This paper studies the transition in the criticism of teachers and in their images since post-war in Japan. Changes in teachers' images start from late 1970s, and the criticism of teachers becomes widely accepted. The study shows that such the criticism is groundless and lacks of a clear understanding of the transition in teachers' image, in stark contrast to previous studies. According to 233 editorials of the Asahi Shimbun since 1945, the analysis shows different images across different periods. From 1945 to the mid-1970s, teachers were labeled as labors in the education profession. From the late 1970s to the early 2000s, teachers were culpable for all sorts of problems in education. Sharply changes in images occurred since 2000s when the public opinion expressed its respect to teachers and regarded them as experts in education. In short, the criticism was replaced by the accomplishment. However, all currently available policies are built on distrust for teachers, including license renewal systems and evaluation systems. Such unfavorable policies for teachers urgently needs to be abandoned in order to restore confidence in teachers. Overall, this paper studies far-reaching impacts of the current education system and provides policy implications for the development of competent teachers.
Regarding the human rights theory and its ethics dominating educational development, Spivak reminded people that such top-down generosity did not reach the oppressed subaltern. Due to the lack of critical perspective, human rights-based ethic is likely to alienate subaltern and lead to problematic behavioral patterns that "impose values" based on power. Moreover, the prosperity of human rights and its ethics characterized by narcissism suppressed the possibility of establishing an alternative ethic for the subaltern who was always represented. In Spivak's view, the unconditional ethic of such a subaltern is the "responsibility", the ability to respond to the call of others. Responsibility is the ethical symbolism of the first language acquisition, an unlearning of one's privileges, and an experience of the wholly other. The supporter must train their responsibility through imagination in order to help the subaltern. Spivak emphasizes the role of humanities (especially translation) in training such ethic. Translation, as the most intimate reading, enables the translator to responds to the traces of the other while yielding to the text.
This paper analyzes the process and relations among actors of the Israel-Palestine History Textbook Dialogue Project. The project targeted teachers to learn about their historical perceptions of "others" by writing and sharing their own history and showing students two different historical perceptions. The researcher clarified the following four points from the document analysis and interviews with the project participants: 1. A new style of the textbook was developed and showed other countries a new approach to "knowing others." 2. Writing the textbook by teachers and knowing each other's historical narrative increased the teachers' motivation to teach two narratives even though the use of the textbook itself is prohibited. 3. While collaboration with external organizations and receiving financial support made it possible to continue the project, it sometimes affected the project. 4. The relationships among the project members influenced the content and their discussion about the project. While it is significant that the project was accomplished under the fierce conflict, it is also the difficulty of history textbook dialogue under a conflict that participants cannot escape from the bias toward self-groups and other-groups that have arisen from the long-standing historical perception.
This paper considered a factor behind the new expression of sense-making in group discussions which had not been expressed individually. It analyzed discussions in small groups of second-grade elementary school students under the theme of the invention of the lines for a very short manga. Two groups were first identified which differed in terms of the expression volume of new sense-making while the participating students were highly satisfied with their discussions and then their speeches and descriptions were analyzed and considered. This analysis and consideration suggested a possibility that new sense-making tended to be expressed through the presentation of reference points shared among the participants. Additionally, it is considered that this process would decrease the number of statements to be rejected and accordingly be likely to provide a value to them. It is deemed that the repetition of such sense-making could underpin mutual understanding.
The purpose of this paper is to re-examine Freire's "dialogue" from viewpoint of "generation" to clarify the method of teaching that aims at liberation while avoiding the danger of falling into indoctrination. To this end, I examined the deepening of Freire's educational thought from "Educação e Atualidade Brasileira" to "Pedagogia do Oprimido", and re-examined Freire's theory of "dialogue" from the viewpoint of "generation".
The foundation of Freire's educational thought lies in overcoming the oppression internalized by the oppressed. This is a common theme in Freire's early to mid- career. In the early years Freire was influenced by ISEB theorist and Teixeira, and in the middle years by Marx and Fanon.
To overcome internalized oppression, it is necessary for the oppressed themselves to narrate their suppressed emotions, questions, wishes, and hopes. To "generate" such narratives is to dialogue with the "world" and others through "generative" words, themes and questions devised by the teacher.
Pedagogy that avoids the danger of "indoctrination" and aims at "liberation" is realized when learners talk about themselves through dialogue with the "world" and other people. This dialogue is realized by "generative" teaching. The oppressed can challenge "self-liberation" when such generative dialogue becomes possible.
Janusz Korczak, a Polish doctor, author of juvenile literature, and an orphanage director, lived with children until his death in the Treblinka concentration camp. The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child is based on his ideas. These rights as promoted by Korczak include the right of a child ‘to live in the present', ‘to be what s/he is', and ‘to die prematurely'. Korczak refers to these rights as the "Magna Carta Libertatum" of the basic Rights of the Child.
Korczak's thought and praxis are widely appreciated in Germany in the field of pedagogy, as evident from Friedhelm Beiner's work. Beiner, a German professor and a scholar of Korczak's works, presented the Rights of the Child in his work "Korczak's Pedagogy of Respect". He placed great emphasis on "treating children with respect" as mentioned in Korczak's educational theory.
This study explores the influence of Korczak's views on children's rights on Beiner's "Pedagogy of Respect". It also analyzes the transformation of pedagogical relations between children and adults.
The purposes of this study are to investigate teachers' awareness and attitudes on lesson study from the perspective of their practice. We will then analyze the factors that influence teachers' perceptions of lesson study from personal attributes and work environment. We will try to provide improvement strategies for teachers in terms of lesson study in China. A survey of primary and secondary school teachers in southwestern China is used for the analysis in this paper. A total of 2042 teachers participated in the survey, and the number of valid responses was 1364. The findings of this study can be summarized as follows. First, teachers with administrative positions and higher salaries rated lesson study higher. Second, job perception, teaching satisfaction and workload greatly influenced on teachers' awareness and attitudes toward lesson study.
These findings show that teachers' perceptions of lesson study vary depending on the situation they are in. Therefore, the following issues to improve lesson study efficiency in primary and secondary schools can be pointed out. First, it is necessary to pay attention to the teachers' subjectivity. It is also necessary to consider improvement measures that encompass all aspects of teachers' professional life to promote their development.
The purpose of this study is to empirically identify the noticing factors in EFL learners' processes of reading English poetry. Based on Schmidt's (1990) "noticing hypothesis", previous studies have demonstrated that noticing occurs when ESL and EFL learners read poetry. However, few studies have examined the factors that promote such noticing. Therefore, this study observed the factors that occurred when 25 Japanese EFL learners read an English poem. These factors were categorized according to the following stylistic concepts: foregrounding, deviation, parallelism, and subcategories of the latter two concepts. As a result of the categorization, five factors were identified: semantic, syntactic, and graphological deviations, as well as phonological and syntactic parallelisms. These linguistic expressions that cause deviations and parallelisms can serve as criteria for selecting poems as teaching materials to enhance noticing in EFL learners.
Research on academic speaking has not been developed as much as research on other academic skills. Research on academic speaking in Japanese has focused on structure and grammar, but very few studies have investigated learners' linguistic performance and proficiency in Japanese. Therefore, there is a need for research on linguistic proficiency characteristics, especially complexity, accuracy, and fluency (CAF). In this study, the CAF characteristics of Japanese learners were analyzed by upper- and lower- level groups and compared with those of native speakers of Japanese. The findings showed that CAF's for complexity and fluency was related to the evaluation by Japanese native speakers. This indicates that a learner's CAF is influenced by vocabulary, the number of AS-Units, clauses, and pauses. Learners used fewer words and more pauses than Japanese native speakers due to their paying attention to their speech's accuracy and content. In addition, there was a difference in the complexity of speech between the upper and lower groups of learners. The upper group of the participants used more compound sentences, while the lower group used simple sentences.
This paper considers the filler "Maa" using research data from university lectures and natural conversations. As a result of consideration, (1) the pronunciation of "Ma" is 1 mora, and the content that follows "Ma" is a premise or background information up to the point of the utterance (2) the pronunciation of "Maa" is 2 mora, and the content following "Maa" is the point of the utterance, and most of the arguments are the main arguments of the speaker (3) "Ma" often leads to subordinate clauses in compound sentences, but "Maa" often leads to the main clause of a single sentence or a compound sentence (4) "Ma" can't be used as an Aizuchi, but you can use "Maa" as an Aizuchi.
In Japanese-occupied Beijing during the Second Sino-Japanese War from 1937 to 1945, Fu Jen Catholic University still enjoyed the freedom of academy and a stable condition to some extent. Without Jiro Hosoi, the Japanese Dean in charge of this university, it could not be achieved. This historical study aims to clarify Hosoi's philosophical standpoint and how it influenced his deeds in his Beijing days. As an admirer of Pestalozzi and a devout Catholic, he always behaved himself like Pestalozzi. He shared a cosmopolitan affection to all the staff and students at Fu Jen, including Chinese, Japanese and Germans. This even made some Japanese view him as a traitor. His effort was a key factor that helped Fu Jen survive the colonial days of Beijing.