Circulation Journal
Online ISSN : 1347-4820
Print ISSN : 1346-9843
ISSN-L : 1346-9843
Volume 80 , Issue 3
Showing 1-39 articles out of 39 articles from the selected issue
Message From the Editor-in-Chief
Focus Reviews on Heart Failure
  • Davide Lazzeroni, Ornella Rimoldi, Paolo G Camici
    Type: FOCUS REVIEWS ON HEART FAILURE
    2016 Volume 80 Issue 3 Pages 555-564
    Published: February 25, 2016
    Released: February 25, 2016
    [Advance publication] Released: February 05, 2016
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    Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is growth in left ventricular mass caused by increased cardiomyocyte size. LVH can be a physiological adaptation to strenuous physical exercise, as in athletes, or it can be a pathological condition, which is either genetic or secondary to LV overload. Physiological LVH is usually benign and regresses upon reduction/cessation of physical activity. Pathological LVH is a compensatory phenomenon, which eventually may become maladaptive and evolve towards progressive LV dysfunction and heart failure (HF). Both interstitial and replacement fibrosis play a major role in the progressive decompensation of the hypertrophied LV. Coronary microvascular dysfunction (CMD) and myocardial ischemia, which have been demonstrated in most forms of pathological LVH, have an important pathogenetic role in the formation of replacement fibrosis and both contribute to the evolution towards LV dysfunction and HF. Noninvasive imaging allows detection of myocardial fibrosis and CMD, thus providing unique information for the stratification of patients with LVH. (Circ J 2016; 80: 555–564)
  • Hae-Young Lee, Sang Hong Baek
    Type: FOCUS REVIEWS ON HEART FAILURE
    2016 Volume 80 Issue 3 Pages 565-571
    Published: February 25, 2016
    Released: February 25, 2016
    [Advance publication] Released: February 19, 2016
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    Beta-blockers are the cornerstone treatment for congestive heart failure (HF). Current HF guidelines commonly recommend β-blockers for the treatment of HF with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). The effect of β-blockers, however, is less clear for HF patients with preserved LVEF, unstable severe acute HF, or right ventricular failure. This review summarizes the effect of β-blockers in various clinical situations and suggests a strategy for optimal use. (Circ J 2016; 80: 565–571)
Reviews
  • Pei-Hsun Sung, Chiung-Jen Wu, Hon-Kan Yip
    Type: REVIEW
    2016 Volume 80 Issue 3 Pages 572-578
    Published: February 25, 2016
    Released: February 25, 2016
    [Advance publication] Released: February 08, 2016
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    Despite advancements in pharmacological therapy and refinement of the tools and technique of primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and coronary artery bypass surgery, patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) complicated by profound cardiogenic shock (CS) still have unacceptably high in-hospital mortality and unfavorable long-term outcome. Thus, there is an imminent need of a new and safe treatment modality in the management of AMI complicated by profound CS. Growing evidence suggests that extracorporeal membrane oxygenator (ECMO)-supported primary PCI is an effective therapeutic option for saving lives under such conditions. In this review, we describe and interpret the potential role of circulatory mechanical support by ECMO in the setting of AMI complicated by profound CS for improving clinical outcomes. (Circ J 2016; 80: 572–578)
  • Sok-Sithikun Bun, Decebal Gabriel Latcu, Tahar Delassi, Mohammed El Ja ...
    Type: REVIEW
    2016 Volume 80 Issue 3 Pages 579-586
    Published: February 25, 2016
    Released: February 25, 2016
    [Advance publication] Released: February 08, 2016
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    The advantages of ultra-high-definition (UHD) mapping are presented in the context of different atrial arrhythmias, whether focal or macroreentrant. Not only are these sophisticated systems time-saving, but they also allow accurate identification of the substrate (scar quantification), as well as a more precise characterization of the critical isthmuses or focal sources of the atrial circuits. UHD mapping may become a standard approach for their curative treatment. This new technology allows automatic acquisition and accurate annotation of the electrograms, without the need for manual correction. Owing to better resolution, critical isthmuses and low-voltage regions of interest may now be successfully targeted without the need for entrainment maneuvers. Finally, the system also allows rapid assessment of the completeness of the lesions once delivered. (Circ J 2016; 80: 579–586)
Editorials
Original Articles
Arrhythmia/Electrophysiology
  • Amaya García-Fernández, Francisco Marín, Vanessa Roldán, José M Gómez- ...
    Type: ORIGINAL ARTICLE
    Subject area: Arrhythmia/Electrophysiology
    2016 Volume 80 Issue 3 Pages 605-612
    Published: February 25, 2016
    Released: February 25, 2016
    [Advance publication] Released: January 14, 2016
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    Background:Patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (AF) who undergo electrical cardioversion (ECV) tend to be younger and have less comorbidity. Long-term anticoagulation after ECV should be based on thromboembolic risk. We sought to study the long-term incidence of thromboembolic events (TE), factors related to TE and compare the predictive value of the CHADS2and CHA2DS2-VASc scores in this particular population.Methods and Results:From January 2008 to June 2012, 571 ECV were performed in 406 consecutive patients with nonvalvular AF. Risk factors for TE and factors related to anticoagulation therapy after ECV were registered. During a follow-up of approximately 2 years, the annual incidence of TE was 1.9%. Factors associated with TE were: poor quality anticoagulation control (hazard ratio [HR]: 2.91; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.10–7.80; P=0.03), cessation of anticoagulation after ECV (HR: 8.80; 95% CI: 3.11–25.10; P<0.001), age ≥65 years (HR: 13.65; 95% CI: 1.74–107.16; P=0.01), CHADS2score (HR: 1.59; 95% CI: 1.10–2.29; P=0.01) and CHA2DS2-VASc score (HR: 1.67; 95% CI: 1.30–2.22; P<0.001). Both risk scores predicted TE [c-statistic for CHADS2: 0.68 (95% CI: 0.62–0.74; P=0.005), for CHA2DS2-VASc: 0.75 (95% CI: 0.70–0.80; P<0.001)]. Based on c-statistics, the predictive accuracy of CHA2DS2-VASc was superior (difference between areas: 0.064±0.031; P=0.0403).Conclusions:Important determinants of long-term occurrence of TE after ECV were related to anticoagulant therapy (poor quality anticoagulation and cessation of this therapy over follow-up). The CHA2DS2-VASc score successfully predicts TE after ECV, having better predictive accuracy than the CHADS2score. (Circ J 2016; 80: 605–612)
  • Gianluigi Bencardino, Antonio Di Monaco, Eleonora Russo, Cristian Coli ...
    Type: ORIGINAL ARTICLE
    Subject area: Arrhythmia/Electrophysiology
    2016 Volume 80 Issue 3 Pages 613-618
    Published: February 25, 2016
    Released: February 25, 2016
    [Advance publication] Released: January 29, 2016
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    Background:Not all heart failure (HF) patients benefit from cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). We assessed whether choosing the site of left ventricular (LV) pacing by a quadripolar lead may improve response to CRT.Methods and Results:We prospectively randomized 23 patients with HF (67±11 years; 21 males) to CRT with a quadripolar LV lead (group 1, with the LV pacing site chosen on the basis of QRS shortening using simultaneous biventricular pacing), and 20 patients (71±6 years; 16 males) to a bipolar LV lead (group 2, with devices programmed with a conventional tip-to-ring configuration). New York Heart Association (NYHA) class and LV ejection fraction (EF) by 2D echocardiography were assessed at baseline and after 3 months. The baseline EF was not different between the 2 groups (25±6% group 1 vs. 27±3% group 2; P=0.22), but after 3 months EF was higher in group 1 (35±13% group 1 vs. 31±4% group 2; P<0.001). A reduction in at least 1 NYHA class at 3 months was observed in 22 (96%) and 12 (60%) of group 1 and group 2 patients, respectively (P<0.05).Conclusions:CRT with a quadripolar LV lead was associated with an improvement of EF greater than that observed in patients receiving a bipolar LV lead. In devices with a quadripolar lead, CRT programming based on the best QRS shortening is reliable and effective. (Circ J 2016; 80: 613–618)
  • Tomoko S. Kato, Marco R. Di Tullio, Min Qian, Mengfei Wu, John L.P. Th ...
    Type: ORIGINAL ARTICLE
    Subject area: Arrhythmia/Electrophysiology
    2016 Volume 80 Issue 3 Pages 619-626
    Published: February 25, 2016
    Released: February 25, 2016
    [Advance publication] Released: January 22, 2016
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    Supplementary material
    Background:Heart failure (HF) patients have a high incidence of new-onset AF. Given the adverse prognostic influence of AF in HF, identifying patients at high risk of developing AF is important.Methods and Results:The incidence and factors associated with new-onset AF were investigated in patients in sinus rhythm with reduced LVEF enrolled in the Warfarin versus Aspirin in Reduced Cardiac Ejection Fraction (WARCEF) trial. Analyses involved clinical factors alone (n=2,219), and clinical plus echocardiographic findings (n=1,125). During 3.5±1.8 years of follow-up, 212 patients (9.6% of total cohort) developed AF. In both samples, new-onset AF was associated with age, male sex, White race, and IHD. Among echocardiographic variables, only LAD predicted AF. On multivariate Cox modeling, age (HR, 1.02; 95% CI: 1.00–1.03, P=0.008), IHD (HR, 1.37; 95% CI: 1.02–1.84, P=0.036) and LAD (HR, 1.48; 95% CI: 1.15–1.91, P=0.003) remained associated with AF onset. Patients with IHD, LAD>4.5 cm and age>50 years had a 2.5-fold higher risk of AF than patients without any of these characteristics (HR, 2.52; 95% CI: 1.72–3.69, P<0.0001).Conclusions:Age, IHD and LAD independently predict new-onset AF in HF patients in sinus rhythm, at younger age and smaller LAD than generally believed. This information may be useful to risk-stratify HF patients for AF development, allowing close monitoring and possibly early detection. (Circ J 2016; 80: 619–626)
  • Satoshi Yanagisawa, Yasuya Inden, Hiroyuki Kato, Aya Miyoshi, Yoshiaki ...
    Type: ORIGINAL ARTICLE
    Subject area: Arrhythmia/Electrophysiology
    2016 Volume 80 Issue 3 Pages 627-638
    Published: February 25, 2016
    Released: February 25, 2016
    [Advance publication] Released: January 26, 2016
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    Supplementary material
    Background:Elevated red blood cell distribution width (RDW) predicts poor prognosis in patients with cardiovascular diseases. However, little is known about the association between RDW and outcomes after catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation (AF).Methods and Results:A total of 757 patients who underwent radiofrequency catheter ablation of AF were divided into heart failure (HF, n=79) and non-HF (n=678) groups; RDW was assessed as a predictor after catheter ablation in each. During a 22.3-month follow-up period, the baseline RDW in the HF group was greater in the recurrence group than in the non-recurrence group (14.5±2.0% vs. 13.5±0.9%, P=0.013). In contrast, no significant difference in RDW at baseline was found in the non-HF group between the recurrence and non-recurrence groups (13.3±0.8% vs. 13.2±0.8%, P=0.332, respectively). Multivariate analysis demonstrated that RDW (hazard ratio 1.20, 95% confidence interval 1.01–1.40, P=0.034) was an independent predictor of AF recurrence in the HF group. The cut-off values of RDW for the recurrence of AF and major adverse events in the HF group were 13.9% and 14.8%, respectively.Conclusions:High RDW is an independent predictor for the recurrence of AF and major adverse events in patients with HF after catheter ablation. RDW is a potential noninvasive marker in AF patients complicated with HF. (Circ J 2016; 80: 627–638)
  • Shinya Suzuki, Takayuki Otsuka, Koichi Sagara, Hiroaki Semba, Hiroto K ...
    Type: ORIGINAL ARTICLE
    Subject area: Arrhythmia/Electrophysiology
    2016 Volume 80 Issue 3 Pages 639-649
    Published: February 25, 2016
    Released: February 25, 2016
    [Advance publication] Released: January 21, 2016
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    Background:Trends of oral anticoagulant (OAC) prescription and incidence of thromboembolism (TE) and/or major bleeding (MB) in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) in Japan are still unclear.Methods and Results:We used data from Shinken Database 2004–2012, which included all new patients attending the Cardiovascular Institute between June 2004 and March 2013. Of them, 2,434 patients were diagnosed with NVAF. Patients were divided into 3 time periods according to the year of initial visit: 2004–2006 (n=681), 2007–2009 (n=833), and 2010–2012 (n=920). OAC prescription rate steadily increased from 2004–2006 to 2010–2012. Between 2004–2006 and 2007–2009, irrespective of increased warfarin usage, MB tended to decrease, presumably due to low-intensity therapy and avoidance of concomitant use of dual antiplatelets, but TE did not improve. In 2010–2012, direct OACs (DOAC), preferred in low-risk patients, may have contributed to not only decrease TE, but also increase MB, especially extracranial bleeds. In high-risk patients in that time period, mostly treated with warfarin, incidence of TE and MB did not improve.Conclusions:The 9-year trend of stroke prevention indicated a steady increase of OAC prescription and a partial improvement of TE and MB. Even in the era of DOAC, TE prevention was insufficient in high-risk patients, and DOAC were associated with increased extracranial bleeding. (Circ J 2016; 80: 639–649)
Cardiovascular Intervention
  • Yuji Nishimoto, Koshi Matsuo, Yasunori Ueda, Ryuta Sugihara, Akio Hira ...
    Type: ORIGINAL ARTICLE
    Subject area: Cardiovascular Intervention
    2016 Volume 80 Issue 3 Pages 650-656
    Published: February 25, 2016
    Released: February 25, 2016
    [Advance publication] Released: January 20, 2016
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    Background:Drug-eluting stents (DES) have reduced late loss and target lesion revascularization through the inhibition of neointimal hyperplasia, but instead increased the risk of very late stent failure due to incomplete neointimal coverage and neoatherosclerosis. Although newer DES are more effective and safer than the first-generation DES, the difference in the condition of the stented lesions between Resolute zotarolimus-eluting stents (R-ZES) and Endeavor zotarolimus-eluting stents (E-ZES) on angioscopy has not been reported.Methods and Results:Consecutive patients who received R-ZES (n=46) or E-ZES (n=46) for de novo lesion of native coronary artery and had 1-year follow-up angioscopy were examined. Yellow color (grade 0–3), neointimal coverage (grade 0–2), heterogeneity score (maximum-minimum neointimal coverage grade) and thrombus (presence or absence) at stented lesion were evaluated. The maximum yellow color grade (1.2±0.9 vs. 0.7±1.0, P=0.005) was higher in R-ZES than in E-ZES. The maximum (1.9±0.3 vs. 1.5±0.5, P<0.001) and minimum (1.1±0.7 vs. 0.4±0.5, P<0.001) coverage grade was higher in E-ZES than in R-ZES. The heterogeneity score was higher in R-ZES than in E-ZES (1.0±0.5 vs. 0.7±0.7, P=0.007). Prevalence of thrombus was not different between the 2 stents (6.5% vs. 2.2%, P=0.4).Conclusions:E-ZES had better neointimal coverage with less yellow plaque and lower heterogeneity score than R-ZES. The lesions with E-ZES appeared more stable than those with R-ZES. (Circ J 2016; 80: 650–656)
  • Takaaki Komatsu, Sachiko Komatsu, Hidehiko Nakamura, Takanori Kuroyana ...
    Type: ORIGINAL ARTICLE
    Subject area: Cardiovascular Intervention
    2016 Volume 80 Issue 3 Pages 657-662
    Published: February 25, 2016
    Released: February 25, 2016
    [Advance publication] Released: January 27, 2016
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    Background:Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is an effective treatment for patients with ischemic heart disease. In particular, restenosis is suppressed after drug-eluting stent (DES) implantation. However, several problems remain. Previously, we reported neointimal proliferation after DES implantation, which was associated with insulin resistance (IR). The aim of the present study was to clarify whether IR is associated with mortality and major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events (MACCE) after 1st-generation DES implantation.Methods and Results:We researched the clinical records of 109 patients who had undergone elective PCI and DES implantation between May 2007 and December 2010. We segregated these patients according to the value of the homeostasis model assessment of IR (HOMA-IR) into Group P (n=63; HOMA-IR ≥2.5, positive) and Group N (n=46; HOMA-IR <2.5, negative), and examined the relationship between HOMA-IR and MACCE. The observation period was 7.4±1.6 years. There were no differences between the 2 groups in the occurrence of all-cause death, cardiac death, restenosis, myocardial infarction, stroke, heart failure, or stent thrombosis. However, the late catch-up phenomenon was significantly more common in Group P than in Group N (12.7% vs. 2.2% P=0.048).Conclusions:IR is a useful predictor of the late catch-up phenomenon after DES implantation, and improvement of IR may help to prevent the phenomenon. (Circ J 2016; 80: 657–662)
Cardiovascular Surgery
  • Hiroto Kitahara, Mitsushige Murata, Kazuma Okamoto, Mikihiko Kudo, Aki ...
    Type: ORIGINAL ARTICLE
    Subject area: Cardiovascular Surgery
    2016 Volume 80 Issue 3 Pages 663-667
    Published: February 25, 2016
    Released: February 25, 2016
    [Advance publication] Released: January 20, 2016
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    Background:Recently, the loop technique has been standardized for mitral valve repair, with excellent long-term outcomes reported. This study thus analyzed whether the loop technique could preserve mitral leaflet mobility on trans-thoracic echocardiography.Methods and Results:Among 367 concomitant patients who underwent mitral valve repair at Keio University Hospital between January 2007 and December 2014, 304 patients had a prolapse of the posterior leaflet. Of these, 84 cases assessed on echocardiography were retrospectively analyzed for this study. These patients were divided into 4 groups based on the procedure used: (1) group L1 (n=28), loop technique alone; (2) group L2 (n=14), loop technique with resection and suture; (3) group L3 (n=33), loop technique with plication of indentation; and (4) group R (n=9), resection and suture alone. The mean postoperative mobile posterior mitral leaflet (PML) angles in groups L1 and L2 (39.3±16.0°, 37.3±16.0°) were significantly larger than those in groups L3 and R (18.8±15.7°, 15.3±15.7°), respectively (P<0.01). Ring size, age, and mobile PML angle had a statistically significant correlation with the postoperative mean mitral valve pressure gradient (P<0.05).Conclusions:The loop technique preserved PML mobility and enabled implantation of a larger ring, resulting in a reduced mean mitral valve pressure gradient. (Circ J 2016; 80: 663–667)
Heart Failure
  • Hiroyuki Tsutsui, Shinichi Momomura, Akira Yamashina, Hisao Ogawa, Hir ...
    Type: ORIGINAL ARTICLE
    Subject area: Heart Failure
    2016 Volume 80 Issue 3 Pages 668-676
    Published: February 25, 2016
    Released: February 25, 2016
    [Advance publication] Released: January 14, 2016
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    Background:Elevated heart rate (HR) is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular outcomes in various cardiac diseases, including heart failure (HF).Methods and Results:Randomized placebo-controlled study was conducted to evaluate the effects of ivabradine, an Ifinhibitor, on the resting HR in 126 Japanese symptomatic HF patients with left ventricular ejection fraction ≤35%, resting HR ≥75 beats/min in sinus rhythm, and stable, optimal background treatment. Patients were randomly allocated into 3 groups: placebo; starting dose of ivabradine 2.5 mg twice daily (BID; 2.5 mg group); 5 mg BID group. The dose was increased up to 7.5 mg BID according to dose-adjustment criteria. After the 6-week treatment, the reductions in resting HR were significant in both the 2.5-mg (16.6±8.1 beats/min) and 5-mg (16.4±9.6 beats/min) groups (P<0.0001 for both groups) compared with placebo (1.7±8.7 beats/min). The most frequent side effect of ivabradine was phosphenes, but all were mild. Treatment was discontinued in 1 patient due to HF in the 5 mg group.Conclusions:Ivabradine starting at 2.5 or 5 mg BID effectively reduced resting HR in Japanese HF patients. Ivabradine at the starting dose of 2.5 mg BID could be safer than 5 mg BID. (Circ J 2016; 80: 668–676)
  • Soichiro Tadaki, Yasuhiko Sakata, Yutaka Miura, Satoshi Miyata, Masano ...
    Type: ORIGINAL ARTICLE
    Subject area: Heart Failure
    2016 Volume 80 Issue 3 Pages 677-688
    Published: February 25, 2016
    Released: February 25, 2016
    [Advance publication] Released: January 21, 2016
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    Supplementary material
    Background:Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is involved in the increased risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases. We have previously reported that the prevalence of MetS is more than 2-fold greater in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) than in the general population in Japan. However, the prognostic impact of MetS in CHF patients remains to be elucidated.Methods and Results:In the present nationwide, large-scale clinical study in Japan, we enrolled 4,762 patients with Stage C/D CHF. The prevalence of MetS by the definition of the Japanese Committee for the Diagnostic Criteria in 2005 was 41.3% (50.6% in males, 21.5% in females). MetS was characterized by higher prevalence of males, obesity and lifestyle-related comorbidities, including glucose intolerance, dyslipidemia and hypertension. Multivariate Cox hazard analysis showed that MetS was associated with increased incidence of the composite of all-cause death and atherosclerotic events in males (hazard ratio [HR] 1.28; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.06–1.54, P=0.011) but not in females (HR 1.23, 95% CI 0.87–1.75, P=0.241). Among the components of MetS, over waist circumference and glucose intolerance were significantly associated with increased incidence of the composite endpoint (HR 1.23, P=0.038, and HR 1.29, P<0.001, respectively) in males but not in females.Conclusions:The results indicate that MetS only has a negative prognostic impact in male CHF patients. (Circ J 2016; 80: 677–688)
Imaging
  • Ayano Makita, Naoya Matsumoto, Yasuyuki Suzuki, Yusuke Hori, Keiichiro ...
    Type: ORIGINAL ARTICLE
    Subject area: Imaging
    2016 Volume 80 Issue 3 Pages 689-695
    Published: February 25, 2016
    Released: February 25, 2016
    [Advance publication] Released: January 18, 2016
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    Background:The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical feasibility of simultaneous acquisition of rest 99mTc-tetrofosmin/stress 201Tl dual-isotope single-photon emission computed tomography with a semiconductor gamma camera.Methods and Results:Ninety-four patients with known or suspected coronary artery disease (CAD) were enrolled in the study. First, patients were injected with 99mTc-tetrofosmin (296 MBq) for rest imaging, followed by 201Tl (74 MBq) injection during 6 min of vasodilator stress test. Immediately after the stress test, the patients underwent the first electrocardiogram (ECG)-gated simultaneous acquisition including rest and stress perfusion scans. Patients were brought back for the second simultaneous acquisition for the comparison of ECG-gated wall motion between stress and rest scan 30 min later. Coronary angiography was performed in all the patients within 3 months of this protocol. Sensitivity, specificity and accuracy on a per patient basis to detect significant coronary artery stenosis (≥75%) were 88.6%, 79.2% and 86.2%, respectively. Per coronary vessel, sensitivity, specificity and accuracy were as follows: 84.9%, 80.5% and 83% in the left anterior descending coronary artery; 75%, 93.1% and 86.2% in the left circumflex coronary artery; and 74.2%, 85.7% and 81.9% in the right coronary artery.Conclusions:Simultaneous acquisition of rest 99mTc-tetrofosmin/stress 201Tl dual-isotope protocol had high diagnostic accuracy for significant CAD. (Circ J 2016; 80: 689–695)
Pediatric Cardiology and Adult Congenital Heart Disease
  • Junichi Ozawa, Seiko Ohno, Takashi Hisamatsu, Hideki Itoh, Takeru Maki ...
    Type: ORIGINAL ARTICLE
    2016 Volume 80 Issue 3 Pages 696-702
    Published: February 25, 2016
    Released: February 25, 2016
    [Advance publication] Released: January 26, 2016
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    Background:In children with long QT syndrome (LQTS), risk factors for cardiac events have been reported, but age-, gender- and genotype-related differences in prognosis remain unknown in Asian countries.Methods and Results:The study examined clinical prognosis at age between 1 and 20 years in 496 LQTS patients who were genotyped as either of LQT1–3 (male, n=206). Heterozygous mutations were observed in 3 major responsible genes:KCNQ1in271,KCNH2in 192, andSCN5Ain 33 patients. LQTS-associated events were classified into 3 categories: (1) syncope (n=133); (2) repetitive torsade de pointes (TdP, n=3); and (3) cardiopulmonary arrest (CPA, n=4). The risk of cardiac events was significantly lower in LQT1 girls than boys≤12 years (HR, 0.55), whereas LQT2 female patients ≥13 years had the higher risk of cardiac events than male patients (HR, 4.60). Patients in the repetitive TdP or CPA group included 1 LQT1 female patient, 1 LQT2 male patient, and 5 LQT2 female patients. All LQT2 patients in these groups had TdP repeatedly immediately after the antecedent event. In addition, all 5 female LQT2 patients in these groups had the event after or near puberty.Conclusions:Female LQT2 children might have repeated TdP shortly after prior events, especially after puberty. (Circ J 2016; 80: 696–702)
  • Ichige Kajimura, Toru Akaike, Susumu Minamisawa
    Type: ORIGINAL ARTICLE
    Subject area: Pediatric Cardiology and Adult Congenital Heart Disease
    2016 Volume 80 Issue 3 Pages 703-711
    Published: February 25, 2016
    Released: February 25, 2016
    [Advance publication] Released: January 27, 2016
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    Supplementary material
    Background:The incidence of patent ductus arteriosus is known to be higher in premature neonates with infection than in those without infection. However, the detailed mechanism has not been investigated.Methods and Results:Lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 100 μg/kg) was injected into timed-pregnant Wistar rats on day 18 and 19 of pregnancy. The fetuses were delivered by cesarean section on gestational day 21. Using a rapid whole-body freezing method, it was found that closure of the ductus arteriosus (DA) was significantly delayed in neonates from LPS-injected rats after birth. Histological analysis demonstrated that there was no difference in vascular remodeling of the DA. Quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that the tumor necrosis factor α and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) mRNA expression level was significantly increased, but there was no difference in cyclooxygenase 2 and prostaglandin receptor, EP4, mRNA expression in the DA from LPS-injected rats. Moreover, the NOS inhibitor,Nω-Nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride, significantly prevented the delayed closure of the DA after birth in neonates from LPS-injected rats.Conclusions:The present study demonstrated that LPS-mediated infection delayed closure of the rat DA without apparent histological changes. iNOS, but not prostaglandin E2, may play a primary role in delayed functional closure of the DA. (Circ J 2016; 80: 703–711)
Peripheral Vascular Disease
  • Yukihito Higashi, Tetsuro Miyata, Hiroshi Shigematsu, Hideki Origasa, ...
    Type: ORIGINAL ARTICLE
    Subject area: Peripheral Vascular Disease
    2016 Volume 80 Issue 3 Pages 712-721
    Published: February 25, 2016
    Released: February 25, 2016
    [Advance publication] Released: February 04, 2016
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    Background:Despite mounting evidence of increased cardiovascular events in patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD), the overall incidence of cardiovascular events in PAD patients has not been fully clarified in Japan. The prospective Surveillance of cardiovascular Events in Antiplatelet-treated arterioSclerosis Obliterans patients in JapaN (SEASON) is a prospective observational multicenter study and here we report the baseline clinical characteristics, including atherosclerosis risk factor prevalence, in PAD patients treated with antiplatelet agents.Methods and Results:The SEASON registry enrolled 11,375 patients in 1,745 institutions and the data for 10,322 patients were analyzed. At baseline, the average age was 73.8±9.9 years, 60.0% were male and 83.9% were in Fontaine stage I or II. They had arteriosclerosis risk factors, such as current smoking (16.2%), hypertension (61.5%), diabetes mellitus (38.3%) and dyslipidemia (38.8%). There were complications including heart disease (29.7%), cerebrovascular disease (17.1%) and chronic kidney disease (14.3%). A subpopulation analysis revealed that the proportions of patients with risk factors were high in patients with lower ankle-brachial pressure index value.Conclusions:The baseline characteristics of the SEASON population demonstrate that real-world PAD patients have cardiovascular risk factors and comorbidities next to definite PAD patients. Further analysis of this database will contribute to understanding the real-world situation of PAD patients receiving antiplatelet therapy in Japan. (Circ J 2016; 80: 712–721)
Renal Disease
  • Sophie Liabeuf, Lucie Desjardins, Ziad A. Massy, François Brazier, Pie ...
    Type: ORIGINAL ARTICLE
    Subject area: Renal Disease
    2016 Volume 80 Issue 3 Pages 722-730
    Published: February 25, 2016
    Released: February 25, 2016
    [Advance publication] Released: February 04, 2016
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    Background:Indoxyl sulfate (IS) is a protein-bound uremic toxin that is known to be associated with the risk of cardiovascular (CV) disease and death in both predialysis and dialysis patients. Data on levels of protein-bound uremic toxins in kidney transplant patients are scarce. The study’s objective was to evaluate the levels of IS in kidney transplant patients and the relationship with hard outcomes.Methods and Results:In 311 kidney transplant patients, IS levels were measured immediately before transplantation (T0), and 1 month (M1) and 12 months (M12) afterwards. Over a mean±standard deviation follow-up period of 113±29 months, a total of 55 deaths, 70 CV events and 71 graft losses were recorded. We observed a rapid significant decrease (below or near the normal value) in IS levels after kidney transplantation. Total and free IS levels at M12 were significantly higher in non-transplant patients than in transplant patients (P=0.003 and <0.0001 respectively), despite having similar estimated glomerular filtration rates. Lastly, IS levels were not associated with overall mortality, CV events or graft loss at T0, M1 or M12.Conclusions:IS levels were significantly lower in kidney transplant receipts than in non-recipients suggesting that kidney transplantation protects against an increase in IS levels. IS levels were not associated with hard outcomes in kidney transplant patients. (Circ J 2016; 80: 722–730)
Stroke
  • Po-Sheng Chen, Ching-Lan Cheng, Yea-Huei Kao Yang, Yi-Heng Li
    Type: ORIGINAL ARTICLE
    Subject area: Stroke
    2016 Volume 80 Issue 3 Pages 731-737
    Published: February 25, 2016
    Released: February 25, 2016
    [Advance publication] Released: January 08, 2016
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    Supplementary material
    Background:Statin therapy is beneficial for ischemic stroke patients, but little is known about whether statin adherence affects clinical outcome. We therefore evaluated the effect of statin adherence in patients with ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA).Methods and Results:From Taiwan Bureau of National Health Insurance database, we enrolled patients with no prior statin therapy admitted for ischemic stroke or TIA between January 2002 and December 2005. Patients were grouped based on statin adherence according to medication possession ratio (MPR): good adherence (MPR >80%; n=2,274), intermittent adherence (MPR=40–80%; n=3,710), and poor adherence (MPR <40%; n=9,424). The study endpoint was the composite outcome of recurrent ischemic stroke, hemorrhagic stroke, and acute coronary event 1 year after statin initiation. Follow-up data were obtained through December 2010. During follow-up, composite endpoints occurred in 5,354 patients (34.7%): good adherence, 798 patients (35.1%); intermittent adherence, 1,338 patients (36.1%); and poor adherence, 3,218 patients (34.1%). Compared with the good adherence group, patients in the poor adherence group and intermittent adherence group had higher risk of worse clinical outcome (adjusted HR, 1.26 and 1.16, respectively; 95% CI: 1.17–1.37 and 1.07–1.27, respectively).Conclusions:Good statin adherence was associated with better clinical outcome in patients with acute ischemic stroke or TIA. (Circ J 2016; 80: 731–737)
Valvular Heart Disease
  • Antonio Arribas-Jimenez, Juan C Rama-Merchan, Manuel Barreiro-Pérez, S ...
    Type: ORIGINAL ARTICLE
    Subject area: Valvular Heart Disease
    2016 Volume 80 Issue 3 Pages 738-744
    Published: February 25, 2016
    Released: February 25, 2016
    [Advance publication] Released: January 26, 2016
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    Background:Mitral paravalvular leak (PVL) is a potential complication of surgical valve replacement procedures. Real-time 3D transesophageal echocardiography (RT-3DTEE) has emerged as an efficient tool for providing essential information about the anatomy of mitral PVLs compared with 2DTEE findings. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the utility of RT-3DTEE in the assessment of mitral PVLs.Methods and Results:The 3D characteristics of PVLs were recorded and compared with 2D findings. We included 34 consecutive patients with clinical suspicion of mitral PVL in the study. Mitral PVLs were detected in 26 patients (76%); 26 PVLs were identified by 2DTEE and 37 by RT-3DTEE. Moderate or severe mitral regurgitation was present in 23 patients (88%). The most common PVL locations were the septal and posterior regions. The median PVL size measured by RT-3DTEE was 7 mm long×4 mm wide. The median vena contracta of defect measured by 2DTEE and RT-3DTEE was 5 mm and 4 mm, respectively. The median effective regurgitant orifice area of defect measured by RT-3DTEE was 0.36 cm2. The defect types were “oval” (54%), “round” (35%), “crescentic” (8%) and highly irregular (3%).Conclusions:Compared with 2DTEE, RT-3DTEE provided detailed descriptions of the number, location, size and morphology of PVLs, which is essential for planning and guiding the potential corrective techniques. (Circ J 2016; 80: 738–744)
Rapid Communication
  • Hiroyuki Osanai, Masayoshi Ajioka, Tomohiro Masutomi, Tasuku Kuwayama, ...
    Type: RAPID COMMUNICATION
    2016 Volume 80 Issue 3 Pages 745-747
    Published: February 25, 2016
    Released: February 25, 2016
    [Advance publication] Released: January 27, 2016
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    Background:The distribution of anti-factor Xa activity (AXA) values in non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) patients on edoxaban therapy has not been fully elucidated.Methods and Results:The steady-state trough and peak AXA values were measured in 66 NVAF patients. The trough AXA value did not differ significantly between the 60-mg and the 30-mg OD groups (0.17±0.13 IU/ml vs. 0.12±0.11 IU/ml, respectively; P=0.17). Similarly, the peak AXA value did not differ significantly between the 2 groups (1.45±0.81 IU/ml vs. 1.25±0.48 IU/ml, respectively; P=0.26).Conclusions:Recommended dosing should be followed for sufficient efficacy of edoxaban. (Circ J 2016; 80: 745–747)
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