official journal of Congeital Anomalies Research Association of Japan
Online ISSN : 2433-1503
Print ISSN : 0037-2285
Volume 22 , Issue 1
Showing 1-21 articles out of 21 articles from the selected issue
  • Type: Cover
    1982 Volume 22 Issue 1 Pages Cover1-
    Published: March 30, 1982
    Released: February 01, 2019
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  • Type: Appendix
    1982 Volume 22 Issue 1 Pages App1-
    Published: March 30, 1982
    Released: February 01, 2019
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  • Type: Index
    1982 Volume 22 Issue 1 Pages Toc1-
    Published: March 30, 1982
    Released: February 01, 2019
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  • Marcus A. KLINGBERG, Rina CHEN, Cheri M. PAPIER, Juan CHEMKE, Giora AM ...
    Type: Article
    1982 Volume 22 Issue 1 Pages 1-6
    Published: March 30, 1982
    Released: February 01, 2019
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    The association between paternal age (independent of maternal age), and Down syndrome (DS) was studied in a series of 36,011 consecutive births at Kaplan Hospital, Israel during the 11-year period (1966-1976). There were 43 DS cases in this series. The data were classed by strata of maternal age such that within each stratum, the increased risk associated with maternal age was about two-fold. Each stratum was divided into two paternal age groups - "young" and "aged". "Young" fathers were defined as those whose age did not exceed the upper limit of the mother's age stratum; "aged" fathers, those whose age did exceed the upper limit of the mother's age stratum. The differences between corresponding rates of DS newborns of aged and young fathers over all strata were found significant at the 5% level using the Mantel-Haenszel chi-square test with one degree of freedom. Considering the relatively small gap between median age for the corresponding paternal groups (i.e. within the same stratum), the maternal age effect does not seem to be the sole factor responsible for the observed differences in rates of DS between corresponding paternal age groups. Difficulties generally associated with elucidating paternal age effect relative to that of maternal age are also discussed.
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  • Yoko IMAIZUMI
    Type: Article
    1982 Volume 22 Issue 1 Pages 7-18
    Published: March 30, 1982
    Released: February 01, 2019
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    Nation-wide data in Japan on pre- and post-natal deaths of 9,641 individuals with anencephaly during 1969-1978 were analysed. Mean overall incidence of anencephaly per 1,000 births was 0.474. The incidence was the highest in ward and followed by gun and city. The incidence was higher in the northeast than the southwest of Japan. Incidence of anencephaly increased with the year in ward, city, gun and six districts.
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  • Hiroshi HARA, Toshiaki MORIKI, Masahiro MIYAO, Toshiko YAMANE, Hisa OK ...
    Type: Article
    1982 Volume 22 Issue 1 Pages 19-33
    Published: March 30, 1982
    Released: February 01, 2019
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    The present experiment was performed to study effects of MNU on development and cellular differentiation of fetal mouse lung in order to clarify susceptibility of fetal lung to transplacental MNU. The ICR/JCL mice were injected intravenously with a dose of 25mg/kg of MNU on day 15 of gestation. The fetuses with the mother mice were sacrificed at different time after maternal ad-ministration of MNU. The mother mice received intraperitoneal injection of ^3H-thymidine 1 hour prior to sacrifice. There were found pyknotic nuclei and degenerated cells in the fetal mouse lung at 48 hours after maternal injection of MNU. Neither hyperplastic proliferation of the epithelial cells nor lung adenomas was observed before birth and in the immediate postnatal period. Histoautoradiographic examination revealed that a transient increase of labeling index is found in fetal mouse lung up to 24 hours after transplacental MNU and that this increase precedes the occurrence of the cytotoxic changes. Light and electron microscopic studies showed, however, no noticeable difference in development and cellular differentiation of fetal lungs between MNU-treated and untreated mice. The results suggest that the first cellular response to carcinogenic stimuli manifests itself in activated DNA synthesis in the fetal lung cells and that this activation may be related to malignant transformation leading to lung adenomas in the postnatal life.
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  • Yoshihiro FUKUI
    Type: Article
    1982 Volume 22 Issue 1 Pages 35-45
    Published: March 30, 1982
    Released: February 01, 2019
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    The concentration of nuclear T_3 receptors in three brain regions, i.e., hippocampus, parietal cortex, cerebellum and in the liver were examined in 1-, 4-, 8-, 10-, 14-, 22-, 25- and 36-day-old and adult Wistar rats. In all of these tissues, values of association constant (Ka) did not significantly change with age. The concentration of nuclear T_3 receptors was expressed in two ways, that is, maximal binding capacity (MBC) expressed as picomoles of T_3 bound per milligram of DNA (pmol T_3/mg DNA) and as picomoles of T_3 bound per unit of original weight (g) of tissue (pmol T_3 /g tissue). MBC (pmol T_3/mg DNA): In the hippocampus, parietal cortex and liver, MBCs at day I were lowest and significantly lower than adult values. However, they soon reached the adult level. In the cerebellum, MBC at day I was also low, but not significantly lower than the adult value. MBC (pmol T_3 /g tissue): As the DNA concentration decreased, this value declined in the hippocampus and parietal cortex. On the other hand, in the cerebellum, coincidentally with an increase of DNA concentration during the first 8 days after birth, MBC was significantly higher during the first 14 days than at the adult age. Serum T_3 level rapidly increased during the first 22 days after birth and then leveled off. Attainment of the adult level in nuclear T_3 receptor concentration (pmol T_3/mg DNA) preceded a rapid increase of serum T_3 concentration in all tissues. These findings suggest that the "receptor" which mediates the hormonal action is well matured when serum T_3 concentration attains the maximal level.
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  • Masao EGUCHI, Tsukasa YAMAGUCHI, Etsuji SHIOTA, Sumio HANDA
    Type: Article
    1982 Volume 22 Issue 1 Pages 47-52
    Published: March 30, 1982
    Released: February 01, 2019
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    Pregnant mice were injected from day 11 to 17 of gestation daily with EHDP in a dose of 200 mg/kg sc. The animals were sacrificed on day 18 of gestation and fetuses were removed surgically from mothers. Fetal skeletons were examined by means of alcian blue and alizarin red S stained preparation and histologically. Using EHDP the weight of the embryo significantly decreased. EHDP produced the shortening of the mineralization zones, a widening of the columnar cartilage zones, inhibition of the formation of the marrow cavity and angular deformities in the long bones.
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  • Takashi TANIMURA, Yoshitaka TAMAKI
    Type: Article
    1982 Volume 22 Issue 1 Pages 53-62
    Published: March 30, 1982
    Released: February 01, 2019
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    This review expresses the opinion of chairmen of the symposium, with integration of the chairman's introductory remarks, general discussion and the results of enquete to attendants at the meeting. Learning test has been paid essential significance in behavioral teratology. It is a generalized index consisting of many complicated behavioral processes. The disorder of learning may result in severe and permanent behavioral defects. Various factors which may influence the tests should be more carefully controlled in conducting the behavioral teratology tests since interval between the administration of a teratogen and the time of test performance is usually long. Aims and characteristics of various types of learning tests such as maze, avoidance and operant conditioning, should be more throughly compared. Recently, it is suggested that learning may be tested in the preweaning or even neonatal period. It is expected to examine applicability of such procedures to behavioral teratology. Evaluation of the results, especially the interpretation of results superior to controls, should be profoundly discussed with more attention to dose-response relationship and pharmacokinetic studies. Behavioral teratology is a still immature and growing science. Fundamental researches on the more defined psychological test parameters and procedures on ontogeny, application of methods to psychopharmacology and behavioral toxicology, incorporation of these basic studies to the reproduction test, and extrapolation of animal data to humans as well as suggestions of clinicians to experimental teratologists on comparative developmental toxicology of behavior, are expected to be simultaneously investigated by multidisciplinary cooperation of various fields of scientists.
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  • Yoshitaka TAMAKI
    Type: Article
    1982 Volume 22 Issue 1 Pages 63-66
    Published: March 30, 1982
    Released: February 01, 2019
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    Research on comparative-behavioral defects due to behavioral teratogens has halted by a persisting dielemma of conceptualization. Many factors may be encountered in behavioral teratology testing. These have either been intrinstic to the developing organism, i. e., genetic influences, or to the environment in which that development occurs. The maternal and paternal genotypes are important determinants of offspring behavior in their interaction with prenatal treatments. The choice of the testing subjects will obviously influence the nature and sophistication of the behavioral teratology tests. This paper is proposed to discuss some of the practical problems about the testing subjects and to suggest methods of controlling certain of these problems.
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  • Masahiro MIZUTANI
    Type: Article
    1982 Volume 22 Issue 1 Pages 67-81
    Published: March 30, 1982
    Released: February 01, 2019
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    It has been pointed out by experimental psychologists and teratologists that many prenatal and postnatal conditions influence the results of behavioral teratology tests. Since sex differences in animal nor-mal behavior are very common, sex of offspring is also considered as an important factor that may influence the results of behavioral tests. Therefore, in the analysis of results of behavioral tests, all data from both sexes must be separated, otherwise delayed effect of teratogens may be overlooked. Water T-maze test and Shuttle-box avoidance test were performed in order to examine the existence of sex differences in learning ability of young CD rats before and after puberty. No essential sex differences were observed in the results of both tests, while trends of such differences were noticed in avoidance bright and avoidance dull rats at the 2nd generation of selection. One of the problems being faced with at the time of analysis on sex differences in learning behavior, is the existence of individual differences in learning ability and fluctuations of the group mean value. Sex differences may be masked when individual differences are remarkable. Therefore, it is necessary to consider some ways of controlling the individual differences in learning ability or some ways for assessing sex differences correctly from the results including remarkable individual differences. The best way may be the establishment of new strains which are most suitable for both fertility and behavioral tests. As a practically applicable way, I propose to prepare background data which show the learning pattern of strain being employed and distribution of frequency of offspring indicating the relatively high level of learning activity in each trial. As a matter of course, effort must be paid to minimize variables that may influence the results of learning behavior tests.
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  • Sadayoshi SHIGETA
    Type: Article
    1982 Volume 22 Issue 1 Pages 83-88
    Published: March 30, 1982
    Released: February 01, 2019
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    Selection of administration or exposure period of toxic agents should be given special consideration in teratological research. As the particular organ systems, e. g., cardiovascular or skeletal system, are most susceptible to insult when they are most actively differentating, teratogenic agents are generally administered in the embryonic period in rats or mice. For the behavioral teratology, however, administration of teratogenic agents in the early fetal period is not adequate because of vulnerability in central nervous system is different from the other organ systems. Many studies, so far, have reported the effects of psychotropic drugs. Some studies in recent years, however, have been assessing the effects of pollutants such as lead, mercury or pesticides, etc. administered in perinatal period on learning behavior in animals as a new approach to evaluate the effects of these environmental pollutants. With the findings obtained from the above and other related studies, suckling period would be suitable as administration period in behavioral teratological research.
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  • Sigehiro KIYONO, Misako SEO, Masamitsu SHIBAGAKI
    Type: Article
    1982 Volume 22 Issue 1 Pages 89-99
    Published: March 30, 1982
    Released: February 01, 2019
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    Learning scores have been known to be modified by several postnatal rearing condition such as litter size, handling, fostering, and enriched or impoverished environmental conditions. The effects of these factors were discussed by reviewing the relevant reports. The importance of fostering in behavioral teratology was shown by presenting our recent observation on the effects of environmentally enriched rearing condition limited only during prenatal period upon the Hebb-Williams maze test in rats.
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  • Kozo SUGIOKA
    Type: Article
    1982 Volume 22 Issue 1 Pages 101-110
    Published: March 30, 1982
    Released: February 01, 2019
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    For the accurate evaluating the effects of a variety of agents on the neurobehavioral development, multiple experimental analysis of behaviors must be demonstrated under various situations using various experi-mental parameters at the different developmental stages ranging from neonatal to adult periods. Identification of critical testing periods for assessing behavioral function following exposure to agents is one of many important aspects of behavioral teratology, thus longitudinal studies concerning critical testing periods might provide valuable informations. The possibility of learning in normal and/or abnormal developing animals might depend on the maturational characteristics of the functional systems participating in learning. Recently many normative data have published concerned with the ontogeny of behavior or learning, in which several characteristic behavioral alterations, as such a transitional hyperactivity in pre-weanling rats, related to aging or neurological maturation were reported. Thus, such age-related behavioral indices might closely interact or affect agent-related behavioral alterations. In this review several methodological problems on the testing age in behavioral teratology were demonstrated.
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  • Tsuneo KOSAZUMA, Yohshiro KOBAYASHI, Shozo SHIOTA, Minoru SUZUKI, Nori ...
    Type: Article
    1982 Volume 22 Issue 1 Pages 111-125
    Published: March 30, 1982
    Released: February 01, 2019
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    A questionnaire was sent to 68 pharmaceutical companies in Japan concerning behavioral teratology studies for the purpose of investigating the present situation, test methods and problems in conducting the tests. Sixty companies (88.2%) responded to the questionnaire and the results of the survey are summarized as follows. The test species used most frequently is the rat, and the selection of species and strains is made not because of the suitability for behavioral studies but by considering routine reproduction studies. Litter size adjustment is made by majority of the responders, and adjustment to 8 pups at 4 days after birth is most frequently employed. The use of positive controls in the behavioral tests is relatively uncommon, and it is unexpectedly low; 32.6% in the rat and 0% in the mouse. The test items employed by many companies were: posture reflex (surface righting reflex, air righting reflex, etc.) neuromuscular activity (rotor rod test, inclined plane test, etc.), sensory function (Preyer reflex, algesic reflex, etc.), emotionality (open field test), and learning (water T-maze, T or Y-maze, Lashley III-maze, etc.). It seems that investigators select test methods from the viewpoints of the easiness of conduct and evaluation. The use of tests which allow to examine many samples in a short period is stressed. There remain, however, many problems for establishment of more suitable test procedures as well as the methods of evaluation of the data obtained.
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  • Toshiaki TACHIBANA
    Type: Article
    1982 Volume 22 Issue 1 Pages 127-
    Published: March 30, 1982
    Released: February 01, 2019
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  • Type: Bibliography
    1982 Volume 22 Issue 1 Pages 129-132
    Published: March 30, 1982
    Released: February 01, 2019
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  • Type: Appendix
    1982 Volume 22 Issue 1 Pages 133-134
    Published: March 30, 1982
    Released: February 01, 2019
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  • Type: Appendix
    1982 Volume 22 Issue 1 Pages 135-
    Published: March 30, 1982
    Released: February 01, 2019
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  • Type: Cover
    1982 Volume 22 Issue 1 Pages Cover2-
    Published: March 30, 1982
    Released: February 01, 2019
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (61K)
  • Type: Cover
    1982 Volume 22 Issue 1 Pages Cover3-
    Published: March 30, 1982
    Released: February 01, 2019
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