Adipose tissue serves not only as an energy store or a mechanical cushion, but also as an endocrine organ. Recent evidence revealed that perivascular adipose tissue is involved in vascular homeostasis and pathophysiology of adjacent arteries by producing various adipokines. Epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) is located between the surface of the heart and the visceral layer of the pericardium and surrounds the coronary arteries. Many clinical studies suggest that an increase in EAT volume is associated with coronary artery disease. It has been reported that exercise and some antidiabetic drugs can reduce EAT volume. In this review, we outline recent findings on the roles of EAT in the pathogenesis of coronary atherosclerosis.
Background:Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration and premature acute coronary syndrome (ACS). However, hereditary diseases may have regional characteristics, and few data are available regarding the prevalence of FH throughout particular regions in Japan. This study investigated the prevalence and prognosis of FH in patients with ACS in Mie Prefecture, Japan.
Methods and Results:This study investigated 738 ACS patients from the Mie ACS Registry in Mie Prefecture, and 706 (95.7%) with sufficient data to diagnose FH were enrolled for analysis. Eighteen patients (2.5%) were diagnosed with FH, which was similar to findings of another multidistrict registry conducted in Japan. Patients with FH were significantly younger and had a higher prevalence of premature onset of ACS than patients with non-FH (P<0.01). Incidence of major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events (MACCE) was not statistically different between patients with FH and non-FH in this study population, even in the propensity score-matched analysis.
Conclusions:Prevalence of FH in ACS patients from the Mie Prefecture was similar to that found in another Japanese multidistrict registry. Among ACS patients, short-term incidence of MACCE was not statistically different between patients with FH and non-FH in this study population.
Background:This study evaluated the safety of 3-month dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) after implantation of a bioresorbable polymer sirolimus-eluting stent (BP-SES) and compared P2Y12inhibitor with aspirin monotherapy 3 months after DAPT.
Methods and Results:Patients who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention using BP-SES were enrolled and followed for 1 year. Patients with a history of stent thrombosis were excluded. The primary endpoint was a composite of all-cause death, myocardial infarction, stroke (ischemic and hemorrhagic), definite or probable stent thrombosis, and severe bleeding at 12 months. The BP-SES arm of the CENTURY II trial was used as a conventional DAPT group for comparison. After DAPT, patients were maintained on either aspirin (n=846) or a P2Y12inhibitor (n=674 patients).In all, 1,695 patients were enrolled in the study across 65 centers. The primary endpoint occurred in 4.3% of patients at 1 year. After propensity score adjustment, the incidence of the primary endpoint was not inferior in those receiving DAPT for 3 months compared with conventional DAPT (5.5%; Pnon-inferiority<0.0001). The incidence of the primary endpoint and severe bleeding did not differ between the aspirin and P2Y12inhibitor monotherapy groups.
Conclusions:After adjustment, 3-month DAPT was not inferior to longer DAPT after BP-SES implantation in terms of net adverse clinical events. There was no difference in bleeding and thrombotic events between P2Y12inhibitor and aspirin monotherapy after 3 months DAPT.
Background:The risks of bleeding and cardiovascular events in high bleeding risk (HBR) Japanese patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) while receiving single-antiplatelet therapy (SAPT) remains unknown. We aimed to evaluate the frequency of bleeding and cardiovascular events associated with prasugrel monotherapy after short-term dual-antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) in Japanese HBR patients after PCI.
Methods and Results:The PENDULUM mono study was a multicenter, non-interventional, prospective registry (n=1,173). The primary endpoint was the cumulative incidence of clinically relevant bleeding (CRB; Bleeding Academic Research Consortium types 2, 3, and 5) from 1 to 12 months after PCI. Secondary endpoints included major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events (MACCE). The proportion of patients who received prasugrel monotherapy at 12 months after PCI was 79.7%, and no cases of stent thrombosis were observed among these patients. The cumulative incidence of CRB was 3.2% from 1 to 12 months after PCI; that of MACCE was 3.8%. Severe anemia, chronic kidney disease, oral anticoagulant use at discharge, and heart failure were significantly associated with CRB.
Conclusions:Among HBR patients undergoing PCI who were not suitable for concomitant aspirin and were scheduled for prasugrel monotherapy, most patients were on prasugrel monotherapy after DAPT. Cumulative incidences of CRB and MACCE after periprocedural period were 3.2% and 3.8%, respectively, and no cases of stent thrombosis were reported. SAPT might be a suitable alternative to DAPT.
Background:Emerging evidence advocates the use of restrictive transfusion strategies at hemoglobin (Hb) levels of approximately 7–8 g/dL in cardiac surgeries using cardiopulmonary bypass. Yet, it is unclear whether the same thresholds can be applied to off-pump coronary bypass (OPCAB) that accompanies cardiac displacement and warm regional ischemia-reperfusion injury without the aid of a bypass machine. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between perioperative nadir Hb level and outcome following OPCAB.
Methods and Results:Medical records of 1,360 patients were reviewed. Hb levels were serially assessed during and after surgery. The incidence of composite endpoints was 35%, which included myocardial infarction, stroke, acute kidney injury, sternal infection, reoperation, prolonged mechanical ventilation, and in-hospital mortality. The nadir Hb level was significantly lower in the morbidity group than in the non-morbidity group (8.1 [7.4−9.1] vs. 8.8 [7.9−9.8] g/dL, P<0.001). Multivariable logistic regression analysis revealed nadir Hb as an independent risk factor of adverse outcome (odds ratio: 0.878, 95% confidence intervals: 0.776−0.994, P=0.04), whereas preoperative anemia and perioperative transfusion were not. The critical value of Hb for predicting detrimental outcome was 8.05 g/dL.
Conclusions:A significant association is found between perioperative nadir Hb and adverse outcome after OPCAB. Although preoperative anemia was not associated with poor prognosisper se, it was the only modifiable risk factor that was closely linked to nadir Hb.
Background:Selective use of distal filter protection during percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for acute coronary syndromes (ACS) decreased the incidence of no-reflow phenomena and in-hospital serious adverse cardiac events compared with conventional PCI in patients with attenuated plaque ≥5 mm; however, its long-term clinical outcome remains unknown.
Methods and Results:Patients who had ACS with attenuated plaque ≥5 mm were assigned to receive distal protection (DP) (n=98) or conventional treatment (CT) (n=96). The rate of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE), a composite of death from any cause, non-fatal myocardial infarction, or target vessel revascularization (TVR) at 1 year, was the pre-specified secondary endpoint of the trial. MACE at 1 year occurred in 12 patients (12.2%) in the DP group and 3 patients (3.1%) in the CT group (P=0.029), which was driven by a higher risk of TVR (11 [11.2%] vs. 2 [2.1%], P=0.018). In patients treated with bare-metal stents (n=42), MACE occurred in 25.0% of the patients in the DP group and in none of the patients in the CT group (P=0.029), whereas in patients treated with drug-eluting stents (n=151), rates of MACE were similar in the groups (8.1% vs. 3.9%, P=0.32).
Conclusions:In ACS patients with attenuated plaque ≥5 mm, the 1-year rates of MACE were higher in the DP group than in the CT group. This effect might be mitigated by the use of drug-eluting stents.
Background:Moderate/severe coronary artery calcification (CAC) predicts worse clinical outcomes in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). However, to date most studies have been modest in size and with limited follow-up. We aimed to assess the association between calcification severity and long-term clinical outcomes in a large cohort undergoing PCI.
Methods and Results:In total, 10,068 consecutive patients who underwent PCI at Fuwai Hospital were enrolled in this prospective observational study. Patients were categorized as none/mild or moderate/severe CAC according to the severity of the target lesion by visual assessment of coronary angiography. Major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE), a composite event of death, myocardial infarction and revascularization, at 5 years were assessed. None/mild CAC was observed in 8,229 (81.7%) patients, and moderate/severe CAC was observed in 1,839 (18.3%) patients. Patients with moderate/severe CAC had a significantly higher rate of 5-year unplanned revascularization (15.2% vs. 13.2%, P=0.022) and MACE (20.7% vs. 17.9%, P=0.005). After propensity score matching, the moderate/severe CAC group still had a higher rate of 5-year unplanned revascularization (15.2% vs. 12.6%, P=0.019). Cox regression analysis using clinically significant variables revealed moderate/severe calcification was independently associated with higher risk of 2-year unplanned target vessel revascularization (hazard ratio (HR)=1.287, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.036–1.600, P=0.023) and MACE (HR=1.242, 95% CI: 1.039–1.484, P=0.017), but not 5-year unplanned revascularization and MACE.
Conclusions:In patients undergoing PCI, moderate/severe coronary calcification increases the risk of long-term MACE.
Background:Coronary interventions using drug-eluting stents (DESs) of left main coronary artery (LMCA) lesions have shown favorable clinical outcomes. However, duration of dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) after LMCA interventions has not yet been investigated.
Methods and Results:From a multicenter Korean Multicenter Angioplasty Team (KOMATE) registry, 1,004 patients who received DES implantations for LMCA lesions and did not experience major adverse cardiovascular events (including major bleeding) for 1 year after coronary intervention were analyzed. Patients were divided into 2 groups; DAPT ≤12 (n=503) and >12 months (n=501). The primary endpoint was number of net clinical adverse events (NACEs), composite of cardiac deaths, myocardial infarctions, stent thrombosis and major bleeding events. During a 4.5-year follow-up period after LMCA interventions, the DAPT >12 months group showed a lower NACE rate than the DAPT ≤12 months group (adjusted-HR 0.53 [0.29–0.99], P=0.045). For patients who maintained DAPT >12 months, rate of cardiac deaths, myocardial infarctions, and stent thrombosis events were lower than in patients who had DAPT ≤12 months (adjusted-HR 0.35 [0.17–0.73], P=0.005) without increased major bleeding (P=0.402).
Conclusions:For patients who can continue DAPT without major bleeding events, prolonged DAPT (>12 months) after LMCA stenting demonstrated better long-term efficacy outcomes than DAPT ≤12 months with comparable safety.
Jaehoon Chung, Hack-Lyoung Kim, Jung Pyo Lee, Woo-Hyun Lim, Jae-Bin Se ...
Article type: ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Subject area: Biomarker
2021 Volume 85 Issue 1 Pages
Published: December 25, 2020
Released on J-STAGE: December 25, 2020 Advance online publication: November 28, 2020
Background:There is little data as to whether osteoprotegerin (OPG) is associated with target organ damage (TOD), so we evaluated the association in patients at high risk of coronary artery disease (CAD).
Methods and Results:A total of 349 patients who underwent invasive coronary angiography (ICA) for suspected CAD were prospectively recruited. During the index admission, 6 TOD parameters were collected: extent of CAD, glomerular filtration rate (GFR), left ventricular mass index (LVMI), E/e’, brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV), and ankle-brachial index (ABI). Serum OPG levels were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The OPG level was significantly higher in patients with ≥1 TOD parameter than in those without (314±186 vs. 202±74 pg/mL, P<0.001). For each TOD parameter, the serum OPG level was significantly higher in patients with TOD than in those without (P<0.05 for each) except for ABI. In correlation analysis, OPG was significantly associated with GFR, LVMI, E/e’, baPWV and ABI (P<0.05 for each). The OPG concentration increased proportionally with increasing TOD (P<0.001). Higher OPG concentrations (≥198 pg/mL) was significantly associated with the presence of TOD (odds ratio 3.22; 95% confidence interval 1.51–6.85; P=0.002) even after controlling for potential confounders.
Conclusions:Serum OPG level was significantly associated with a variety of TOD in patients undergoing ICA. OPG may be a useful marker for TOD and in the risk stratification of patients at high risk of CAD.