Background: B-lines are the important signs of pulmonary edema in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) detected with ultrasonography. We studied the mechanism of the origin and disappearance of B-lines in
ARDS piglets using ultrasonography and microscopy. Methods: ARDS was induced by intratracheal administration of 0.1M Hydrochloric Acid (HCl) in 23 anesthetized, ventilated piglets. The occurrence of B-lines was evaluated using transthoracic echography (TTE) and
transesophageal echography (TEE). Changes in B-lines were recorded after a saline infusion into the pleural space,
and after pulmonary consolidation developed and reached the pleura. Left lower lobe was excised and lung sections
were examined by light microscopy. Results: Following the saline infusion into the pleural space, we observed B-lines fanning out from the visceral
pleura. As pulmonary consolidation developed, B-lines disappeared. The structure that B-lines fanned out from was
the complex of thickened pleura and sub-pleural interlobular septa surrounded by gas. In the tissue where B-lines
disappeared, the thickened sub-pleural interlobular septa were surrounded by cells and liquid. Conclusions: We found that B-lines derive from the complex of thickened pleura and sub-pleural interlobular septa surrounded by gas. B-lines disappeared when the sub-pleural thickened interlobular septa were surrounded by cells and liquid.
The aim of this study was to elucidate the differences in the causes of incidents at each stage of drug
administration between nurses with different numbers of years of experience and current nursing unit tenure.
We evaluated 510 reports involving medications taken after meals where medication charts were utilized. These
reports were selected from 1,173 incident reports involving drug administration by hospital ward nurses in advanced
treatment hospitals with 640 bed capacities in the northeastern area of Japan between fiscal 2012 and 2014.
Approximately 40% of these were related to the drug preparation stage. There was no difference in the frequency of
incidents between nurses with less than 2 years and those with 11 or more years of experience. As per the results
of our correspondence analysis of the relation between the nursing unit tenure and the causal factors for each stage,
“insufficient checking” at all stages was the most common factor. At the drug preparation and distribution stages, 11 or more years of experience were related to physical conditions. At all stages, nursing unit tenure of less than 2 years was related to psychological conditions. The findings indicated that nurse training and organized approach are required to minimize human factors involved in medical incidents.
Persistent hyperglycemia is implicated in the pathogenesis of chronic diabetic complications, such as
neuropathy. Therefore, we investigated Electrocardiogram (ECG)-related changes, including various ECG parameters
and heart rate variability, and neuropathic changes in diabetic Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats, a spontaneous model for
type 2 diabetes. GK rats （50 weeks old） showed increased plasma glucose and decreased R-R interval variability,
which was likely due to diabetic polyneuropathy in the autonomic nervous system. Interestingly, GK rats showed a
decreased baroreflex compared with control Wistar rats. Furthermore, GK rats showed limited fluctuation changes
in beat-to-beat dynamics. In the frequency domain analysis, the low-frequency component was similar but the high-frequency component was significantly decreased in GK rats, suggesting decreased parasympathetic nerve regulation
and conserved sympathetic nerve regulation. In addition, GK rats showed a limited response to high-dose atropine, a
muscarinic receptor antagonist, indicating modified parasympathetic nerve regulation in GK rats. Our data strongly
suggests that GK rat could be a nice animal model for chronic cardiovascular disease related to diabetic neuropathy.
We analyzed transient and stable eukaryotic gene expression using internal ribosome entry site (IRES) and green fluorescent protein (GFP)-S65T (IRES-GFP) expression systems. The IRES-containing vector enables
simple construction of a plasmid and easy detection of transfected cells, as well as an estimation of the levels of the
gene of interest. This system is useful for measuring changes in the intracellular calcium concentration using the
fluorescent calcium indicator Fura-2 AM, although subcellular localization of the protein of interest is not detectable.
Importantly, the IRES-GFP plasmid showed delayed expression and an approximate 40% reduction in fluorescence
intensity, which suggests that usage of IRES-containing expression system might cause under-estimation of desired
gene. Although this technique has some disadvantages, the IRES-containing vector is simple and straightforward for
gene expression analysis, comparing with co-expression procedure of multiple plasmids.
Two sensitive enzymatic fluorometric assays have been developed for adenosine 3’,5’-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) by Sugiyama et al. (Anal. Biochem. 1990) and for guanosine 3’,5’-cyclic monophosphate (cGMP) by Seya
et al. (Anal. Biochem. 1998). However, to make a new simultaneous comparison of two cyclic nucleotides, distinct
measurement methods cause less reliability and longer measurement time. To overcome these problems, we
developed a simultaneous measurement method for them. All adenosine nucleotides and GMP were enzymatically
degraded using alkaline phosphatase and apyrase. The remaining GDP was converted to GTP by creatine kinase.
Cyclic GMP and cAMP, absorbed into a Sep-Pak amino propyl cartridge, were eluted to separate from GTP, and
then were simultaneously quantified using improved enzymatic fluorometric assay. The detection limits for cAMP
and cGMP were 1 and 5 fmol, respectively. The total measurement time was about 10 h. Using this method, the
basal cAMP and cGMP levels in rat aortic smooth muscle cells were confirmed to 4.1 and 0.042 pmol/mg protein,
respectively. An adrenergic agonist, isoproterenol (1 μM) increased cAMP approximately 6 fold, while nitric oxide
donor, S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (100 μM) increased cGMP approximately 230 fold. These results suggest that this simultaneous measurement of cGMP and cAMP can provide a more convenient assessment of them in biological samples.
Background & Aims: Hyaluronan plays a role not only as a structural component but also in the regulation of inflammatory processes. However, the role of hyaluronan in acute pancreatitis is not clear. In this study, we have explored the role of hyaluronan in a rat acute pancreatitis model using a hyaluronan synthesis inhibitor, 4-methylumbelliferone (4-MU). Methods: Six-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a standard diet or the same diet containing 5% 4-MU beginning two weeks before induction of cerulean- and lipopolysaccharide-induced acute pancreatitis. The severity of acute pancreatitis and pro-inflammatory cytokine levels were evaluated with or without pretreatment with 4-MU. Results: Before development of acute pancreatitis, 4-MU pretreatment reduced serum hyaluronan levels. After development of acute pancreatitis, 4-MU pretreatment increased serum amylase level and blood urea nitrogen/creatinine ratio. However, 4-MU pretreatment suppressed tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) production in acute pancreatitis. Conclusions: Systemic inhibition of hyaluronan exacerbated acute pancreatitis in spite of suppression
of TNF-α production. These data suggest that hyaluronan has two completely different effects, i.e., a barrier function and as a regulator of inflammation in acute pancreatitis. The results emphasize that further analysis that takes into account the molecular size of hyaluronan is needed since it may explain the contradictory findings.
In the present study, the relationship between the consumption of dietary fiber or fermented foods and depressive symptoms was investigated. The degree of depressive symptoms was measured by the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D) scale, and consumption of foods was measured by a self-administered diet history questionnaire. Participants scoring less than 16 were considered as the low CES-D score group, and those scoring 16 or higher were considered as the high CES-D score group. The total intake of dietary fiber from potatoes, pulses, fungi, vegetables, and fruits was not significantly different between the low and high CES-D score groups, but was significantly different for the frequency of the consumption of yogurt or fermented soybeans. Additionally, no participant who had eaten fermented soybeans daily was in the high CES-D score group. In conclusion, the frequency
of the consumption of yogurt or fermented soybeans may be negatively associated with depressive symptoms.
Furthermore, the habit of eating fermented soybeans daily may be associated with scoring less than 16 on the CES-D
scale in Japanese adults.