This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of teaching START (Simple Triage and Rapid Treatment) to nursing students using videos. To this end, we conducted a study from October 1, 2016 to March 31, 2018, instructing nursing students to view a video of 30 simulated cases and to perform triage exercises both before and after START training. Subjects included 57 freshmen and 56 seniors. We calculated the accuracy rate for each case and examined those where students were most likely to make mistakes. We found that after START training, both freshmen and senior students did significantly better on the triage exercises. Before the training, seniors treated an average (± standard error (SE)) of 23.5 ± 0.7 out of 30 patients correctly, while after the training, this number increased to 29.3 ± 0.2 (p < 0.001). For freshmen, the increase was even more drastic, increasing from 17.4 ± 0.6 correct before the training to 29.1 ± 0.3 after (p < 0.001). While freshmen initially answered far fewer questions correctly, after the training, there was no significant difference in the performance of freshmen and seniors: both groups had an overall accuracy rate of 95% or higher. The drastic performance increase even of freshmen with little medical knowledge suggests that this program may even be effective for the general public, making our results relevant for developing better disaster medical care in the future.
Objective: The Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) as a common examination for medical and dental education was used for nursing education to examine its effects to enhance students’ recognition of their learning goals and motivate them to learn before clinical practice. Methods: A self-administered questionnaire survey was conducted immediately after the OSCE. The questionnaire consisted of: goal achievement-related OSCE items; modified ‹attention›, ‹relevance›, ‹confidence›, and ‹satisfaction› as the 4 key components of motivation in the ARCS model developed by John M. Keller; and free descriptions. Results: Among quantified scores from the ARCS model-based scale, those related to ‹satisfaction› were the highest. ‹Satisfaction - the willingness to review› also showed the highest standardizing coefficient in multiple regression analysis (stepwise method) of the items showing a strong correlation with the objective-related OSCE question: [Do you recognize your learning goals?]. The most frequent word contained in free descriptions was ‘tension’, which showed a tendency to co-occur with ‘training’ when examining linguistic networks. Conclusion: ‹Satisfaction - the willingness to review› influenced the effect of the OSCE to motivate students to learn before clinical practice the most markedly. ‘Tension’ was suggested to be a psychological response of students.
Korea's international development cooperation needs collaboration with private organizations to achieve goals such as reduction of poverty in developing countries, support for developing countries and an increase in government's assistance, effectiveness and influence. This study aims to examine PPP strategies for disability-inclusive development cooperation, grasp the current condition of PPP in Korea, and propose a plan for disability-inclusive official development assistance in the utilization of public-private partnership. In terms of official development assistance to promote public-private partnership strategies, the policy implications for disability-inclusive development cooperation are as follows. First, PPP projects shall be supported in a diversified manner, including expanded budget allotment and continuous support for years for disability-inclusive development cooperation. Second, it is necessary to apply the twin-track approach, which is an effective disability-inclusive development method, to selecting PPP projects. Particularly, the disability-inclusive approach needs to be adopted for such projects. Third, it is vital to collaborate with civic organizations and domestic organizations for the disabled to implement PPP projects effectively.
Although Nordic Walking (NW) is a fast growing form of exercise in Europe. This study aimed to determine how a supervised NW exercise program affects basic fitness and examine its application as a sports activity for supporting the health of elderly. Forty participants were randomly assigned to the NW group (NW: 66±4 years old) or the control group (CO: 68±4 years old). Functional measurements included the sit-and-reach test, timed-up and go test (TUG), knee extensor strength assessment, and incremental shuttle walking test (ISWT). Throughout the ISWT, the heart rate (HR) of each subject was monitored. Static balance was measured with a force platform under four test conditions: normal standing, with eyes open and closed, semi-tandem, and tandem standing with eyes open. These measurements were taken before and after the 8-week NW program. The NW group exercised 60–90 min/session, 3 times/wk. Results showed that NW training had positive effects on the TUG test, flexibility, and knee extensor strength (p < 0.05) assessments. In contrast, knee extensor strength was decreased in the CO group throughout the duration of the study (p < 0.05). The NW group walked with significantly lower HRs from level 1 (1.8 km/h) to 5 (4.3 km/h) after training (p < 0.05). However, there was no significant difference in HRs for the CO group during the ISWT. There were no significant changes between the groups in any of the four platform tests. In conclusion, the 8-week NW program either improved or maintained flexibility, leg strength, and cardiorespiratory endurance with no measurable changes in static balance.
The objective of this research is to clarify how nursing care staff perceive the user’s “individuality” based on their shared view in nursing care practices. The survey with paper questionnaire was conducted among 114 nursing care staff who worked at a care giving facility. As a result, 95 (83.3%) commented they had an experience of using the word, “individuality,” 22 (19.3%) commented they provided nursing care with “individuality” all the time, and 68 (59.6%) commented sometimes. In addition, we conducted the self-assessment and others-assessment personality test (BigFive short version) among 12 users who were engaged with all 9 nursing care staff in the same team, and then analyzed with Friedman test. As a result, it was clear that nursing care staff had different user perception on four factors, extroversion, openness, sincerity, and harmonicity, whereas they had a common perception on one factor, emotional unstableness. This indicates that it has high potential of providing consistent emotional care; however, it is also considered that they tend to provide care focusing on emotion.
The aim of the present study was to compare the factor structures of the Korean and Japanese version of the SHAS and analyze the commonalities and differences of the related social, cultural and education in two countries. Both scales were found to have the same four-factor structure, but the included items differed. The correlation coefficient between suicide and unemployment rates in Korea was 0.83, except for during 1998 to 2001, when both rates suddenly increased. Regarding religion in Korea, about 50% of suicide attempters were nonbelievers, about 30% were Christian, and about 20% were Buddhists. The correlation coefficient between the suicide and unemployment rates in Japan, where about 50% of suicide attempters were Shintoists and about 50% were Buddhists, was 0.89. The commonalities observed in the suicidal social and personal backgrounds may be associated with other commonalities between the Self-Harm Antipathy Scale version of Korea and Japan. The differences observed in religion may be associated with the other differences between the Self-Harm Antipathy Scale version of Korea and Japan.
The objective of this study was to clarify the issues related to the establishment of School with Resource Rooms and special needs classes and the specific education curriculum development issues in high schools. For this purpose, using Scale C3, data will be collected from the perspective of career education in high schools, and issues based on data will be clarified. Comparison of self-assessment and teacher-assessment there was a discrepancy in some scores` average scores. There was a large gap in scores between self -assessment and evaluation by others in the scores of "mental and physical health ". In addition, there was a difference between the scores of "Information expression" and "information processing". In the results of the average area score of items in the Scale C3, the categories with a low average area score were "decision-making" (3.48) and "carrier design" (3.53) in the evaluation by teacher-assessment. In this study, there were differences in what teachers and students perceived to be needs. Without a curriculum tailored to the needs of students, no teaching effect or educational results can be expected. The Scale C3 used in this study can be used for education curriculum development in the future, since it is possible to grasp the needs from the perspective of career education.
Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is defined as the ability of the circulatory and respiratory systems to supply oxygen during sustained physical activity and is usually expressed as maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) during maximal exercise testing. There are five major determinants of VO2max: functions of the heart, lung, kidney, muscle, and blood (hemoglobin). Cardiac output, pulmonary diffusion capacity, oxygen-carrying capacity, renal function, and other peripheral limitations like muscle diffusion capacity, mitochondrial enzymes, and capillary density are all examples of VO2max determinants. VO2max, measured by cardiopulmonary exercise testing, provides what is probably the most sensitive assessment of the effect of new therapy on the function of any diseased organ system whose major function is to couple pulmonary gas exchange to cellular respiration. For example, it is important to determine whether new medical, surgical, and rehabilitative procedures can effectively intervene to improve the gas transport capability of a diseased organ system.
Oldest-old adults aged ≥85 years are more vulnerable to frailty, chronic diseases, and disabilities; therefore, concerns about their healthcare are increasing. Prevention of physical and mental disability is a key objective for successful ageing in these adults. We aim to review the literature investigating the importance of exercise in oldest-old adults. Moreover, our major goal is to present the effectiveness of exercise designed to improve physical function in oldest-old adults. An effective exercise protocol for oldest-old adults is characterized by an intervention period of 24 weeks, intervention frequency of 2 or 3 times per week, and intensity of reserve heart rate ranging from 40 to 60%. Although exercise intervention had a uniformly positive impact on physical function, regular physical exercise seemed to be more beneficial in oldest-old adults. Further studies are necessary to investigate the systematic review in physical exercise and oldest-old adults.