Double monsters in chick embryos have been studied by many investigators. However, many of them examined chick embryos only in early stages of development. Komai et al. (1938) published a detailed study on classification of double monsters seen in chick embryos examined in later stages. The author of the present paper examined duplicities of chick embryos found in unselected dead-in-shell eggs of some hatchary houses in Nagoya city from 1961 to 1964. External appearances and skeletal changes were both examined employing alizarin red S staining. The author of the present paper found several new types of double monsters and attempted to classify types of duplicities of the chicken based on his observations.
To observe actions impeding an embryonic growth, mitomycin C was given intravenously to pregnant mice of CF#1 strain once during the period from the 10th to 13th days of gestation, doses tested being 2, 5, 7.5, 10 mg per kg. body weight respectively. Occurence of developmental defects was in high frequency in the offspring of the groups of mothers treated with doses of more than 7.5 mg/kg.b.wt. of mitomycin C. On the other hand, no appreciable number of defects was seen in the young born to mothers which were given less than 5 mg/kg.b.wt. of the agent. Leading anomalies that appeared in the former groups were cleft palates, short tails, wavy ribs, micrognathias and oligodactylias. While a teratogenic force may act first above the threshold dose of the agent, i.e. 7.5 mg, fetal mortality was manifested to be high even at the 5 mg dose and severity of slowing-down effect upon the fetal growth was proportional to doses administered. In the course of pregnancy, on this occasion, the earlier the treatments were made, the higher the fetal mortalities were demonstrated. An increase of the maternal body weight in treated groups was much less as compared with that in the control. From the findings above-mentioned, it is obvious that capacities represented by lethal as well as growth-retarding effects of mitomycin C upon embryos were not always parallel with that by the teratogenic effect.
Primiparous ICR-JCL mice of 13 to 17 weeks of age were given tolbutamide (100mg/kg) by using a gastric tube daily from day 0 to 17 of gestation. The blood sugar level was determined by the modified method of Somogy-Nelson two hours after the administration of the drug on day 10. Blood sample was taken also from some mice in the control group for the test of blood sugar level, while the others were not treated at all. All the mice were autopsied on day 18 and their fetuses were examined for the external malformations as well as the skeletal abnormalities after cleared and stained with alizarin red S. The results may be summarized as follows. 1. No significant differences on the maternal states and the fetal developments were observed between the untreated and the subgroup, whose blood was taken, in the control. 2. The body weight gain and the food intake of the mothers in the tolbutamide group did not differ from the control, while the water intake was significantly reduced in the later half of pregnancy compared with the control. The blood sugar level in the tolbutamide group on day 10 was 88mg/kg, which correponds to the reduced value of 29% in comparison with that in the control. 3. Administration of tolbutamide did not show any developmental disturbance such as lethal, growth suppressing or terarogenic effect on the offspring except a slight decrease in the ossified number of the coccygeal vertrebrae.
1. Mice of dd strain were irradiated by various dosages of X-ray, (50. 100. 200. 300 and 400r) on the 1st day birth, and 100, 200, 300, 400, 500, 600, 700 and 800r, on the 5th day. The brain and somatic development of them were studied both macro-and microscopically as well from the 1st day to the 1st year. Food motor conditioned reflex by olfactory analyser and motor conditioned reflex by thermal analyser were applied to detect processes of differentiation of motor reaction of irradiated mice. 2. When X-ray of more than 200r was irradiated, there were found decrease of the volume of the cerebrum, insufficient development of the occipital region of the cerebral cortex, irregular arrangement of the sulcus, folia and Purkinje cells in the cerebellum. Enlargement of the cavity of the lateral ventricle, serious hydrocephaly, large vacuoles extending from the tectum mesencephali to the cerebellum and brain stem were observed. In those irradiated soon after the 1st day of birth, cellular masses forming rosettes, many heavily stained small droplets and degenerated cells were observed within 3-5 hours in the parietal region of the cerebral cortex, granular layer of the cerebellum and hippocampus. These degenerated cells and small dropelts were gradually disappeared until the 20th day. After the 30th day, venous stagnation and perivascular oedema appeared in all portions of the brain and such findings were seen more than one year. Necrosis of Purkinje cells occured at the beginning of the vascular changes and continued thereafter. 3. By the food motor conditioned reflex by olfactory analyser it was found that the appearanse of the reaction delayed for 4-5 days in mice irradiated more than 200r. 4. By the motor conditioned reflex by thermal analyser it was observed that the appearance of the motor reaction delayed for 4-5 days in mice irradiated more than 200r. 5. The retardation of these developments was not so remarkable compared with those irradiated prenatally.
A rare case of aplasia of the trachea, accompanied with a bronchoesophageal fistula and the well formed but incompletly lobulated lungs is presented with a brief review of similar cases from the literatures. There was not found any particular genetic or environmental factor which might participate in the causation of this abnormal development, Pathogenesis and the surgical treatment of this anomaly were also discussed.
Ectopia cordis (E.c.) is a congenital malformation in which the heart lies partially or totally outside mediastinum. According to Shao-Tsu, 210 cases of E.c. had been reported up to 1957. In Japan, 13 cases of E.c. which include 6 cases of E.c. thoracalis, 5 cases of E.c. thoraco-abdominalis and 2 cases of E.c. abdominalis were found in the literature up to 1963. We added 3 cases of E.c, which is described below. Case 1. Male, B.W. 700 gm. The clinical history of the mother was unknown. heart: 1. E.c. cervicalis 11. Primitive heart with pulmonary atresia. a) Common (single) atrioventricuar arifice. b) Single atrium c) Membran formation of atrium. d)Single inflow tract. e) Single outflow tract. f) Hypoplasia of the pulmonary artery and ductus arteriosus. 111. Single coronary artery. 1V. G-type. Case 2. Male infant, B-W 1670 gm. The clinical history of the mother was unknown.. heart: I. E.c. thoracalis. 11. Riding aorta with pulmonary atresia. a) Atresia of the pulmonic valve. b) Hypoplasis of the pulmonary artery and ductus arteriosus. c) V.S.D. d) Dilatation and hypertrophy of the Right ventricle. e) Adnormal configuration of the C.S.V. 111. Persistent left superior vena cava drainaged into right atrium. a) Dilatation of Coronary sinus. b) Dilatation of right atrium. 1V. A.S.D. V. Partial anomalous pulmonary drainage. VI. Hypertrophy of the endocardium VII. pericarditis. VIII. Bloodcyst of the T.V. and M.V. Case 3. Male, B-W. 680 gm. There was an anencephalic monster on the mother's side. Only polyhydroamnios was known in the clinical history. Heart: I. E.c. thoraco-abdominalis II. Complete transposition of the aorta with mitral atresia. a) Common ventricle b) Hypoplasia of the aorta with fetal coarctation of the aorta. c) A.S.D. and fenestration. d) widely tricuspid valve e) Bicuspid aortic valve. f)Dilatation of right atrium. g) Hypoplasia of the left atrium. III Single coronary artery IV. Abnormal branches of the great vessel. All of the cases were male. They showed the different types of E.c. from each other and were all found to be accompanied with cardiovascular anomalies as above mentioned. Ectopia cordis frequently associated itself with cardiovascular anomalies. In the report of E.c., cardiovascular anomaly is found 52(72%) out of 72 cases discussing the morphology of the heart. The cardiovascular anomalies associated with B.c. are varied, but V.S.D. and Fallot's tetralogy are the most common types. Some scholars have noticed particulary liable to associate persistent left superior vena cava and E.c. Judging from these facts, there seems some organic relation between the morphogenesis of cardiovascular anomalies and E.C., regardless of the type of the former. Apparently, in all our cases, E.c. is related either directly (case 1 & 3) or indirectly (case 2) with amnions. It is a most difficulty to decide which of ectopia and the amnionic adhesion is primary. However in our three cases it is estimated that the abhesion and pluling of amnions in the earlier embryonic stage is primary, and that it gave rise to the hemodynamic change of heart, which in turn induced cardiovascular anomalies.
The pathogenetic relationship between so-called congenital glomerulosclerosis of the kidney and developmental anomalies of the heart and great vessels was studied histopathologically. For this purpose 58 human fetuses and newborns associated with cardiovascular anomalies were used. Fursher, 54 human fetuses and newborns were employed as the controls. These fetuses and newborns aged 5 months of gestation to 20 days after birth. The cardiovascular anomalies were clssified into four groups: 1) Hypoplasia of the aorta isolated and combined with ventricular septal defect, in part, including Eisenmenger's complex, 2) the aorta and pulmonary trunk of equal size complicated with ventricular septal defect and, in part, including Eisenmenger's complex, 3) hypoplasia or aplasia of the pulmonary trunk including Fallot's tetralogy and 4) anomalies of the valves, transposition of the great vessels and others. Microscopic findings of the kidney, particularly in relation to glomerulosclerotic changes were examined among these groups of cardiovascular anomalies. Hematoxylin-eosin, Mallory, Weigert and van Gieson stains, and when necessary, PAS, sudan III stain and Lilie's impregnation were made. The results wereas follows: 1) In the controls no glomerulosclerosis of the kidney was found up to the 7th month of gestation, but there were I case of glomerulosclerosis ofthe kidney respectively in. the 9th month of gestation and after birth. The newborn infants aged less than 7 days showed interstitial congestion and slight degeneration of the uriniferous epithelium frequently as compared with the fetuses. 2) Generally the appearance of glomerulosclerosis of the kidney in the fetal, especially in the neoratal period was remarkable when cardiovascular anomalies were associated. 3) When cardiovascular anomalies were combined with other organ anomalies, the incidence of glomerulosclerosis of the kidney was slightly higher than that in cardiovascular anomalies alone. 4) According to the groups of cardiovascular anomalies such as classified above, the occurrence of glomerulosclerosis of the kidney was found to be as follows: 1) most frequent in hypoplasia of the aorta combined with or without ventricular septal defect (69.6%), 2) less frequent in the aorta and pulmonary trunk of equal size and other anomalies (61.1-62.5%), but 3) hardly detected in hypoplasia or aplasia of the pulmonary trunk except for complicated with renal hypoplasia which caused glomerulosclerosis of the kidney in 55.5%. The formation of the intrarenal arteries is closely connected with the growth of the kidney and related hemodynamic shift of general blood circulation, and in cosequence, depends upon the correlation between a maturation of the glomeruli and an increase of circulating blood volume into the kidney. It is noted that hemodynamic circulation of fetus and newborn is not only different from that of adult but also varies according to the kinds and grades of developmental anomalies of the heart and great vessels. Based upon these above-mentioned results, it is pointed out that a hemodynamic vicissitude of blood circulation due to developmental anomalies of the heart and great vessels throuhgout fetal to neonatal period possibly play a major role in pathogenesis of congenital glomerulosclerosis of the kidney in human fetus and newborn.
Two cases of crossed ectopic kidneys were observed in our clinic. One of them was 30 years old male and had lumbago on the right side and fever. He was diagnosed as crossed ectopia with-out fusion. The other one, 30 years old female, had frequent urination and fever. She was diagnosed as crossed ectopia with fusion. An analysis of 47 clinical cases of crossed ectopic kidneys which were reported in our country was presented. 42.6% of them were aged between 20 and 29 years old. Male patients were 21 cases and female patients were 25 cases. Kidneys crossed to the right side were 31 cases and the lefts ide were 15 cases. There were 21 cases cases with complications of other congenital malformations, and 23 cases were not complicated with other congeital malformations. seven cases with crossed ectopic kidneys were operated.