuitable for revascularization. But all of the four WIQ scales were only correlated at baseline except the stair climbing, so subjective assessment of patients may not correspond to objective walking ability after exercise training.
This study aimed to explore the possibility of the use of HRQOL to evaluate the outcome of education for the students with health impairments by analyzing the contents of class(educational response) on independent activities based on the Report on the Education for the Children with health impairments in the Special Support Education in Okinawa prefecture in Japan. In results of analyzing the educational response on independent activities based on the report by using HRQOL, the most of the outcome evaluations of educational response have not been carried out with objective indicators; in results of analyzing the correlations between six scopes among those of the class of independent activities and eight scopes of HRQOL(SF-36), it was found that the seven scopes of HRQOL except the scope of bodily pain among the eight scopes were correlated with the scopes of the class of independent activities. Based on these results, the conclusions have been drawn that the objective indicator to evaluate educational outcome from the education for the children with health impairments needs to be developed and the perspectives and components of HRQOL need to be utilized to develop the evaluation scale as an objective indicator.
Whether to have a job is a significant factor for persons with disabilities to affect their quality of life(hereinafter QOL). In South Korea, QOL, however, has been hardly considered in the planning of the employment promotion system for persons with disabilities. Therefore, this study suggests the tasks to plan the employment promotion system for persons with disabilities from the perspective of the improvement of QOL of persons with disabilities by analyzing the employment promotion system for persons with disabilities that has been designed based on the Act on Employment Promotion and Vocational Rehabilitation for Disabled Persons.In results of analyzing the employment promotion system for persons with disabilities with WHOQOL, it was found that, while the domains of level of independence(domain 3), social relationship(domain 4) and environment(domain 5) were considered for the system, physical health(domain 1) psychological aspect(domain2) and spirituality/religion/ personal beliefs(domain 6) were not considered at all. Therefore, to re-plan the employment promotion system for persons with disabilities from the perspective of the improvement of QOL of persons with disabilities, the Act on Employment Promotion and Vocational Rehabilitation for Disabled Persons needs to be amended to include the domains that have not been considered; physical health(domain 1) psychological aspect(domain2) and spirituality/religion/ personal beliefs(domain 6).
According to the recent surveys, it is reported that approximately 40% among children registered at children's self-reliance support facilities have developmental disorders. Especially, children with AD/HD attract attention of people. Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare mentioned that the ratio of children with developmental disorders in those facilities was 42.6%. In this questionnaire survey, it was found that many dormitory staffs felt difficulties on teachings and supports for children with AD/HD, and also they felt difficulties on dealing with their various behavioral problems which were secondary induced from characteristics of AD/HD. In future, the dormitory staffs at those facilities will be required higher specialty about the education of children with developmental disorders. In addition, special support plans for children with developmental disorders should be made individually, side by side with existing self-reliance support plans, and also the dormitory staffs should cooperate with the coordinators who are posted at the branch schools for enhancement of special needs education.
We aimed to investigate the actual state on children’s self-determination behavior in Japan, China, and South Korea. A questionnaire survey was given to 4th, 6th, and 8th grade students and their guardians (649 children and 683 guardians in Japan, 795 children and 911 guardians in China, and 756 children and 596 guardians in South Korea). Five factors of self-determination behaviors for guardians and children were extracted by factor analysis: daily routine, time management, types of activities, unusual occasion, and career choice for guardians; and daily routine, time management, career choice, unusual occasion, and play for children. An analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed that guardians from all three countries, except area of career choice, were aware that their children should have more self-determination as they become junior high students, and Japanese guardians were generally more aware than South Korean and Chinese guardians. Furthermore, for children, the results of the frequency of self-determination were the same in Japan and China; i.e., the frequency increased as the children became older, but this increase was not notable in South Korea. A comparison of the three countries showed that children in Japan had a higher awareness of self-determination than children in China and South Korea.
The purpose of this study is to reveal the factors that affect the mental health of teachers involved in special needs education. From the mental health check analysis results of teachers who engaged in special needs education and doesn't have the special needs education license, it was revealed that a group of teachers working temporary time or part time would take the escape coping behavior compared to teachers of regular business. In addition, the faculty of the remote island teachers are not able to feel as those on main island, the fact that there is knowledge and prowess to yourself like other people has suggested. Also, a group of teachers on the remote island is not working well is position coping behavior than those on the main island, like QOL in the physical area of sleep, rest and daily life high was revealed.
In this study, among the aspects of physical disabilities, the actual condition of visceral impairment that lies therein will be explored. Visceral impairment is divided into cardiac disorder, renal disorder, respiratory disorder, bladder or rectal disorder, small-intestine disorder, immunological disorder by HIV, and hepatic disorder.Most of the persons with visceral impairment seem to be able to perform ADL by themselves and seem not to have any problem on the surface. It is important for persons with visceral impairment to actively perform ADL not only so that they can retain the ability to perform ADL and prevent the recurrence of diseases but also so that they can inhibit the aggravation of arteriosclerotic diseases.The number of persons with visceral impairment will increase if the number of persons who do not satisfy the statutory criteria even though they have visceral impairment clinically will be added to the number. Also, the number of persons with visceral impairment is expected to increase due to the advent of a super-aged society. As such, visceral impairment is a significant area that rehabilitation-related professionals have to become knowledgeable about among the parts of rehabilitation medicine.
In this article, we reviewed several topics related to the experience of struggle against cancer among Japanese childhood cancer survivors. Several studies on the relationship between this struggle against cancer and negative psychological consequences such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) present the possibility that the subjective intensity of treatment has a strong influence on later mental health. The few studies on the positive consequences of this experience of struggle such as posttraumatic growth and resilience were also reviewed. Posttraumatic growth (PTG) is a new concept according to which people who have experienced trauma apply positive interpretations to and find meaning in the traumatic event. Resilience is the achievement of positive adaptation to the adversity. In Japanese childhood cancer survivors, studies present the possibility that this experience of struggle against cancer can have a positive effect on later mental health. Here again, the subjective intensity of treatment was also important for PTG. In future research, we will try to integrate qualitative study with quantitative study about the experience of the cancer struggle among Japanese childhood cancer survivors.
In this paper, I considered social work support of the early intervention to the families whose members (especially mothers) are the foreign residents in Taiwan.At first I reviewed the researches on this subject in Taiwan. And I could find the importance of the following elements in the social work practices.1 Self-awareness of the social worker himself or herself to the importance of the multi-cultural identities2 Assessment of the interactions of the family members3 Assessment of the disability of the children4 Assessment of the accessibility of the people in needs to the resources and positive out-reach5 Recognition of the importance of the challenge to the social barriers around thefamily Finally, I could recognize that the researchers suggest the social workers should pay attentions not only to the disability of the children but also to family-centered social work approach and empowerment approach to challenge the social barriers. And they also show these approaches should integrate micro, mezo and macro view points.