Circulation Journal
Online ISSN : 1347-4820
Print ISSN : 1346-9843
ISSN-L : 1346-9843
Volume 79 , Issue 12
Showing 1-40 articles out of 40 articles from the selected issue
Reviews
  • Yoshinari Uehara, Giulia Chiesa, Keijiro Saku
    Type: REVIEW
    2015 Volume 79 Issue 12 Pages 2523-2528
    Published: November 25, 2015
    Released: November 25, 2015
    [Advance publication] Released: November 06, 2015
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS FULL-TEXT HTML
    Numerous randomized clinical trials have established statins as the major standard therapy for atherosclerotic diseases because these molecules decrease the plasma level of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and moderately increase that of plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. The reverse cholesterol transport pathway, mediated by HDL particles, has a relevant antiatherogenic potential. An important approach to HDL-targeted therapy is optimization of the HDL-cholesterol level and enhanced removal of plasma cholesterol, together with the prevention and mitigation of inflammation related to atherosclerosis. Small-molecule inhibitors of cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) increase the HDL-cholesterol level in subjects with normal or low HDL-cholesterol. However, CETP inhibitors do not seem to reduce the risk of atherosclerotic diseases. HDL therapies using reconstituted HDL, including apolipoprotein (Apo) A-I Milano, ApoA-I mimetics, or full-length ApoA-I, are dramatically effective in animal models. Of those, the ApoA-I-mimetic peptide called FAMP effectively removes cholesterol via the ABCA1 transporter and acts as an antiatherosclerotic agent by enhancing the biological functions of HDL without elevating the HDL-cholesterol level. Our review of the literature leads us to conclude that HDL-targeted therapies have significant atheroprotective potential and thus may effectively treat patients with cardiovascular diseases. (Circ J 2015; 79: 2523–2528)
  • Hiroshi Akazawa
    Type: REVIEW FOR THE 2014 SATO AWARD
    2015 Volume 79 Issue 12 Pages 2529-2536
    Published: November 25, 2015
    Released: November 25, 2015
    [Advance publication] Released: November 05, 2015
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS FULL-TEXT HTML
    During embryogenesis, progenitor cells are specified and differentiated into mature cardiomyocytes. Soon after birth, the ability of cardiomyocytes to proliferate is strongly restrained, and thereafter, they grow in size without cell division. Under pathological conditions, cardiomyocytes show adaptive and maladaptive responses through complex intracellular signaling pathways and cross-talking networks of intercellular and inter-tissue communications, but ultimately, they become dysfunctional and undergo cell death or degeneration. Cardiovascular diseases remain the most prevalent, costly, disabling, and deadly medical conditions. To develop novel therapies for them, it is important to elucidate the underlying mechanisms that govern gene expression, signal transduction to cellular communication. In this review article for the 2014 SATO Memorial Award, an approach to uncover molecular and cellular pathophysiology is summarized, focusing on homeobox transcription factor Nkx2-5 in the transcriptional regulation of the cardiac gene program, 3-phosphoinositide-dependent kinase-1, in the regulation of postnatal cardiomyocyte growth, survival, and function, angiotensin II type 1 receptor in the development of pathological hypertrophy and remodeling, and mast cell infiltration in the pathogenesis of atrial remodeling and fibrillation. (Circ J 2015; 79: 2529–2536)
Editorials
Original Articles
Arrhythmia/Electrophysiology
  • Yuichi J. Shimada, Takeshi Yamashita, Yukihiro Koretsune, Tetsuya Kimu ...
    Type: ORIGINAL ARTICLE
    2015 Volume 79 Issue 12 Pages 2560-2567
    Published: November 25, 2015
    Released: November 25, 2015
    [Advance publication] Released: October 09, 2015
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS FULL-TEXT HTML
    Background:In 21,105 patients with atrial fibrillation in the ENGAGE AF-TIMI 48 trial, edoxaban was non-inferior to warfarin in preventing thromboembolic events while reducing bleeding. We compared results in Japan with the rest of East Asia (EA), including China, Korea, and Taiwan.Methods and Results:We compared baseline characteristics, time-in-therapeutic range (TTR) for warfarin, and outcomes (efficacy: stroke or systemic embolic events [SEE], safety: major bleeding). Interaction P values were used to assess for effect modification of treatment (higher-dose edoxaban [HDE, 60 mg/30 mg] vs. warfarin; lower-dose edoxaban [LDE, 30 mg/15 mg] vs. warfarin) by region with adjustments for baseline characteristics. Fewer patients in Japan (n=1,010) were female, taking aspirin or amiodarone, naïve to warfarin (P<0.001 for each), had a history of stroke or transient ischemic attack (P=0.02), and more patients needed dose reduction (P<0.001) compared with EA (n=933). The mean TTR was higher in Japan (70% vs. 56%, P<0.001). Evidence for statistical interactions was observed for HDE vs. warfarin by region for stroke/SEE (adjusted P-int=0.052) and major bleeding (adjusted P-int=0.048) with greater relative efficacy and safety with HDE in EA compared with Japan. No interactions were observed for LDE vs. warfarin after adjustment.Conclusions:HDE had a greater relative efficacy and safety in EA compared with Japan that was only partially explained by differences in baseline characteristics and TTR. (Circ J 2015; 79: 2560–2567)
  • Tadashi Wada, Satoshi Nagase, Hiroshi Morita, Koji Nakagawa, Nobuhiro ...
    Type: ORIGINAL ARTICLE
    2015 Volume 79 Issue 12 Pages 2568-2575
    Published: November 25, 2015
    Released: November 25, 2015
    [Advance publication] Released: October 08, 2015
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS FULL-TEXT HTML
    Background:Brugada syndrome (BrS)-type electrocardiogram (ECG) is concealed by complete right bundle-branch block (CRBBB) in some cases of BrS. Clinical significance of BrS masked by CRBBB is not well known.Methods and Results:We reviewed an ECG database of 326 BrS patients who had type 1 ECG with or without pilsicainide. “BrS masked by CRBBB” was defined on ECG as <2-mm elevation of the J point at the time of CRBBB in the right precordial leads, and BrS-type J-point elevation ≥2 mm at the time of normalized QRS complex on relieved CRBBB. We identified 25 BrS patients (7.7%) with persistent (n=12) or intermittent CRBBB (n=13). Relief of CRBBB by pacing was performed in patients with persistent CRBBB. The prevalence of BrS masked by CRBBB was 3.1% (10/326 patients). Three patients had type 1 ECG, and 7 patients had type 2 or 3 ECG on relief of CRBBB. Two of these 10 patients had lethal arrhythmic events during the follow-up period (mean, 86.4±57.2 months). There was no prognostic difference between BrS masked by CRBBB and other BrS.Conclusions:In a small BrS population, CRBBB can completely mask typical BrS-type ECG. BrS masked by CRBBB is associated with the same risk of fatal ventricular tachyarrhythmia as other BrS. (Circ J 2015; 79: 2568–2575)
  • Marina Antolini, Alessandro Brustio, Mara Morello, Federica Bongiovann ...
    Type: ORIGINAL ARTICLE
    2015 Volume 79 Issue 12 Pages 2576-2583
    Published: November 25, 2015
    Released: November 25, 2015
    [Advance publication] Released: October 08, 2015
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS FULL-TEXT HTML
    Background:Data are lacking on the effect of radiofrequency catheter ablation (RFCA) on atrial function. The aim of this study was to determine a cut-off of pre-ablation left atrial (LA) function in order to predict atrial functional recovery after RFCA.Methods and Results:A total of 64 atrial fibrillation (AF) patients who underwent RFCA were enrolled (age, 59.05±12.09 years; 36% persistent AF; LA volume 37.8±13.6 ml/m2). LA emptying fraction (LAEF), LA active fraction (LAAEF), LA passive emptying fraction (LAPEF) and LA expansion index (LAEI) were evaluated in sinus rhythm before and 48 h, 15 days, 1, 2, 3 and 9 months after ablation. LA function improvement was defined as any positive increase in LAEF compared with baseline. On univariate and multivariate analysis only baseline atrial function proved to be an independent predictor of LA function improvement after ablation (P=0.002; OR=0.001; 95% CI: 0.000–0.099). On receiver operating characteristic analysis (AUC=0.70), cut-off for baseline LAEF was 40%. At 9 months, patients with LAEF <40% had significant improvement in atrial performance (LAEF, P=0.01; LAAEF, P=0.036; LAEI, P=0.004); a significant negative correlation between baseline LAEF and LA function improvement was observed (r=–0.62; 95% CI: –0.83 to –0.26; P(r=0)<0.002).Conclusions:Baseline LAEF is an independent predictor of LA function recovery after RFCA. The beneficial effect of AF ablation is most evident in patients with LAEF<40%. (Circ J 2015; 79: 2576–2583)
  • Hiroyuki Osanai, Masayoshi Ajioka, Tomohiro Masutomi, Tasuku Kuwayama, ...
    Type: ORIGINAL ARTICLE
    Subject area: x
    2015 Volume 79 Issue 12 Pages 2584-2590
    Published: November 25, 2015
    Released: November 25, 2015
    [Advance publication] Released: October 06, 2015
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS FULL-TEXT HTML
    Background:Chromogenic anti-factor Xa activity (AXA) assay is reported to be the most appropriate method to measure the pharmacodynamics of apixaban, but the distribution of AXA in non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) patients on apixaban therapy has not been fully elucidated.Methods and Results:Steady-state trough and peak AXA were measured in 124 NVAF patients taking apixaban. In 25 patients, baseline, first peak, and trough AXA were also examined, and were 0.01±0.02 IU/ml, 0.83±0.43 IU/ml, and 0.34±0.17 IU/ml, respectively. First trough AXA was significantly lower than steady-state trough AXA, although it was significantly higher than baseline (P<0.0001). Similarly, first peak AXA was significantly lower than steady-state peak AXA (P<0.0001). In 124 patients, steady-state peak AXA was significantly higher in the 5-mg b.i.d. group than in the 2.5-mg b.i.d. group (2.05±0.73 IU/ml vs. 1.51±0.65 IU/ml, respectively; P<0.001), although there was no significant difference in trough AXA. Other than dose, age and serum creatinine were significantly related to both trough and peak AXA.Conclusions:The distribution of AXA in Japanese NVAF patients on apixaban therapy in daily clinical practice both in the acute and steady-state phase was measured. In patients taking apixaban, measurement of AXA clearly showed the pharmacodynamic profile of this drug. (Circ J 2015; 79: 2584–2590)
Cardiovascular Intervention
  • Tomoko S. Kato, Tai Iwamura, Daisuke Endo, Yasutaka Yokoyama, Atsumi O ...
    Type: ORIGINAL ARTICLE
    2015 Volume 79 Issue 12 Pages 2591-2597
    Published: November 25, 2015
    Released: November 25, 2015
    [Advance publication] Released: September 29, 2015
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS FULL-TEXT HTML
    Background:Cerebrovascular accidents (CVA) are a major adverse event following cardiac surgery, for which atrial fibrillation (AF) is considered as a risk factor. We have recently performed left atrial appendage (LAA) surgical closure or amputation (LAAC/A), which is the main source of emboli, during open-heart surgery.Methods and Results:A prospective observational study of 1,831 consecutive patients (69.2% male, aged 66.8±12.2 years) undergoing cardiac surgery between 2009 and 2013 was performed. The incidence of postoperative CVA within 6 months in patients with and without LAAC/A was compared. We further stratified patients according to their risk of CVA using CHA2DS2-VASc score; dichotomizing low-risk (score <2) and high-risk groups (≥2). A total of 369 patients (20.2%) underwent LAAC/A. Although these patients had larger left atrial diameter preoperatively and developed postoperative AF more frequently than those without LAAC/A (45.4 vs. 41.1 mm, 49.3 vs. 39.1%, respectively, both P<0.001), the CVA incidence was not different between the groups (3.5 vs. 3.0%, P=0.612). Multivariate analysis revealed no association between LAAC/A and CVA in patients with CHA2DS2-VASc score ≥2, whereas in patients with CHA2DS2-VASc score <2, LAAC/A was the only and independent factor negatively associated with CVA development (odds ratio <10–6; P=0.021).Conclusions:Additional LAA procedure at the time of cardiac surgery reduces the incidence of early postoperative CVA in patients with low CHA2DS2-VASc score. (Circ J 2015; 79: 2591–2597)
  • Yukinori Ikegami, Shun Kohsaka, Hiroaki Miyata, Ikuko Ueda, Jun Fuse, ...
    Type: ORIGINAL ARTICLE
    2015 Volume 79 Issue 12 Pages 2598-2607
    Published: November 25, 2015
    Released: November 25, 2015
    [Advance publication] Released: October 07, 2015
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS FULL-TEXT HTML
    Background:Preprocedural dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) in percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI) has been shown to improve outcomes; however, the efficacy of the procedure and its complications in Japanese patients remain largely unexplored, so we examined the risks and benefits of DAPT before PCI and its association with in-hospital outcomes.Methods and Results:We analyzed data from patients who had undergone PCI at 12 centers within the metropolitan Tokyo area between September 2008 and September 2013.Our study group comprised 6,528 patients, of whom 2,079 (31.8%) were not administered preprocedural DAPT. Non-use of preprocedural DAPT was associated with death, postprocedural shock, or heart failure (odds ratio [OR]: 1.47, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.10–1.96, P=0.009), and postprocedural myocardial infarction (OR: 1.41, 95% CI: 1.18–1.69, P<0.001) after adjusting propensity scores for known predictors of in-hospital complications. Non-use of DAPT was not associated with procedure-related bleeding complications (OR: 0.98, 95% CI: 0.71–1.59, P=0.764).Conclusions:Approximately one-third of the patients who underwent PCI did not receive preprocedural DAPT despite guideline recommendations. Our results indicate that patients undergoing PCI with DAPT have a lower risk of postprocedural cardiac events without any increased bleeding risk. Further studies are needed to implement the use of DAPT in real-world PCI. (Circ J 2015; 79: 2598–2607)
Heart Failure
  • Valentina Carubelli, Marco Metra, Ugo Corrà, Damiano Magrì, Claudio Pa ...
    Type: ORIGINAL ARTICLE
    2015 Volume 79 Issue 12 Pages 2608-2615
    Published: November 25, 2015
    Released: November 25, 2015
    [Advance publication] Released: October 16, 2015
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS FULL-TEXT HTML
    Background:In patients with chronic heart failure (HF) the Metabolic Exercise Cardiac Kidney Indexes (MECKI) score, is a predictor of cardiovascular death and urgent heart transplantation. We investigated the relationship between age, exercise tolerance and the prognostic value of the MECKI score.Methods and Results:We analyzed data from 3,794 patients with chronic systolic HF. The primary endpoint was a composite of cardiovascular death and urgent heart transplantation. Older patients had higher prevalence of comorbidities and lower exercise performance compared with younger subjects (peak V̇O2, 925 vs. 1,351 L/min; P<0.0001; V̇E/V̇CO2slope, 33.2 vs. 28.3; P>0.0001). The rate of the primary endpoint was 19% in the highest age quartile and 14% in the lowest quartile. At multivariable analysis, the independent predictors of the primary endpoint were left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), eGFR, peak V̇O2, serum Na+and the use of β-blockers in patients aged ≥70 years, and LVEF, eGFR and peak V̇O2in younger subjects. The MECKI risk score increased across age subgroups, but on receiver operating characteristic curve analysis its prognostic power was similar in both patients aged ≥70 and <70 years.Conclusions:Older patients with HF are a high-risk population with lower exercise performance. The MECKI score increased according to age and maintained its prognostic value also in older patients. (Circ J 2015; 79: 2608–2615)
  • Taiki Sakaguchi, Kaori Yasumura, Hiroki Nishida, Hiroyuki Inoue, Tetsu ...
    Type: ORIGINAL ARTICLE
    2015 Volume 79 Issue 12 Pages 2616-2622
    Published: November 25, 2015
    Released: November 25, 2015
    [Advance publication] Released: October 16, 2015
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS FULL-TEXT HTML
    Background:Acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF) is generally considered to be a problem of fluid volume overload, therefore accurately quantifying the degree of fluid accumulation is of critical importance in assessing whether adequate decongestion has been achieved. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a method to quantify the degree of fluid accumulation in patients with ADHF.Methods and Results:Using multi-frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA), we measured extracellular water (ECW) volume in 130 ADHF patients on admission and at discharge. We also predicted optimal ECW volume using original equations based on data from 60 control subjects without the signs of HF. Measured/predicted (M/P) ratio of ECW in ADHF patients was observed to decrease from 1.26±0.25 to 1.04±0.17 during hospitalization (P<0.001). The amount of ECW volume reduction was significantly correlated with reduction in body weight (r=0.766, P<0.001). On multivariate analysis, higher M/P ratio of ECW at discharge was associated with increased risk of ADHF readmission or cardiac death within 6 months after discharge.Conclusions:Multi-frequency BIA-measured ECW was found to offer valuable information for analyzing the pathophysiology of ADHF, and may be a useful guide in the management of this disease. (Circ J 2015; 79: 2616–2622)
  • Koichiro Fujisue, Seigo Sugiyama, Yasushi Matsuzawa, Eiichi Akiyama, K ...
    Type: ORIGINAL ARTICLE
    2015 Volume 79 Issue 12 Pages 2623-2631
    Published: November 25, 2015
    Released: November 25, 2015
    [Advance publication] Released: October 21, 2015
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS FULL-TEXT HTML
    Background:Endothelial dysfunction plays a crucial role in heart failure (HF), but the association between peripheral microvascular endothelial function assessed by reactive hyperemia peripheral arterial tonometry (RH-PAT) and prognosis remains unknown in HF with reduced left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction (HFREF). We prospectively investigated the association between peripheral microvascular endothelial function and HF-related near-future cardiovascular outcomes in HFREF patients.Methods and Results:The 362 HFREF patients (LVEF <50%) were followed for HF-related events (composite of cardiovascular death and HF hospitalization) up to 3 years. A natural logarithmic-scaled RH-PAT index (Ln-RHI) was obtained for each patient. A total of 82 HF-related events were recorded. The lower-RHI group (Ln-RHI ≤0.49, median) experienced a higher rate of HF-related events compared with the higher-RHI group by Kaplan-Meier analysis (30.9% vs. 14.4%, log-rank test: P<0.001). Multivariable Cox hazard analysis identified Ln-RHI as an independent predictor for HF-related events (per 0.1, hazard ratio: 0.84, 95% confidence interval: 0.75–0.95, P=0.005). Adding Ln-RHI to the Meta-analysis Global Group in Chronic HF risk score (MAGGICs) and Seattle Heart Failure Model (SHFM), powerful prognostic predictors of HF, significantly improved the net reclassification index (MAGGICs: 20.11%, P=0.02, SHFM: 24.88%, P<0.001), and increased the C-statistics for prediction of HF-related events (MAGGICs+Ln-RHI: from 0.612 to 0.670, SHFM+Ln-RHI: from 0.662 to 0.695).Conclusions:Peripheral microvascular endothelial dysfunction assessed by RH-PAT was associated with future HF-related events in HFREF. (Circ J 2015; 79: 2623–2631)
  • Takashi Miyazaki, Sunao Kojima, Megumi Yamamuro, Kenji Sakamoto, Yasuh ...
    Type: ORIGINAL ARTICLE
    2015 Volume 79 Issue 12 Pages 2632-2640
    Published: November 25, 2015
    Released: November 25, 2015
    [Advance publication] Released: October 19, 2015
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS FULL-TEXT HTML
    Background:Sleep apnea is a common condition and a cardiovascular risk factor. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) reduces cardiovascular events and sleep apnea-related symptoms, especially in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), who occasionally experience nocturia, a common problem in individuals of advanced age.Methods and Results:The present study was a prospective, observational study including 1,429 consecutive patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD). A questionnaire on nocturia was administered and nocturnal pulse oximetry was performed. Patients with moderate-to-severe sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) underwent polysomnography, and patients with OSA received CPAP therapy. Nocturia was observed in 561 of 666 patients included in the analysis. A multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that nocturia was associated with oxygen desaturation defined as a 3% decrease (P=0.0335) independent of age (P<0.0001), male sex (P=0.0078), hypertension (P=0.0139), and B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) level (P=0.0185). Nocturia was reduced in patients who continued CPAP treatment and they also showed a decrease in the apnea-hypopnea index (45.3±13.6 vs. 2.5±3.7 events/h, P<0.0001), systolic blood pressure (121.6±11.9 vs. 113.4±8.8 mmHg, P=0.0002), and BNP level (57.7 [15.0–144.4] vs. 27.4 [8.5–111.7] pg/ml, P=0.0006).Conclusions:CPAP has the potential to reduce nocturia and risk factors for SDB such as increased blood pressure and BNP level, which may be beneficial in older men with CVD and OSA. (Circ J 2015; 79: 2632–2640)
Imaging
  • Sho Torii, Gaku Nakazawa, Takeshi Ijichi, Ayako Yoshikawa, Tsutomu Mur ...
    Type: ORIGINAL ARTICLE
    2015 Volume 79 Issue 12 Pages 2641-2647
    Published: November 25, 2015
    Released: November 25, 2015
    [Advance publication] Released: October 21, 2015
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS FULL-TEXT HTML
    Background:The aim of this study was to investigate the accuracy of optical frequency domain imaging (OFDI) in lipid-rich plaque detection and determine the causes of “misinterpretation,” and evaluate whether these limitations can be overcome with intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) using ex-vivo human coronaries.Methods and Results:The OFDI images and corresponding 218 histological segments were evaluated. Segments with a poor signal and diffuse borders on OFDI, classified as lipid-rich plaques, were compared with the histological segments and IVUS images. Using histological images as the gold standard, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of OFDI for the detection of lipid-rich plaques were 93%, 93%, 85%, and 97%, respectively. The causes of false-positive diagnosis of lipid-rich plaque (11 segments) were superficial macrophage infiltration causing signal attenuation (8/11 segments, 73%) and tangential signal dropout of light (3/11 segments, 27%), whereas the cause of false-negative diagnosis was thickening of the fibrous cap (5 segments, 100%). Simultaneous IVUS helped to correct the misinterpretation of OFDI results and improved the diagnostic accuracy; the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of OFDI with adjunct use of IVUS were 96%, 99%, 99%, and 98%, respectively.Conclusions:OFDI occasionally over- or underestimates the existence of lipid-rich plaques, which may be overcome with adjunctive usage of IVUS. (Circ J 2015; 79: 2641–2647)
Molecular Cardiology
  • Teiji Oda, Akane Yamaguchi, Koji Shimizu, Tetsuro Nikai, Ken-ichi Mats ...
    Type: ORIGINAL ARTICLE
    2015 Volume 79 Issue 12 Pages 2648-2658
    Published: November 25, 2015
    Released: November 25, 2015
    [Advance publication] Released: October 02, 2015
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS FULL-TEXT HTML
    Background:Hypothermia is utilized in cardiac and aortic surgery to protect organs from ischemic reperfusion injury. Although the cooled body is invariably rewarmed after the procedure, it is still unknown whether the rewarmed body regains its former biological state. This study determined the modulatory effects of hypothermia on the human myocardial proteome and whether subsequent rewarming restores the proteome to the state prior to cooling.Methods and Results:A quantitative proteomic analysis was performed using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification labeling tandem mass spectrometry. Right atrial samples were taken 3 times (pre, during and post cooling) during deep hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) from 8 patients with aortic arch aneurysms and 3 corresponding time points during normothermic CPB from 8 patients with ascending aortic or valsalva aneurysms. In total, 697 proteins were identified, with 222 proteins having high protein confidence. Bioinformatic analyses revealed significant downregulation of 19 proteins associated with energy production at hypothermic cardioplegic arrest. On rewarmed beating, 10 proteins remained downregulated, including those regulating cardiac contraction and adaptor proteins, although levels of the aforementioned 19 downregulated proteins returned to their initial values. Additional echocardiographic evaluation demonstrated that hypothermia preserved the variables of diastolic function to a greater extent than normothermic surgery.Conclusions:Rewarming restores the human myocardial proteome to the pre-cooled state, except for proteins regulating cardiac contraction and adaptor proteins. (Circ J 2015; 79: 2648–2658)
  • Nani Maharani, Ya Kuang Ting, Jidong Cheng, Akira Hasegawa, Yasutaka K ...
    Type: ORIGINAL ARTICLE
    2015 Volume 79 Issue 12 Pages 2659-2668
    Published: November 25, 2015
    Released: November 25, 2015
    [Advance publication] Released: October 16, 2015
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS FULL-TEXT HTML
    Background:Hyperuricemia induces endothelial dysfunction, oxidative stress and inflammation, increasing cardiovascular morbidities. It also raises the incidence of atrial fibrillation; however, underlying mechanisms are unknown.Methods and Results:The effects of urate on expression of Kv1.5 in cultured mouse atrial myocytes (HL-1 cells) using reverse transcriptase-PCR, immunoblots, flow cytometry and patch-clamp experiments were studied. Treatment with urate at 7 mg/dl for 24 h increased the Kv1.5 protein level, enhanced ultra-rapid delayed-rectifier K+channel currents and shortened action potential duration in HL-1 cells. HL-1 cells expressed the influx uric acid transporter (UAT), URATv1, and the efflux UATs, ABCG2 and MRP4. An inhibitor against URATv1, benzbromarone, abolished the urate effects, whereas an inhibitor against ABCG2, KO143, augmented them. Flow cytometry showed that urate induced an increase in reactive oxygen species, which was abolished by the antioxidant, N-acetylcysteine (NAC), and the NADPH-oxidase inhibitor, apocynin. Both NAC and apocynin abolished the enhancing effects of urate on Kv1.5 expression. A urate-induced increase in the Kv1.5 proteins was accompanied by phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), and was abolished by an ERK inhibitor, PD98059. NAC abolished phosphorylation of ERK by urate.Conclusions:Intracellular urate taken up by UATs enhanced Kv1.5 protein expression and function in HL-1 atrial myocytes, which could be attributable to ERK phosphorylation and oxidative stress derived from nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH)-oxidase. (Circ J 2015; 79: 2659–2668)
Myocardial Disease
  • Mitsuru Momose, Kenji Fukushima, Chisato Kondo, Naoki Serizawa, Atsush ...
    Type: ORIGINAL ARTICLE
    2015 Volume 79 Issue 12 Pages 2669-2676
    Published: November 25, 2015
    Released: November 25, 2015
    [Advance publication] Released: October 19, 2015
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS FULL-TEXT HTML
    Background:Myocardial injury can be detected more sensitively using 123I-radioiodinated 15-(p-iodophenyl)-3(R,S)-methylpentadecanoic acid (BMIPP) than thallium-201 (TL). The present study investigated whether 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) uptake as an index of active inflammation in patients with cardiac sarcoidosis (CS) is associated with BMIPP and TL findings, and whether dual single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) can facilitate diagnosis of CS.Methods and Results:We retrospectively enrolled 52 consecutive patients with suspected CS who were assessed on FDG-PET/computed tomography (CT) and BMIPP/TL dual SPECT. The SPECT images were divided into 17 segments and then BMIPP and TL total defect scores (BMDS, TLDS) as well as mismatch scores (BMDS-TLDS: sumMS) were calculated. Maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) in the entire myocardium was obtained from FDG-PET/CT. SUVmax was much higher in patients with, than without CS (P<0.0001). BMDS was higher and sumMS much higher in CS (P<0.05 and P<0.0001, respectively). The sensitivity and specificity of sumMS to detect CS were 74% and 80%, respectively. SUVmax was not associated with either BMDS or sumMS in the patients with CS. On multivariate analysis, the combination of sumMS and SUVmax had greater prognostic significance compared with each parameter on its own.Conclusions:BMIPP and TL dual-tracer mismatch is a useful finding to diagnose CS, and adds greater diagnostic value to SUVmax on FDG-PET/CT. (Circ J 2015; 79: 2669–2676)
Pediatric Cardiology and Adult Congenital Heart Disease
  • Stefanie Haberger, Michael Hauser, Siegmund L. Braun, Tibor Schuster, ...
    Type: ORIGINAL ARTICLE
    2015 Volume 79 Issue 12 Pages 2677-2681
    Published: November 25, 2015
    Released: November 25, 2015
    [Advance publication] Released: September 16, 2015
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS FULL-TEXT HTML
    Background:B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) is an established marker for heart failure assessment, but the prognostic quality of BNP after atrial switch operation (ASO) has not yet been elucidated.Methods and Results:In 89 patients (median age, 24 years; range, 15–35 years) after ASO, BNP was measured. During a 48-months follow-up we focused on critical cardiac events, defined as decompensation, sudden cardiac death or need for heart transplantation. BNP was considerably lower in 81 patients in functional class (FC) I/II (median, 35 pg/ml; range, 3–586 pg/ml) than in 6 patients in FC III/IV (median, 246 pg/ml; range, 14–1,150 pg/ml, P≤0.073). BNP was significantly higher after Mustard than after Senning procedure (P≤0.030). There was no significant difference in BNP between simple or complex transposition of the great arteries (TGA) (P≤0.44). Eleven subjects (13%, 95% CI: 7–22%) had a critical cardiac event within 48 months. On ROC analysis BNP had a high predictive value regarding discrimination of patients with and without critical events (area under the ROC curve, 0.90; 95% CI: 0.76 to >0.99, P<0.001). The cut-off was 85 pg/ml (sensitivity, 88%; specificity, 85%). Additionally, estimated event-free-survival was longer after Senning than after Mustard procedure (P≤0.017). There was no significant difference in outcome between patients with simple or complex TGA with regard to occurrence of critical events.Conclusions:BNP is a sensitive and specific prognostic marker for critical cardiac events after ASO. (Circ J 2015; 79: 2677–2681)
  • Sanne M. Dietz, Carline E. Tacke, Johan Gort, Irene M. Kuipers, Eric d ...
    Type: ORIGINAL ARTICLE
    2015 Volume 79 Issue 12 Pages 2682-2687
    Published: November 25, 2015
    Released: November 25, 2015
    [Advance publication] Released: October 06, 2015
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS FULL-TEXT HTML
    Background:Kawasaki disease (KD) is an acute pediatric vasculitis with coronary artery aneurysms (CAA) as its main complication. Concerns have been raised regarding the possibility of a predisposition of KD to premature cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk later in life. Our aim was to assess carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT), as a surrogate marker of CVD risk, in patients with a history of KD compared with unaffected controls.Methods and Results:B-mode ultrasound cIMT measurements were performed in 168 patients with a history of KD, and 82 controls; 7 patients were excluded because of incomplete cIMT assessments. Mean cIMT (±SD) was increased in patients with KD compared with controls (0.378±0.030 mm vs. 0.360±0.027 mm, respectively; P adjusted <0.0001). If the cIMTs of CAA-negative patients and controls were plotted against age, increased cIMT was only apparent at young age. In patients with CAA, increased cIMT was observed over the entire age range.Conclusions:Our findings show that arterial wall thickening is more apparent in patients with a history of KD as compared with controls. In CAA-negative patients, cIMT is indistinguishable from controls at older age, whereas an increased cIMT is observed at any age in patients with CAA, suggesting a more general and severe effect of KD on the arterial wall. (Circ J 2015; 79: 2682–2687)
Peripheral Vascular Disease
  • Yoshimitsu Soga, Mitsuyoshi Takahara, Osamu Iida, Shinsuke Mii, Jin Ok ...
    Type: ORIGINAL ARTICLE
    2015 Volume 79 Issue 12 Pages 2688-2695
    Published: November 25, 2015
    Released: November 25, 2015
    [Advance publication] Released: October 14, 2015
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS FULL-TEXT HTML
    Background:Bypass surgery (BSX) as first-line therapy for Trans-Atlantic Inter-Society Consensus-II (TASCII) C/D femoropopliteal (FP) lesions is recommended. Recent reports have shown that a drug-eluting stent (DES) provides good durability up to the mid-term. We investigated clinical outcomes after BSX vs. DES for TASCII C/D FP lesions.Methods and Results:As treatment of de novo TASCII C/D FP lesions, 274 patients who underwent DES implantation and 201 patients who had BSX were identified and analyzed. Each group had at least 1 year of follow-up data. The primary endpoint was binary restenosis. Secondary endpoints were major amputation, reintervention, reocclusion and major adverse limb event (MALE; including major amputation or any reintervention and restenosis). Before matching, the binary restenosis rate was significantly higher in the DES group than in the BSX group (42% vs. 18%, P<0.001). After propensity matching, the 1-year restenosis rate was still higher in the DES group (44% vs. 18%, P<0.001). The DES group also had a significantly higher incidence of reintervention and MALE. Major amputation and reocclusion showed no significant difference. The subsequent stratification analysis reconfirmed no significant interaction effect of any background characteristics on the association of DES implantation vs. BSX with the 1-year restenosis risk.Conclusions:BSX is still a feasible and recommended treatment for TASCII C/D FP lesions in Japanese patients, based on good durability up to 1 year. (Circ J 2015; 79: 2688–2695)
Pulmonary Circulation
  • Takashi Urushibara, Nobuhiro Tanabe, Rika Suda, Fumiaki Kato, Hajime K ...
    Type: ORIGINAL ARTICLE
    2015 Volume 79 Issue 12 Pages 2696-2702
    Published: November 25, 2015
    Released: November 25, 2015
    [Advance publication] Released: October 15, 2015
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS FULL-TEXT HTML
    Background:This study aimed to investigate the predictors of quality of life (QOL) in patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH), changes in QOL after surgical and medical treatments, and the relationship between baseline QOL and survival.Methods and Results:QOL was measured in 128 patients with CTEPH (male/female: 42/86, age: 56±12 years, surgical/medical: 65/63) using the Short-Form 36 (SF-36) questionnaire. Multiple regression analysis showed pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) and 6-min walking distance (6MWD) were associated with physical functioning (PF) (P<0.01) and physical component summary (PCS) (P<0.01). In the surgical group, 7 subscales and 2 summary scores improved significantly, and in the medical group 6 subscales and the mental component summary, although the change in QOL was greater in the surgical group. The patients in the conventional therapy group with higher PF had significantly better survival than those with lower PF (5-years survival: 89.5% vs. 50.8%, P=0.002). This difference in survival was not observed in the group receiving pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH)-specific therapy (100% vs. 100%, P=0.746).Conclusions:PVR and 6MWD were associated with PF or PCS in CTEPH patients. QOL improved after surgical or medical therapy, with a greater change in the surgical group. PAH-specific therapy improved survival in patients with lower PF at diagnosis. (Circ J 2015; 79: 2696–2702)
Regenerative Medicine
  • Toshinao Takahashi, Toshio Nagai, Masato Kanda, Mei-Lan Liu, Naomichi ...
    Type: ORIGINAL ARTICLE
    2015 Volume 79 Issue 12 Pages 2703-2712
    Published: November 25, 2015
    Released: November 25, 2015
    [Advance publication] Released: September 28, 2015
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS FULL-TEXT HTML
    Background:Adipose tissue is one of the sources of mesenchymal stem cells, which have the potential to differentiate into various types of cells, including myocytes. Whether brown adipose tissue (BAT)-derived cells might differentiate into the cardiac pacemaking-conducting cells, and have the potential to regenerate the cardiac conduction system (CCS), is investigated in this study.Methods and Results:BAT was isolated from the interscapular area of mice and enzymatically digested before culture. Round or fusiform cells showed spontaneous beating at 4–7 days after culturing of BAT-derived cells. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis and immunocytochemical analysis revealed that BAT-derived cells expressed several cardiomyocytes, the CCS and pacemaker (PM) cell marker genes and proteins. Patch-clamp techniques revealed that spontaneous electrical activity and the shape of the action potential showed properties of cardiac PM cells. Next, a complete atrioventricular (AV) block was created in mice and green fluorescent protein-positive (GFP (+)) BAT-derived cells were injected intramyocardially around the AV node. At 1 week after transplantation, 50% of BAT-derived cells injected mice showed a sinus rhythm or a 2:1 AV block. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that injected GFP (+) cells were engrafted and some GFP (+) cells co-expressed several cardiac PM cell marker proteins.Conclusions:BAT-derived cells differentiate into the CCS and PM-like cells in vitro and in vivo, and may become a useful cell source for arrhythmia therapy. (Circ J 2015; 79: 2703–2712)
Valvular Heart Disease
  • Koichi Maeda, Toru Kuratani, Kei Torikai, Yasuhiro Ichibori, Kazuhiro ...
    Type: ORIGINAL ARTICLE
    2015 Volume 79 Issue 12 Pages 2713-2719
    Published: November 25, 2015
    Released: November 25, 2015
    [Advance publication] Released: October 09, 2015
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS FULL-TEXT HTML
    Background:Although transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) is a new alternative treatment with acceptable midterm results for high surgical risk patients, at present performing the procedure in dialysis patients is not reimbursed in Japan.Methods and Results:The study group of 17 dialysis patients (mean age, 76.7±5.0 years) underwent TAVI with the SAPIEN/SAPIEN XT. EuroSCORE and STS score were 25.0±19.0% and 15.4±12.3%, respectively. Transiliofemoral and transapical approaches were performed in 7 (41.2%) and 10 patients (58.8%), respectively. ICU and hospital stays after TAVI were 1.8±1.6 and 12.9±12.7 days, respectively. Mean transvalvular gradients at discharge significantly decreased from 45.9±13.3 mmHg to 10.7±4.3 mmHg (P<0.0001) and effective orifice area significantly increased from 0.78±0.17 to 1.69±0.37 cm2(P<0.0001). Device success was 87.5%. One patient required a valve-in-valve procedure on 187-postoperative-day for an acute increase in paravalvular leakage caused by initial lower implantation of the device. The overall mortality at 1 year was 0% and clinical efficacies at 30 days, 6 months, and 1 year were 93.8%, 83.3%, and 69.2%, respectively.Conclusions:Satisfactory early results were achieved with TAVI in Japanese dialysis patients with a high surgical risk, indicating it is a safe and effective alternative for the treatment of aortic valve stenosis in such patients. (Circ J 2015; 79: 2713–2719)
Images in Cardiovascular Medicine
feedback
Top