Background: In the setting of acute myocardial infarction (AMI), there are no data regarding the benefits of intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) for chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients.
Methods and Results: This study used data from the Korea Acute Myocardial Infarction Registry, a large, multicenter prospective cohort. We evaluated 1,759 patients with AMI and CKD, defined as estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) <60 mL/min/1.73 m2, and patients were classified into 2 groups: with and without IVUS. The primary outcome was target lesion failure (TLF) at 3 years. The hazard ratio (HR) of TLF according to eGFR was also analyzed. A total of 1,759 patients with AMI and CKD who underwent IVUS-guided PCI (19.2%) had a significantly lower risk of TLF at 3 years (8.9% vs. 15.3%; HR 0.55; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.38 to 0.81; P=0.002) than those who underwent angiography-guided PCI, regardless of their eGFR and the presence of end-stage renal disease (ESRD). The results were consistent after confounder adjustment and inversed probability weighting.
Conclusions: In patients with CKD and AMI who underwent PCI with 2nd-generation DES implantation, the use of IVUS guidance was associated with a significant reduction in 3-year TLF and showed consistently favorable outcomes regardless of eGFR and ESRD.
Background: It has been reported that patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) transferred to low-volume primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) hospitals (<115/year) in low population density areas experience higher in-hospital mortality rates. This study compared in-hospital outcomes of patients admitted to high-volume primary PCI hospitals (≥115/year) with those for other regional general hospitals.
Methods and Results: Retrospective analysis was conducted on data obtained from 2,453 patients with AMI admitted to hospitals in Iwate Prefecture (2014–2018). Multivariate analysis revealed that the in-hospital mortality rate of AMI among patients in regional general hospitals was significantly higher than among patients in high-volume hospitals. However, no significant difference in mortality rate was observed among patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) undergoing primary PCI. Although no significant difference was found in the in-hospital mortality rate of patients with Killip class I STEMI, significantly lower in-hospital mortality rates were observed in patients admitted in high-volume hospitals for Killip classes II, III, and IV.
Conclusions: Although in-hospital outcomes for patients with STEMI undergoing primary PCI were similar, patients with heart failure or cardiogenic shock exhibited better in-hospital outcomes in high-volume primary PCI hospitals than those in regional general hospitals.
Background: Lipoprotein (a) (Lp(a)) is a complex circulating lipoprotein, and there is increasing evidence it is a risk factor for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). This study aimed to investigate the influence of Lp(a) serum levels on long-term outcomes after acute myocardial infarction (AMI).
Methods and Results: Between January 2015 and January 2018, we enrolled 262 patients with AMI who underwent coronary angiography within 24 h of the onset of chest pain and had available Lp(a) data enabling subdivision into 2 groups: high Lp(a) (≥32 mg/dL: n=76) and low Lp(a) (<32 mg/dL: n=186). The primary endpoint was major adverse cardiac events (MACE), which was defined as a composite of cardiac death, nonfatal MI, and readmission for heart failure. Multivariate Cox regression analysis was performed to identify the predictors of MACE. The incidence of MACE was significantly higher in the high Lp(a) group than in the low Lp(a) group (32.8% vs. 19.6%, P=0.004). Multivariate analysis showed that Lp(a) ≥32 mg/dL was an independent predictor of MACE (hazard ratio 2.84, 95% confidence interval 1.25–6.60, P=0.013).
Conclusions: High Lp(a) levels were associated with worse long-term outcomes after AMI, so Lp(a) may be useful for risk assessment.
Background: This study investigated the economic impact of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) clinical practice guideline recommendation of using the 0-h/1-h rule-out and rule-in algorithm with high-sensitivity cardiac troponin assays (0/1-h algorithm) to triage patients presenting with chest pain.
Methods and Results: This post hoc cost-effectiveness evaluation (DROP-ACS; UMIN000030668) used deidentified electronic medical records from health insurance claims from 2 diagnostic centers in Japan. A cost-effectiveness analysis was conducted with 472 patients with care provided following the 0/1-h algorithm (Hospital A) and 427 patients following point-of-care testing (Hospital B). The clinical outcome of interest was all-cause mortality or subsequent myocardial infarction within 30 days of the index presentation. The sensitivity and specificity for the clinical outcome were 100% (95% confidence interval [CI] 91.1–100%) and 95.0% (95% CI 94.3–95.0%), respectively, in Hospital A and 92.9% (95% CI 69.6–98.7%) and 89.8% (95% CI 89.0–90.0%), respectively, in Hospital B. If the diagnostic accuracy of the 0/1-h algorithm was implemented in Hospital B, it is expected that the number of urgent (<24-h) coronary angiograms would decrease by 50%. Incorporating this assumption, implementing the 0/1-h algorithm could potentially reduce medical costs by JPY4,033,874 (95% CI JPY3,440,346–4,627,402) in Hospital B (JPY9,447 per patient; 95% CI JPY 8,057–10,837 per patient).
Conclusions: The ESC 0/1-h algorithm was efficient for risk stratification and for reducing medical costs.
Background: The effects of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) on the prognosis of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) without revascularization remain unclear, so the aim of the present study was to elucidate the association of OSA with subsequent cardiovascular events in ACS patients with and without revascularization.
Methods and Results: We prospectively recruited hospitalized ACS patients undergoing sleep monitoring between June 2015 and January 2020. OSA was defined as an apnea-hypopnea index ≥15 events/h. The primary endpoint was a major adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular event (MACCE), including cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, stroke, ischemia-driven revascularization, or hospitalization for unstable angina or heart failure. Among 1,927 patients, 52.6% had OSA and 69.4% underwent revascularization. During a 2.9-year follow-up (1.5–3.6 years), the risk of MACCE was similar in patients with or without revascularization. OSA was an independent predictor of MACCE in the non-revascularization group (22.6% vs. 14.6%; hazard ratio (HR) 1.861; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.239–2.796; P=0.003) but not in revascularization group (22.3% vs. 19.3%; HR 1.135; 95% CI 0.882–1.460; P=0.324). The incremental risk in the non-revascularization group was attributable to more hospitalizations for unstable angina (14.2% vs. 8.6%; HR 1.896; 95% CI 1.124–3.199; P=0.016).
Conclusions: For patients with ACS, OSA was independently associated with higher risk of recurrent cardiovascular events among patients without revascularization but not among patients undergoing revascularization. The benefits of suitable OSA treatment for patients without revascularization need further investigation.
Background: The present study aimed to clarify the regional variations in clinical practice and the prognosis of patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) in Japan using the Japanese Registry of Acute Decompensated Heart Failure (JROADHF).
Methods and Results: We recruited data of hospitalized patients with HFrEF (n=4,329) from the JROADHF. The patients were divided into 6 groups based on the region of Japan where they were hospitalized: Hokkaido-Tohoku (n=504), Kanto (n=958), Chubu (n=779), Kinki (n=902), Chugoku-Shikoku (n=446), and Kyushu (n=740). We compared the patients’ characteristics, including etiology of HF and prognosis after discharge. The age of the patients was lowest in the Kanto and Kinki regions. In contrast, there were no differences in the prevalence of comorbidities, levels of B-type natriuretic peptide, or left ventricular EF among the 6 groups. Post-discharge cardiospecific prognosis, specifically, the composite of cardiac death or HF hospitalization, cardiac death, and HF hospitalization, was comparable among the 6 regions.
Conclusions: There were no differences in cardiospecific prognosis in patients with HFrEF among the 6 regions in Japan.
Article type: ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Subject area: Clinical Care
2023 Volume 87 Issue 10 Pages
Published: September 25, 2023
Released on J-STAGE: September 25, 2023 Advance online publication: August 29, 2023
Background: The degree and timing of acute kidney injury (AKI) on admission and during hospitalization in patients requiring non-surgical intensive care remain unclear.
Methods and Results: In this study, 3,758 patients requiring intensive care were analyzed retrospectively. AKI was defined based on the ratio of serum creatinine concentrations recorded at each time point (i.e., on admission and during the first 5 days in the intensive care unit and during hospitalization) to those measured at baseline. Patients were grouped by combining AKI severity (RIFLE class) and timing (i.e., from admission to 5 days [A-5D]; from 5 days to hospital discharge [5D-HD]) as follows: No-AKI; New-AKI (no AKI to Class R [risk; ≥1.5-fold increase in serum creatinine], I [injury; ≥2.0-fold increase in serum creatinine], and F [failure; ≥3.0-fold increase in serum creatinine or receiving dialysis during hospitalization]); Stable-AKI (Class R to R; Class I to I); and Worsening-AKI (Class R to I or F; Class I to F). Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that 730-day mortality was independently associated with Class R, I, and F on admission; Class I and F during the 5D-H period; and New-AKI and Worsening-AKI during A-5D and 5D-HD.
Conclusions: AKI on admission, even Class R, was associated with a poor prognosis. An increase in RIFLE class during hospitalization was identified as an important factor for poor prognosis in patients requiring intensive care.